Составитель: Жукатинская Виктория Александровна, учитель английского языка, г.Липецк, МАОУ лицей №44,2016-2017 учебный год
Сводная таблица «The classification of simple sentences»
Generally the classification of simple sentences is based on two principles:
according to the purpose of the utterance:
Kinds of sentences Characteristic
features Word order Intonation Examples NB!
Declarative states a fact in the affirmative or negative form The subject precedes the predicate falling No palace in Europe was batter suited for formal mass revelry In English the predicate in a sentence can have only one negation
interrogative Asks a question Inversion takes place here - general Requires the answer "yes" or "no" The part of the predicate (the auxiliary or modal verb or the verbs to be or to have) is placed before subject rising Do you like art?
Don't you like the classical music? Sometimes such questions have a negative form and express astonishment or doubt (разве, неужели).
- special Begins with interrogative words The same as in general questions but the interrogative word precedes the auxiliary verb. falling Where are you going?
Who watched this film yesterday? When the interrogative word is the subject of the interrogative sentence or an attribute to the subject the order of words is that of the statement, no inversion takes place.
- alternative Indicates choice The same as in general questions but the alternative word stays near the word to which it is given. Rising (in the first part)and falling (in the second part ) Do you like tea or coffee? - disjunctive Requires the answer "yes" or "no"; consists of the statement and a tag to it. The statement is what it is and in the tag auxiliary verb precedes the subject expressed by a personal pronoun Falling ( in the first part) and rising (in the second part ) Ann misses her English lessons every Monday, doesn't she? If the statement is affirmative, then the tag will be in the negative & vice versa.
imperative Serves to induce a person to do something, it expresses:
an invitation etc. Begins with a verb in imperative mood -falling
-rising Come to me!
Open the door, please! Exclamatory Expresses some kind of emotion feeling Often begins with the words what and how. No inversion takes place. falling
What a lovely day it is.
How beautiful. according to the structure:
two - member one - member Has two members - a subject and a predicate. If one of them is missing it can be easily understood from the context.
e.g. He looked for another place to go. Has only one member which is neither the subject nor the predicate but makes the sense compete. Generally used in descriptions and emotional speech.
incomplete / elliptical complete nominal "infinitive" One of the principal part or both of them are missing, but can be easily understood from the context. Mostly used in colloquial speech, esp. in dialogue.
e.g. Where were you yesterday? - At the cinema. Has a subject and a predicate.
e.g. Young John couldn't help smiling Expressed by a noun and may be modified by attributes.
e.g. The dull pain and the life slowly dripping out of him. Expressed by an infinitive.
e.g. To die out there - lonely.
extended unextendedConsists of the subject, predicate and one or more secondary parts.
e.g. After all she is the only one whom I have. Consists only of the principle parts of the sentence.
e.g. She is a student.