Составитель: Жукатинская Виктория Александровна, учитель английского языка, г.Липецк, МАОУ лицей №44,2016-2017 учебный год
« Morphological classifications of the verbs »
According to their stem-types all verbs fall into:
(with the help of suffixes and prefixes) Composite or multi-word
(correspond to composite nouns) phrasal
(they always have an ordinary verb as an equivalent)
to go food - to feed, blood - to bleed import –
to import, transport - to transport cultivate, justify, overcome to blackmail,
to daydream to have a smoke, to give a smile
According to the way of forming past tenses and Participle II verbs can be:
go back to the Germanic weak verbs
constitute the largest group
past indefinite and participle II of these verbs are formed by means of the dental suffix -ed added to the stem of the verb
is the productive pattern according to which all new verbs form their past indefinite and participle II. form their past indefinite and participle II according tо some fixed traditional patterns going back partly to the Germanic strong verbs, partly to the weak verbs, which underwent some changes in the process of historyare about 250 in number
can be arranged according to sound changes.
Lexical-morphological classification is based on the implicit grammatical meanings of the verb.
According to the implicit grammatical meaning of transitivity/intransitivity (their ability of taking objects) verbs fall into:
denote an action directed toward a certain object; in a sentence they are obligatorily used with a direct object
are easily transformed from active into passive, e.g.: He wrote a letter. – The letter was written by him
take one or more objects
has no direct object: e.g.: to age, to die, to sleep…
verbs which are combined with direct object:
to have a book… verbs which take the prepositional objects: to wait for a friend… verbs expressing state: be, exist, sleep, die… verbs of motion: run, arrive, go… verbs expressing the position in space: lie, sit, stand…
NB! We do not always find definite line separating one phenomenon from the other. E.g. there is such kind of verbs that can be called causative verbs (show that somebody/something is indirectly responsible for an action. The subject doesn't perform the action itself, but causes someone/something else to do it instead. They are used instead of passive verbs to show that the subject causes the action to be done, e.g: I had my jacket cleaned yesterday - Instead of doing something ourselves, we "have" someone else do it instead) – intransitive in their origin, but sometimes used as transitive: to fly a kite, to nod approval… The same is found in the cognate object: to live a long life, to die the death of a hero…
According to the implicit grammatical meaning of stativeness/non-stativeness (on the basis of subject-process relations) the verbs are subdivided into:
stataldenote the actions performed by the subject as an active doer, e.g.: to go, to make, to build, to look, etc.
take the form of the continuous aspect freely denote various states of the subject or present the subject as the recipient of an outward activity, e.g.: to love, to be, to worry, to enjoy, to see, etc.
are normally used in indefinite forms in the same contexts
According to the implicit grammatical meaning of terminativeness/non-terminativeness:
terminative or limitive verbs
durative or unlimitive verbs
present a process as potentially limited, directed towards reaching a certain border point, beyond which the process denoted by the verb is stopped or ceases to exist, e.g.: to come, to sit down, to bring, to drop, etc.
present the process as potentially not limited by any border point, e.g.: to go, to sit, to carry, to exist, etc.
Some limitive and unlimitive verbs form semantically opposed pairs, denoting roughly the same actual process presented as either potentially limited or unlimited, cf.: to come – to go, to sit down – to sit, to bring – to carry; other verbs have no aspective counterparts, e.g.: to be, to exist (unlimitive), to drop (limitive). But the bulk of English verbs can present the action as either limitive or unlimitive in different contexts, e.g.: to build, to walk, to turn, to laugh, etc. Traditionally such verbs are treated as verbs of double, or mixed aspective nature.
Can you see well? (non-terminative)
I see nothing there. (terminative)