Рабочая тетрадь для практических работ по дисциплине «Иностранный язык (английский)» в разделе «Профессионально-направленный модуль» для специальности профиля 38.00.00 «Экономика и управление»: 38.02.04 Коммерция


520004168775688657500ГБ ПОУ КСО «Свердловское художественное училище имени И.Д. Шадра»
РАБОЧАЯ ТЕТРАДЬ
ДЛЯ ПРАКТИЧЕСКИХ РАБОТ ПО ДИСЦИПЛИНЕ «ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК(АНГЛИЙСКИЙ)» В РАЗДЕЛЕ «ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНО-НАПРАВЛЕННЫЙ МОДУЛЬ» ДЛЯ СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТИ ПРОФИЛЯ 38.00.00 «ЭКОНОМИКА И УПРАВЛЕНИЕ»: 38.02.04 КОММЕРЦИЯ
Преподаватель: Коровкина Т.В.

Содержание
Введение.
Методические указания по изучению дисциплины. 2
3
UNIT 1. Деловой этикет в сфере обслуживания. (Speech behavior (etiquette) in the field of service).
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercises. 5
UNIT 2. Предприятия сферы обслуживания. Продукты и услуги. (Products and services).
Text A. The stages of industry. The chain of distribution. Services.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercises.
Questions for revision
Text B. Terms of payment for domestic trade
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercises. 14
UNIT 3. Деловая переписка. (Business Letters). From enquiry to sales contract. (От запроса к договору купли-продажи): Enquiries. Offers. Orders. Sales contract. Complaints and Adjustments. Reminders. (Запросы. Предложения. Заказы. Контракт на продажу. Жалобы и корректировки. Напоминания.)
Text.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercises.
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 1 (Appendix 1)
Получение и сообщение информации (Getting and giving the information).
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 2 (Appendix 2)
Языковой комментарий. 31

Введение
Рабочая тетрадь предназначена для практических работ по дисциплине «Иностранный язык» в разделе «Профессионально-направленный модуль» для специальности профиля 38.00.00 «Экономика и управление»: 38.02.04 Коммерция
Основное назначение рабочей тетради – закрепить и активизировать языковой и речевой материал раздела «Профессионально-направленный модуль», автоматизировать лексико-грамматические навыки при работе с профессионально-ориентированными текстами. Лексико-грамматические упражнения нацелены на быстрое и качественное запоминание профессиональных терминов, используемых в коммерции, повторение и практическое применение грамматических правил на базе профессионально-ориентированных текстов.
Рабочая тетрадь состоит из трех уроков (Units) и двух приложений (Appendixes). Материал каждого урока предусматривает последовательное, поэтапное изучение определенной коммерческой темы, связанной с будущей профессиональной деятельностью обучающихся и принципов, применяемых в международной коммерческой практике. В основу каждого урока положен принцип развития речевой деятельности: чтения и устной речи. Приложения включают образцы диалогов, словарь профессиональных терминов и сокращений и глоссарий.
Широкий спектр разнообразных практических заданий, организующих самостоятельную работу, требует от обучающихся творческого отношения при их выполнении (наличие заданий повышенной трудности), позволяет реализовать личностно-ориентированный подход при работе с обучающимися в разным уровнем подготовки и с разными интересами. Задания моделируют ситуации или используют реальные ситуации в целях анализа данного случая, поиска альтернативных решений и принятия оптимального решения проблем.
В тетрадь включены задания, готовящие обучающихся к объективному контролю и самоконтролю в процессе изучения английского языка.
Рабочая тетрадь соответствует уровню подготовки студентов по дисциплине «Иностранный язык (английский)» в разделе «Профессионально-направленный модуль» для специальности профиля 38.00.00 «Экономика и управление»: 38.02.04 Коммерция Методические указания по изучению дисциплины.
В соответствии с ФГОС по дисциплине Иностранный язык (английский) для специальности профиля 38.00.00 «Экономика и управление»: 38.02.04 Коммерция студент должен:
УМЕТЬ: общаться (устно и письменно) на иностранном языке на профессиональные и повседневные темы; переводить (со словарём) иностранные тексты профессиональной направленности; самостоятельно совершенствовать устную и письменную речи, пополнять словарный запас;
ЗНАТЬ: Лексический (1200 – 1400 лексических единиц) и грамматический минимум, необходимый для чтения и перевода (со словарём) иностранных текстов профессиональной направленности.
Структура практических занятий UNIT 1 – UNIT 3 включает в себя:
Texts. Тексты, относящиеся к анализу хозяйственной деятельности предприятий и финансовому анализу.
Exercises. Упражнения, направленные на обучение пониманию специальных материалов и использованию их в практической деятельности, прорабатывают основные проблемные области грамматики и словообразования. Задания содержат образцы основных видов деловой корреспонденции и переписки с правилами их составления и направленны на овладение основами ведения деловой переписки в типичных ситуациях.
В конце каждого раздела имеются вопросы, которые могут использоваться либо для выполнения домашних заданий, либо выступать в качестве тем для обсуждения во время занятий (Questions for revision).
Если обучающийся в своей работе сталкивается с термином, требующим перевода или толкования, и не обнаруживает его в настоящем рабочей тетради, огромное количество профессиональных переводчиков, работающих на сайте www.proz.com, помогут решить любые языковые проблемы.
Приложение 1. (Appendix 1). Содержит образцы диалогов, способы получения и сообщения информации, проведения телефонных переговоров. Деловое общение, способствуют активному усвоению тематического материала и использованию его в устной и письменной речи в соответствии с потребностями данного вида деятельности и правилами ведения деловой беседы.
Приложение 2. (Appendix 2). Содержит языковой комментарий (Глоссарий), представляющий собой словарь с наиболее частотной лексикой и выражениями, встречающимися в сфере обслуживания и при деловом общении. Содержит лингвокоммерческий комментарий, объясняющий смысл основных профессиональных терминов.
UNIT 1. Деловой этикет в сфере обслуживания. (Speech behavior (etiquette) in the field of service).Task 1. Match sentences (1-6) with sentences (a-f) to make mini-dialogues.
So, see you after the holidays,
Good evening,
How are you7
I’d like you to meet my best friend, Jim.
See you on Monday,
Haven’t we met before?
Yes, I worked in your department for two weeks,
Nice to meet you.
Right, have a good time in Greece.
Fine, thanks.
Bye.
Hi.
1 2 3 4 5 6
Task 2. Introduce each of these people, described in the given situation. Use the additional information, given in the brackets.
You've brought a close friend to another friend’s birthday party,
(Hugh, classmate, school basketball team captain)
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
You introduce the professor who will give a speech at the end-of-the-year ceremony at your school. (Bruce Carter, astronomer, discovered a new star)
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
You’re with your parents on holiday and you meet your English teacher on the beach.
(parents - Ms Scott, taught you English for four years)
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
You are walking with your girlfriend and you meet your mother in the street,
(Sam, friend from school, going to the cinema)
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
In the park, where you’re walking with a girl, you unexpectedly meet your old girlfriend. (Jo, old friend - Pat, school friend)
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Task 3. Fill in the blanks to make the dialogue complete.
Mike: (1) ,_______ isanyone sitting here?
Jane: Well, no, it’s only my books. I'll put them over here.
Mike: Thanks. (2)_______?
Jane: I don’t think so. I don’t remember you.
Mike: (3) ___.I’m a student at the college.
Jane: (4) _______.Myname’s Jane Scott. I’m a student, too.
Mike: We may have met at the college, then.
Jane: Well, perhaps. (5)?
Mike: (6) _____________.It’s a bit too hot for me, though.
Jane: Oh, dear, I must be going, my class starts in ten minutes.
Mike: Oh, that's a pity. (7) _____________?
Jane: Why not? I’m usually free on Saturday nights.
(8)_______
Mike: I haven’t got your phone number.
Jane: I’ll write it down for you.
Well, (9). I’msorry, but I really must go now.
(10) __________.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Task 4. Answer questions in 2-3 sentences. Begin you answers with the sentence of uncertainty.
What do you think about vegetarianism?
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Don’t you think that married people should not be allowed to divorce?
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
At what age should young people be allowed to get a driving license?
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Do you think that parents should be forbidden to hit their children?
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Don’t you think that men are better at cooking than women?
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Everybody should pay for their education, don’t you think?
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Task 5. Give questions (A) on the following answers (B). There may be several variants.
1. А:
В: There are two planes to Paris on Tuesday -at 2.30 and 7.30.
2. A: _________________________________________
B: It leaves in 20 minutes from platform three.
3. A: __________________________________________
B: Number 57 stops right in front of the opera house.
4. A ____________________________________
B: It's about twenty minutes by bus and ten minutes by taxi.
5. A: _________________________________________
B: Lead-free is 75p and diesel is 68p.
6. A ______________________________
B: You can only smoke in restricted smoking areas.
1 2 3 4 5 6 Task 6. Answer the questions of these real situations.
1. A: Excuse me, could you tell me where the ladies' toilets are?
B:__________________________________
2. A: Do you happen to know when the supermarket closes?
B: _________________________________
3. A: Could you tell me where I can find a police station?
B: ___________________________________
4. A: Excuse me. Where do the buses that go to the centre stop?
B ____________________________________
5. A: What is on the local cinema this week?
B ____________________________
1 2 3 4 5 Task 7. Give answers (B) to the questions (A). Use the given key words.
1. A: I’m afraid I’ve lost my passport. What should I do?
B: (Russian embassy) __________.
2. A: I’d like to try the local cuisine. Can you suggest a traditional Russian dish?
B: (pelmeni) ________________.
3. A: Can you help me? Should I take the train to Verhoturye or catch a bus?
B: (bus) ______________.
4. A: I really have to lose some weight.
B: (more exercise) __________.
1 2 3 4 Task 8. Look at the map. Describe the way to the given places. You are at the Railway Station.
15557550482500taxi rank - bank - park - supermarket - petrol station - church - bus station
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Task 9. Express surprise and doubt as the reaction to the given situations. Add one more sentence to the situation.
1. A: Did you know that some animals eat their own young?
B: ____________________________________.
2. A: Watching too much television can cause mental illness.
B: _________________________.
3. A: I’m going to take part in the next Olympic Games.
B: _________________________.
4. A: I’ve passed all my maths tests this year.
B: __________________________.
1 2 3 4 Task 10. Write down short mini-dialogues (you and your friend). Express request in the given situations. Choose the appropriate forms of agreement or refusal.
1. You’re in a hurry and your friend is driving the same way. (agree)
You:
Your friend:
You:
2. You’d like to sit next to your friend at the cinema but there are only single seat left. (refuse)
You:
Your friend:
You:
Task 11. Match statements (1 – 5) with statements (a – e) to make mini-dialogues of telephone conversations.
Could you take a message, please?
Can you call again later?
Hello.
Can I speak to William, please?
I’m afraid he’s not in at the moment.
Hello. Peter Clark speaking,
Could I call later then?
Just a minute, I’ll call him.
Yes, of course, I'll just get a pen.
Well ..., I’m afraid I’ll be very busy all day.
1 2 3 4 5
Task 12. Read the situations of telephone conversations. Make the dialogues, using the instructions given in the brackets.
John is calling his girlfriend Ann to make a date with her. Ann is in the bathroom and her father answers the phone. (John - Ann’s father)
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Mr Smith is calling a hotel in London to book a room for his family. The receptionist answers the phone.(Mr Smith - receptionist)
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
A boy is calling his father at work to tell him that he’s had a car accident and the car is seriously damaged. The father’s colleague answers the phone.(boy - father's colleague)
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
4. Someone is calling a taxi company to order a taxi for a specific time tomorrow. The taxi operator answers the phone. (you - taxi operator)
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
UNIT 2. Предприятия сферы обслуживания. Продукты и услуги. (Products and services).
Text A. The stages of industry. The chain of distribution. Services.
The stages of industry.
There are three stages in the process of making saleable products from raw materials:
Extractive industry
The raw materials are extracted from natural resources, for example the miner mines iron ore and the farmer grows wheat.
Processing industry
The raw materials are processed into a form suitable for further use, for example the iron is made into Hotel and the wheat is made into flour.
3. Manufacturing industry
The results of the processing stage are made into semi-finished and finished goods, for example the steel is made into knives and the flour is made into bread. Finished goods are goods which are complete in themselves, for example steel forks. Semi-finished goods must be assembled before they can be used, for example wooden knife handles and steel knife blades.

Extractive Industry Processing Industry Manufacturing Industry
The chain of distribution.
Normally the manufacturer sells his products to the wholesaler, the wholesaler sells to the retailer, and the retailer sells to the consumer or end-user. However, depending on the type of product, one or more stages may be missed out.
Services.
Other people do not contribute directly to production, but are needed, for example to transport the goods from the manufacturer to the customer, to insure the goods etc. These people render services. There are several types of service:
Public services:
People in public services are employed by the government, for example civil servants and teachers.
2. Private services:
Private services are rendered by skilled people with their own organizations, for example lawyers and doctors in private practices.
3. Consumer services:
Consumer services are services used by people in their everyday life, e.g. electricians and hairdressers.
4. Commercial services:
Commercial services are rendered by people who are needed for the efficient distribution of goods, for example exporters, bankers, agents.
Exercise 1. Find English equivalents to these Russian sentences from the text.
Russian sentence English equivalent
1. Сырье добывается из природных ресурсов. Например, шахтер добывает железную руду, а фермер выращивает пшеницу.
1.
2. В результате этапа обработки изготавливаются полуфабрикаты и готовая продукция. Например, из стали производят ножи, а из муки производят хлеб.
2.
3. Готовая продукция - это товары, которые являются готовыми полностью. Например, стальные вили.
3.
4. Полуфабрикаты должны быть собраны, прежде чем они могут быть использованы. Например, деревянные ручки ножей или стальные лезвия ножей.
4.
Exercise 2. Translate English sentences into Russian, paying attention to the meaning of the active terms.
English sentence Russian equivalent
1. Normally, the manufacturer sells his products to the wholesaler, the wholesaler sells to the retailer, and the retailer sells to the consumer or end-user.
1.
2. However, depending on the type of product, one or more stages may be missed out.
2.
3. Other people do not contribute directly to production, but are needed, for example to transport the goods from the manufacturer to the customer, to insure the goods etc.
3.
4. These people render services. There are several types of service.
4.
5. People in public services are employed by the government, for example civil servants and teachers.
5.
6. Private services are rendered by skilled people with their own organizations, for example lawyers and doctors in private practices.
6.
7. Consumer services are services used by people in their everyday life, e.g. electricians and hairdressers.
7.
8. Commercial services are rendered by people who are needed for the efficient distribution of goods, for example exporters, bankers, agents.
8.
Exercise 3. Complete the text with the words from the table.
Order, rank, service, important
Which type of (1) ___________ do you think is the most (2)_________? If possible, (3)__________ them in descending (4)_________ of importance (most important to least important) and explain why.
1 2 3 4
Exercise 4. What kind of industry do I work in?
I'm a market gardener.
My company produces computers.
I work on an oil rig in the North Sea.
In my spare time, I spin wool and sell it to companies which make exclusive knitwear.
I'm a carpenter.
I'm a deep-sea fisherman.
We make jewelry.
We make leather.
I'm a cotton weaver.
My company makes steel girders for bridges.
Extractive Industry Processing Industry Manufacturing Industry
Exercise 5. Are these FINISHED or SEMI-FINISHED goods?
Umbrellas
Table legs
Computer monitors
Bottle tops
Door handles
Toys
Bicycle saddles
Filaments for light bulbs
Carpets
Shoelaces
FINISHED goods SEMI-FINISHED goods
Exercise 6. What kind of service do I render?
1. I'm a teacher.
2. I'm a plumber.
3. I work for a shipping company.
4. I'm a customs officer.
5. I work in a warehouse.
6. I'm an insurance broker.
7. I'm a mechanic.
8. I own a wholesale company which sells clothing.
9. I'm a judge.
10. I'm an architect.
Public services
Private services Consumer services Commercial services
Exercise 7. Build the nouns from the verbs using suffices –er/or.
1.He writes books for children. He is a popular writ....
2.They plan to borrow a big sum next year. There are many borrow... on the market now.
3.This company exports computers to many countries. They are among the most popular export....
4.Many copanies use this programme. We are us...of this programme too.
5.- What companies import cars?
- Oh, there are very many import... of cars.
7.She designs beautiful houses. She is a very talented design...
Exercise 8. Translate the sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the Comparative pattern “the more... the better” (“чем (больше)... тем (лучше)”)
The higher the price of the goods, the fewer people are ready to buy them.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
The more money I get, the more things I can buy.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
The bigger the house is, the more money it will cost.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
The longer the text, the longer it takes me to translate it.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
The more work he has, the happier he is.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
The older you get, the more difficult it becomes to find a job.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
The longer the journey is, the more expensive the ticket is.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
Questions for revision
1. Choose one or more of the following products and describe (in as much detail as possible) the process it undergoes from the time the natural resources are extracted to the time it reaches the consumer:
Bread
Paper
Leather shoes
Wooden chairs
Copper pipes
Mention the three stages of industry and the chain of distribution.
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Text B. Terms of payment for domestic trade (Условия оплаты для внутренней торговли)
CWO (Cash with Order) (Оплата пpи зaкaзe). COD (Cash on Delivery) (Оплата наложенным платежом/Оплата при поставке «по факту»). Payment on invoice (Оплата по счет-фактуре/ Оплата по получении счета). H.P. (Hire Purchase) (Покупка в рассрочку). Open-account terms (Условия открытого счета). Leasing. (Лизинг.)
When deciding on the terms of payment, the seller and buyer have to agree on:
When to pay (for example in advance, on delivery)
How to pay (for example cash, cheque, transfer)
How much to pay (whether the seller is prepared to grant any discounts).
Types of discount:
1. BULK (QUANTITY) DISCOUNT: granted when the buyer orders a large quantity. “If you order more than 250 units, we’ll give you a 10% discount.”
2. EARLY PAYMENT DISCOUNT: granted when the buyer pays within a certain period of time.
“If you pay within 7 days, you can deduct 5% from the price.”
3. CASH DISCOUNT: granted when the buyer pays cash. “If you pay cash, we’ll give you 2% off”
The terms of payment described here are all particularly suitable for domestic trade.
CWO (Cash with Order) (Оплата пpи зaкaзe).
The buyer sends payment with his order.
0170815Seller: This is favorable for me, because there is no risk of me not getting payment for the goods. As payment may arrive some time before the goods are sent out, it also means I can work with the money.
Buyer: This is not so favorable for me, because if the seller is unreliable,
I might pay for the goods and not get them. And if I have to return the goods for any reason, I have to make sure that I get my money back. 0-41402000
Because this term of payment carries a certain risk for the buyer, he will generally only agree to it in certain situations:
If he is doing business for the first time with a reputable company.
If the seller gives him a discount.
If he places a special, expensive order (for example a machine made to specification, where the seller would have problems to dispose of the goods elsewhere), the seller may ask for a part-payment to be sent with the order.
COD (Cash on Delivery) (Оплата наложенным платежом/Оплата при поставке «по факту»)
The buyer pays the company which delivers the goods (for example the post office or the carrier) at the time they are delivered. The payment is then transferred to the seller.
0171450Seller: Here too, the risk of me not being paid is minimal. And even if the buyer refuses to accept delivery and pay, I don’t lose the goods.
Buyer: Here I no longer run the risk of not receiving goods I’ve paid for. The main disadvantage 035623500for me is that I don’t have the chance to inspect the goods before paying for them.
Companies which don’t know anything about the financial standing of their customers (e.g. mail order companies) prefer to use this term of payment.
Payment on invoice (Оплата по счет-фактуре/ Оплата по получении счета).
The buyer receives an invoice on or after delivery, which describes the goods delivered, the amount to be paid and the period within which the invoice must be paid (e.g. 14 days).
-3810323850Seller: I only use this term of payment if I know the buyer is reliable, otherwise I run the risk of not being paid.
-18542023050500Buyer: This term of payment is favorable for me because I can inspect the goods before paying for them as well as having time to pay.
H.P. (Hire Purchase) (Покупка в рассрочку).
This term of payment is offered by retailers on expensive products such as cars, large electrical items etc. The customer makes a down payment of about 10—20% of the price and takes the goods away afterwards he pays the balance (the remaining amount) in weekly or monthly instalments.
0-1035050Seller: This term of payment carries a certain risk for me; the buyer may not be able to keep up the payment, and if he returns the goods, I can no longer resell them as new.
017081500Buyer: H. P. is very favorable for me, as I don’t have to save up a large amount of money before I can buy an expensive product. However, I usually have to pay interest, which means at the end, I will have paid more than if 1 had bought the goods.
Open-account terms (Условия открытого счета).
With reliable customers who place regular orders, the seller might agree to open-account terms. Here the buyer doesn’t have to pay for every delivery separately. Instead, he receives a statement of account. every month or quarter which states the total amount he owes the buyer. He is then expected to settle a minimum amount of his debt (10% of the total amount, for example).
-38103810Seller: As with H.P., I run the risk of the buyer not being able to keep up the payments At least it’s more convenient for me if I only have send an invoice once a month or once every three months.
314896517526000Buyer: Unlike H.P., I can only profit from this term of payment if I place regular order. However, the advantages for me are the same.
Do you remember what “title” means, with regard to sales contracts?
Payment on invoice, hire purchase and open-account terms can all be risky for the seller, as he is dependent on the buyer’s ability and readiness to pay. For this reason, he retains the title of the goods until they have been completely paid for. That means the buyer can use the goods but they remain the property of the seller until the buyer has made full payment. This ensures that the seller can get the goods back if the buyer doesn’t pay for them.
Leasing. (Лизинг.)
Leasing is different to the other terms of payment, because the title of the goods does not change hands. It is generally used for larger objects such as buildings, land and machinery.
A lease is an agreement between the owner of the object (the lessor) and the person who wants to use it (the leaseholder or lessee), which gives the leaseholder permission to use the object for a fixed period, usually several years. In return, the leaseholder pays rent to the lessor, and is responsible for the object leased (he has to arrange insurance and carry out repairs, for example).
When the lease expires, the leaseholder may be able to extend it or even to buy the object leased at a reduced price. In the case of items such as technical equipment, he may be able to return the object and take out a lease on a newer model.
0-1035050Seller: Leasing is good way for me to earn a regular income from my property over a long period. The main risk for me here is that the leaseholder may not be able to keep up his payment.
017081500Buyer: Thanks to leasing, I can make use of buildings and equipment which I otherwise might not be able to afford.
Exercise 1. Find English equivalents to these Russian sentences from the text.
Russian sentence English equivalent
1. Скидка за наличный расчет предоставляется в случае, когда покупатель оплачивает покупку наличными деньгами. «Если вы заплатите наличными, мы предоставим вам скидку в 2%». 1.
2. Это не очень выгодно для меня. В случае, если продавец не слишком надежный, я могу заплатить за покупку, но не получить ее.
2.
3. Если я вынужден буду вернуть покупку по какой-либо причине, я должен быть уверен, что получу деньги обратно.
3.
4. Покупатель оплачивает покупку той компании, которая доставляет покупку. Затем оплата переходит продавцу.
4.
5. Покупатель получает счет-фактуру при доставке или после нее, которая описывает поставленный товар, сумму, подлежащую выплате и период, в течение которого счет должен быть оплачен (например, 14 дней)
5.
6. Этот способ оплаты предлагается розничной торговлей на дорогие продукты, такие как автомобили, крупные электрические приборы и т.д.
6.
7. Клиент делает первоначальный взнос 10-20% от стоимости и забирает товар после того, как он оплатит баланс (оставшуюся сумму) в еженедельных или ежемесячных платежах
7.
8. Имея дело с надежными клиентами, которые размещают заказы регулярно, продавец может согласиться на условия открытого счета. 9. В этом случае покупатель не должен платить за каждую поставку отдельно. 9.
10. Вместо этого, он получает выписку со счета каждый месяц или квартал, которая сообщает общую сумму долга. Покупатель в праве рассчитывать на минимальное количество своего долга (10% от общей суммы, например). 10.
Exercise 2. Translate English sentences into Russian, paying attention to the meaning of the active terms.
English sentence Russian equivalent
1. Payment on invoice, hire purchase and open-account terms can all be risky for the seller, as he is dependent on the buyer’s ability and readiness to pay.
1.
2. For this reason, he retains the title of the goods until they have been completely paid for
2.
3. That means the buyer can use the goods but they remain the property of the seller until the buyer has made full payment.
3.
4. This ensures that the seller can get the goods back if the buyer doesn’t pay for them.
4.
5. A lease is an agreement between the owner of the object (the lessor) and the person who wants to use it (the leaseholder or lessee), which gives the leaseholder permission to use the object for a fixed period, usually several years.
5.
6. In return, the leaseholder pays rent to the lessor, and is responsible for the object leased (he has to arrange insurance and carry out repairs, for example).
6.
Exercise 3. Match the terms of payment with the appropriate description made by a seller. One description is extra.
Terms of payment Description made by a seller
1 CWO (Cash with Order) a I run the risk of the buyer not being able to keep up the payments, as with it. At least it’s more convenient for me if I only have send an invoice once a month or once every three months.
2 COD (Cash on Delivery) b The terms of payment are all particularly suitable for domestic trade.
3 Payment on invoice c The risk of me not being paid is minimal too. And even if the buyer refuses to accept delivery and pay, I don’t lose the goods.
4 H.P. (Hire Purchase) d It is good way for me to earn a regular income from my property over a long period. The main risk for me here is that the leaseholder may not be able to keep up his payment.
5 Open-account terms e There is no risk of me not getting payment for the goods, so this is favorable for me As payment may arrive some time before the goods are sent out, it also means I can work with the money.
6 Leasing f The buyer may not be able to keep up the payment, and if he returns the goods, I can no longer resell them as new. This term of payment carries a certain risk for me;
g I only use this term of payment if I know the buyer is reliable, otherwise I run the risk of not being paid.
1 2 3 4 5 6
Exercise 4. Match the terms of payment with the appropriate description made by a buyer. One description is extra.
Terms of payment Description made by a buyer
1 CWO (Cash with Order) a I can make use of buildings and equipment which I otherwise might not be able to afford, thanks to it.
2 COD (Cash on Delivery) b I can only profit from this term of payment if I place regular order, unlike H.P. However, the advantages for me are the same.
3 Payment on invoice c This is not so favorable for me, because if the seller is unreliable, I might pay for the goods and not get them. And if I have to return the goods for any reason, I have to make sure that I get my money back.
4 H.P. (Hire Purchase) d When deciding on the terms of payment, the seller and buyer have to agree on: When to pay , How to pay , How much to pay.
5 Open-account terms e I don’t have to save up a large amount of money before I can buy an expensive product. It is very favorable for me. However, I usually have to pay interest, which means at the end, I will have paid more than if 1 had bought the goods.
6 Leasing f I can inspect the goods before paying for them as well as having time to pay, so this term of payment is favorable for me.
g The main disadvantage for me is that I don’t have the chance to inspect the goods before paying for them. But here I no longer run the risk of not receiving goods I’ve paid for.
1 2 3 4 5 6
Exercise 5. Which terms of payment might you offer these customers?
1. A customer comes into your music shop and wants a piano for his son. However, he isn’t really happy about buying the piano outright, in case his son decides he doesn't like playing it after all?
2. You receive an enquiry from a new customer. A business associate of yours mentions that he has heard that this customer is in financial difficulties.
3. A customer has been doing business with your firm for a long time and has always paid promptly. However, he only places one order every few months.
4. You own a mail-order company. You mostly do business with private customers who order little and often.
5. A private customer wants to buy an up-to-date model of a computer so that he can start his own business.
CWO (Cash with Order) COD (Cash on Delivery) Payment on invoice H.P. (Hire Purchase) Open-account terms Leasing
Exercise 6. Translate the sentences into Russian paying attention to the “either…or”. (или …или)
You can either use this method or that one.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
When there is a crisis, they either do nothing of do something useless.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
You can use either a diskette or a disk.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
You can either walk or take a lift.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
5. Casual dining is characterized by relaxed atmosphere, either Russian service or American service is typical in such kinds of restaurants, and even buffet- type service is typical here too.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
6. People are suggested a wide range of accommodations and rates: either American or European plan.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
Exercise 7. Use the right form of the verbs.
Listen to him, please. He (speaks, is speaking) Chinese.
She often (speaks, is speaking) French when she (travels, is travelling) in France.
Mary is in the office now. She is very busy. She (works, is working) on the computer.
What foreign languages (does your friend learn, is your friend learning) now?
What (do you read, are you reading) now?
The family (owns, is owning) a big house in the country.
Most of the students (were listening , listened) to the teacher but Mary (was reading, read) a history book. She (hated, was hating) maths.
These people never (owned, were owning) a house. They always (lived, were living) in apartments.
Everyone (was reading, read) quietly when the door (was opening, opened) and a policeman came in.
- Your office was full of people yesterday morning. What (were they doing, did they do)?
- They (were looking, looked) for the lost documents.
The dentist’s waiting room was full of people. Some (were reading, read), others (were just turning, just turned) pages.
1 5 9 2 6 10 3 7 11 4 8 Exercise 8. Put each prepositional phrase (a – h) in its correct space in the sentences (1 – 8):
a. a.
in the process of (in the middle of) e. in the event of (if there is)
b
b. under the guidance of (with the help and advice of) f. in accordance with (following)
c. c.
in addition to (as well as) g. in view of (because of)
d. d.
in terms of (from the point of view of) h. h. in payment for (to pay for)
1. All our sports activities are organized __________ a fully qualified instructor.
2. __________ rain, the party will be held in the conservatory.
3. ___________ your instructions, we have rearranged the meeting for laterin the schedule.
4. ____________ language skills, a resort representative must have good interpersonal (межличностные) skills.
5. ___________ the current economic situation, we can expect fewer visitors this year.
6. The hotel has had some bad reviews but _________ sales, it has been very popular.
7. We are _________ negotiating a new contract with our tour operator.
8. I enclose a cheque _________ our accommodation.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Questions for revision:
1. Compare CWO (Cash with Order) and COD (Cash on Delivery).
CWO (Cash with Order) COD (Cash on Delivery
1. 1.
2. 2.
3. 3.
4. 4.
5. 5.
6. 6.
7. 7.
2. H.P. and open-account terms both require the buyer to pay in instalments. What is the difference between these two terms?
H.P. (Hire Purchase) Open-account terms
1. 1.
2. 2.
3. 3.
4. 4.
5. 5.
6. 6.
7. 7.
3. How is leasing different from the other terms of payment described above?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
4. Which of the terms of payment described above is most favorable for the seller and why?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
5. Which of the terms of payment described above is most favorable for the buyer and why?
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
UNIT 3. Business Letters. (Деловая переписка). From enquiry to sales contract. (От запроса к договору купли-продажи): Enquiries. Offers. Orders. Sales contract. Complaints and adjustments. Reminders. (Запросы. Предложения. Заказы. Контракт на продажу. Жалобы и корректировки. Напоминания.)
Enquiries. (Запросы).
1. An enquiry or inquiry is a request for information. When starting up in business, it is necessary to find out the names and addresses of potential business partners. One way of obtaining this information is to send an enquiry to one or more of the following organizations:
The Chamber of Commerce
A bank
Another company — provided the company’s own Interests are not negatively affected by giving you this information.
If you are looking for partners or suppliers abroad, you can write to the consulate of the foreign country in question. The consul’s tasks include representing his country’s economic interests abroad.
It is also possible to write to the embassy of the foreign country. However, the task of an ambassador is mainly diplomatic and the embassy may not be able to provide as much commercial information.
2. General enquiry.
Once you have obtained the name and address of a supplier, you can send him a general enquiry asking for information about the goods he supplies. For example, if you are a retailer of electronic goods and are looking for new suppliers, you can write a general enquiry to a manufacturer or wholesaler and ask for catalogues and price-lists. From these, you can then decide whether you want to do business with this company.
3. Specific enquiry.
If you need more details, for example if you already know what goods a company supplies but need information about how long it will take for the goods to reach you, you can send a specific inquiry. Information you may ask for in this type of inquiry include:
Terms of delivery
Delivery times
Discounts
Terms of payment
Discounts
Types of packing
4. Invitation to tender.
Another way of obtaining offers from suppliers is to place an advertisement in a newspaper or other publication. This advertisement is called an invitation to tender and is a method often used by public institution such as government offices. Companies who are interested can then submit their offers – in this case called tenders - and the best one is chosen to supply the goods or services required.
Here is an example of an invitation to tender.
Published notice
Open invitation to tender No. 241/01
The supply of l20 sets of office furniture
1. Awarding аuthority:
Tilborough Municipal Council, 36 High St., Tilborough TN1 4HJ
2. Award рroсedure:
Public Invitation to Tender with discretionary award of contract
3. Description of the сontraсt:
a) Purpose of the сontraсt:
The supply of 120 sets of office furniture for the new local government offices in the Bristol Road, Tilborough.
b) Division into lots:
Lot 1: desks and pedestal drawers units
Lot 2: cupboards and shelving units
The two lots may both be awarded to one bidder or may be separately awarded to two bidders.
с) Terms of payment:
Payment will be made following acceptance of the furniture.
4. Place and period of performance:
a) Place at which the contract is to be performed.
Tilborough Local Government Offices, 132 Bristol Road, Tilborough TN1 9FG
b) Duration of contract or time limit of completion, delivery of work/goods.
The furniture to be delivered between October and December 2013
5. Receipt of bids:
The final date for the receipt of bids is the 15th of March 2013, 12 noon,
2 copies must be submitted in addition to the original, which is to be marked as such, Bids is to be sent to the address in point 1.
6. Period during which the bidder is bound by his bid:
One year following the final date for rесеiрt of bids in point 5.
7. Criteria for thе аwаrd of сontrасt:
The contract will be awarded to the bidder, whose bid is to be preferred with regard to the bidder’s ability to meet the awarding authority’s needs and requirements, to be measured primarily by the technical quality of the bid, the bidder’s experience with projects of a similar nature and economic advantage.
8. Other information:
A part of its evaluation of the bid, the awarding authority may request bidders to supply, free of all costs and charges to the awarding authority, sampling of their furniture. It is anticipated that sampling will take place at beginning of April 2013
Exercise 1. Here are some phrases from enquiry letters. What kind of enquiry is concerned in each case?
1. We owe your address to the Chamber of Commerce in London...
2. ...are looking for suppliers of fine wines in France...
3. request information about quantity discounts.
4. are very satisfied with your execution of our first order. Now we would like to know whether you could grant us to days' credit…
5. addresses of exporters of Russian dolls.
6. would like to know what kind of goods you have to offer.
7. from your catalogue we see that...
8. the foreign trade department of our bank told us that you...
An enquiry General enquiry Specific enquiry
Exercise 2. Read the invitation to tender above and answer the following questions.
1. What organization is asking for tenders?
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. What exactly is this organization asking for?
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
3. What are the terms of payment?
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
4. What is the delivery time?
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
5. What address are the goods to be delivered to?
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
6. When is the final date for receiving tenders?
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
7. Using your own words, describe the factors which organization will consider when deciding which tender is the best?
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Offers. (Предложения).
When a seller makes an offer or quotation, he promises to supply his goods on the terms stated in his offer. This means that if a buyer places an order on the basis of the seller’s offer, the seller must supply the goods as promised. Offers can be made orally or in writing, although oral offers are usually confirmed in writing to prevent disagreements.
Solicited offers are made in answer to an enquiry, whereas unsolicited offers are sent on the seller’s own initiative in the hope of interesting potential customers.
Essentials of an offer:
Ideally, an offer should give information about as many as possible of the following points:
Type of goods
Quantity of goods
Prices
Discounts (e.g. for early ordering/payment, large quantities)
Delivery times
Terms of delivery
Terms of payment
Type of packing.
Types of offer:
Firm (binding) offer: The seller must provide the goods at the prices and terms given in his offer, and may not change or withdraw his offer after it has been made. However, he can state how long he binds himself to his offer (e.g. “This offer is valid until 15th October”).
Offer without engagement (non-binding offer): Certain factors may mean that the seller does not want to bind himself to the terms of his offer, for example in the case of certain goods where the prices fluctuate (oil, gold), if stocks are limited, or if industrial disputes mean he may not be able to deliver on time. In such cases, he can include certain phrases to make it clear that he may withdraw his offer at any time.
Exercise 3. Are these offers solicited or unsolicited?Thank you for your letter dated 10th. April concerning...
We have been given your address by...
As one of the leading manufacturers of earthenware pots in Spain we would like to offer you...
In your enquiry you stated that you are looking for...
We are glad to hear that our catalogue was of interest to you.
The Chamber of Commerce informed us that you are an importer of
Solicited offers Unsolicited offers
Exercise 4. Can you match the two columns?
1 Type of goods a cash on delivery
2 Quantity b CIF dover
3 Prices c 800 units
4 Discounts d two weeks after receipt of order
5 Delivery times e 5 % off orders placed within the next 7 days
6 Terms of delivery f seaworthy containers
7 Terms of payment g wooden kitchen chairs
8 Packing h $ 50 per unit
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Exercise 5. These sellers all found themselves in situations, which meant they had to make non-binding offers. Which of the phrases below did they use?
1 Mr. Farmer made an offer for 100 bales of hay. However, .it the time he made his offer, the poor weather conditions were making all farmers nervous. a "This offeris subject to being unsold."
2 Mr. Vintner produces a limited number of quality wines. He does not produce enough of these wines to supply everybody who asks, and so has to include an appropriate clause when making offers. b "This offeris subject to availability."
3 Mr. Kitchener's company exports fridges and freezers. At present he is having problems with his supplier, and he can't guarantee until the very last minute that the goods will be dispatched on time c "Our prices are subject to change without notice."
4 The Boston Tea Company imports tea from India and sells it to American retailers. However, increasing labor costs and a poor harvest means that the price of tea is rising rapidly. d "This offeris subject to a good harvest."
5 Mr. Keeper imports exotic animals such as snakes and monkeys for pet shops. Naturally, it isn't always easy to obtain these animals just when they are wanted. e "This offeris subject to final confirmation”
1 2 3 4 5
Exercise 6. Here is a typical offer letter. Read it and answer the questions below.
McLeod Knitwear
27 Pitlochry Road Edinburgh EH1 9FG Scotland
21st January 2013
The Scottish Shop 643 Caledonian Road New York, NY 53275 USA
Dear Sirs,
The foreign trade department of our bank informs us that you are an importer of quality Scottish goods. Our company is one of the leading manufacturers of traditional Scottish knitwear and we are sending you our catalogue in the hope of doing business with you.
Should you be interested, we can offer you the following very favorable terms:
— Children's aran sweaters @ $59 each
— Ladies' aran sweaters @ $79 each
— Gentlemen's aran sweaters @ $99 each
The prices stated above are CIF Glasgow and include seaworthy packing. We can grant you a quantity discount of 5% off orders of 200 sweater, or more. Delivery can be effected within 6 weeks of receipt of order. Payment is to be effected by letter of credit.
This offer is subject to confirmation.
We hope to hear from you soon and assure you that your order will be executed to your best satisfaction.
Yours faithfully,
McLeod Knitwear
1. Is this a solicited or an unsolicited offer? How do you know?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. Is it a firm offer or an offer without engagement? How do you know?
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
3. What kind of goods are being offered and how much do they cost?
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
4. What are the terms of delivery?
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
5. What is the delivery time?
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
6. What are the terms of payment?
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
7. What incentive does the seller offer in the hope of convincing the buyer to place a large order?
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Orders. (Заказы).
If the buyer is satisfied with the terms of the seller’s offer, he may then place an order. There are a number of different types of order:
trial order
firm order
standing order
initial order
follow-up order
merchandise on call
advance order
bulk order
repeat order
Exercise 7. Match the two columns.
1 trial order a The customer places one order for a certain quantity of goods to be delivered at regular intervals, e.g. 500 kg. of coffee on the first day of each month.
2 firm order b The second order placed with a company.
3 standing order c The customer orders a small quantity of goods to test the quality.
4 initial order d The customer commits himself to buying the goods. This type of order may have a fixed delivery date.
5 follow-up order e The first order placed with a company.
6 merchandise on call f The customer orders the goods a long time before he needs them or a long time before they are available.
7 advance order g The customer orders goods in large quantities.
8 bulk order h The customer orders exactly the same goods as before.
9 repeat order i The customer places one order for a quantity of goods which he has delivered in parts as and when he needs them.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Exercise 8. Here are some phrases from order letters. What kind of orders have these customers placed?
1. Please send us the following coffee for test purpose:
100 g. French roast
100 g. Brazilian breakfast
100 g. Jamaican blend
2. ...would be grateful if you could send us as before...
3. ...if there is any possibility of you granting us a quantity discount on this order?
4. If this order proves satisfactory we will place a second order next month.
5. ...and so we will call you whenever we require new stock.
6. ...to be delivered by the end of the first week of every month.
7. ...20,000 pairs of white tennis shoes @ $15 a pair…
8. to reorder the goods, the order of which was placed on the 17th, March.
9. ...200 reams of paper to be delivered on the last working day of each month, Saturdays excepted.
10. As our warehouse space is limited and customer demand for the goods is high, we would like to place a…
11. ...and as we have heard that supply is becoming increasingly difficult, we would like to place an order now for the goods to be delivered at the beginning of next year.
12. ...quality and quantity as before.
13. We have read your terms of trade and are satisfied with your conditions. Therefore we would like to place a…
14. ...to be delivered every two weeks.
15. We hope this order will lead to further business relations between our firms and…
16. ...delivery to be effected on 25th. August.
trial order firm order standing order initial order follow-up order merchandise on call advance order bulk order repeat order
Exercise 9. What kind of order do you think each of these customers would place? There may be more than one correct answer?
1. Mr. Brown import carpets from Turkey. Recently a business friend gave him the name of a new supplier in Turkey.
_______________________________________________________________________
2. Mrs. Garrick has a small clothes shop. Her clothes sell very quickly and so she prefers to order large quantities. However, she doesn't have enough space in the back of her shop to store a lot of clothes.
_____________________________________________________________________________
3. Mr. Wheeler is the owner of a petshop. He specializes in reptiles, especially snakes. Recently he heard from his supplier that in the next few months it will become increasingly difficult to importthem,andso snakes ordered after the end of this yearwill become considerably
more expensive.
_________________________________________________________________________
4 Mrs. Collins is the owner of a cheese shop in the south of England. She sells large quantities of some types of cheese, for example Cheddar, and would find it convenient to have the Cheddar delivered every week.
_________________________________________________________________________
5. Mr. Mohammed owns a warehouse in London and is a wholesaler of cheap clothing, which he then sells to market traders. He likes to get the goods as cheaply as possible, and knows that most manufactures offer a discount if goods are offered in large quantities.
_____________________________________________________________________________
6. Mr. Graham manufactures machines to specification. He needs some parts to complete a machine which he is currently building. However, he is a bit worried as the customer needs the machine in 4 weeks' time, and this won't be possible if he doesn't get the parts by a certain date.
________________________________________________________________________
7. Mr. Vintner is an exclusive retailer of fine wines. Every year, he likes to have just one bottle of each new wine to try before deciding whether or not to stock it in his shop.
___________________________________________________________________________
8. Recently Mrs. Johnson, the owner of a bookshop, ordered 20 copies of a new cookery book. The book sold so well that she has decided to order another 30 copies.
___________________________________________________________________________
9. Mr. Weatherfield is the owner of a shoe shop. Recently he established contact with an exporter in Italy and was so satisfied with the execution of his initial order that he has ordered exactly the same again.
_______________________________________________________________________
Sales contract. (Контракт на продажу)
The sales contract is the legally binding agreement reached by the seller and the buyer (the parties to the contract). It can be made orally or in writing, although it is usual for the contract to be drawn up in writing to prevent disputes.
There are three ways to conclude a sales contract:
1.This is the most normal way of concluding a sales contract, because most offers are non-binding. As non-binding offers can be changed or withdrawn at any time, a sales contract does not exist until the seller confirms the order, making any changes impossible.
Seller: I make the buyer a non-binding offer…
Buyer: I place the order on the basis of this order…
Seller: …and the contract is concluded when I confirm the order unconditionally.
2.Sellers tend to make firm offers when trading in goods where the prices fluctuate a lot. They set a fixed price and if the buyer doesn’t place an order within the period of time where this price is valid, the offer expires. The seller can then make another offer with new prices to keep up with the prices on the market.
Seller: I make the buyer an unconditional (binding) offer…
Buyer: …and the contract is concluded when I place an order within the period of time stated in the offer.
3.In this case, if the buyer is not interested in the goods, he is expected to return them within a certain period of time, otherwise he will have to pay for them.
Seller: I send some goods to the buyer in the hope that he will be interested…
Buyer: …and the contract is concluded when I buy the goods.
After a sales contract has been concluded, the seller and buyer have to fulfil certain liabilities (that means there are certain things they have to do).
The seller’s liabilities are:
• To deliver the goods on time and in perfect condition.
• To ensure that the title to the goods is transferred to the buyer — in other words, the seller has to make sure that the buyer becomes the owner of the goods. This is normally done by passing a special document, the document of title, to the buyer. The buyer’s liabilities are:
• To accept delivery of the goods (this prevents him changing his mind after the goods have been sent).
• To pay for the goods within the time agreed.
If one party doesn’t fulfil its liabilities, the contract is broken (this is called breach of contract). In this case the other party (the injured party) can claim compensation.Exercise 10. Did a breach of contract take place? If so, how? If not, why not?A breach of contract If so, how (This breach of contract took place because…) If not, why not (This breach of contract didn’t take place because…)
1. A mail order company sent some goods to Mr. Williams. However, he refused to accept delivery of them as they had not been ordered.
2. Mr. Abraham ordered 20 televisions from a company selling electrical goods. However, he had to return one of the televisions because it didn't work.
3. Mr. Watson refused to pay the full price for a customized machine he had ordered, because it didn't exactly meet the specifications he had given.
4. Mr. Adams sent a free sample of wine glasses to a potential new customer. Unfortunately, the package burst open in the post and the glasses were broken.
5. Mr. Wright sent some spare parts to an airline. However, a series of staff strikes brought the airline into financial difficulties and his invoice was only paid six months later.
Complaints and adjustments. (Жалобы и корректировки).
If the seller causes a breach of contract, or if there is else something wrong with the execution of the order, the buyer can make a complaint. Here are some of the things a buyer can complain about:
• The goods are of inferior quality.
• The goods are damaged.
• The goods were lost in transit.
• The price is incorrect.
• There was a delay in delivery.
• The goods were shortshipped (the weight was too low or the quantity too small).
• The wrong goods were delivered.
• The goods do not match the sample.
If the complaint is justified, the seller has to make an adjustment, i.e. he has to offer the buyer some form of compensation. There are four possibilities:
1. The seller invites the buyer to RETURN the goods at the seller’s expense.
2. The seller REPLACES the faulty goods at his own expense.
3. In some cases, the goods can be REPAIRED by the seller or at the seller’s expense.
4. The buyer keeps the goods, but the seller offers him a price REDUCTION.
If the seller is late in delivering the goods, the buyer can send one or more reminders and tell the Heller that he will withdraw from the contract if the goods are not delivered by a certain date, the final deadline. It can be that the buyer reserved the right to cancel the order if delivery was late. In this case, he can cancel his order without sending any reminders.
It can happen that the buyer suffers a loss if the goods are delivered late — he may lose business, for example. In this case, he can claim damages from the seller; that means, he can start legal proceedings for compensation. However, if the delay is caused by factors beyond the seller’s control, for example floods, earthquakes, war etc., the seller is not liable for any of the buyer’s losses.
Exercise 11. What kind of adjustment would you expect in each case?
A case A kind of adjustment
1. You ordered two chests of best quality Ceylon tea. However, when it arrives, you find that the quality is inferior to that of the sample. 2. You ordered 50 ladies' dresses in size 40. However, the dresses delivered are size 42. Nevertheless, the quality is good, and you think these dresses will sell just as well. 3. You ordered 20 porcelain dinner services. However, when they arrive you find that due to careless packing, quite a lot of the pieces are broken. 4. You ordered 40 pairs of handmade leather shoes. When they arrive, you see that the stitching on one of the shoes is broken. 5. You ordered 6 washing machines, to be delivered within 14 days. However, 6 weeks later they still haven't arrived. Reminders. (Напоминания.)
If the buyer fails to fulfil his obligation of paying on time, it is customary to send three reminders:
Payment becomes overdue
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Seller sends first reminder. This may be a hidden or covert reminder; that means it may be included in an offer or sales letter to the buyer
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Buyer requests deferment of payment or makes a part payment
If the buyer doesn't answer a second reminder is sent
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Buyer requests determent of payment or makes a part-payment If the buyer doesn't answer the seller sends a third reminder with a final deadline for payment and states his intention to take legal action if payment isn’t made by this date
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If there is still no reply, the seller takes legal action against the buyer
Questions for revision:
1. What is the difference between a general and a specific enquiry? Describe using examples.
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2. What is the difference between a solicited and an unsolicited offer? Describe using examples.
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3. What is an offer without engagement and when is it used? In the case of an offer without engagement, how is the sales contract concluded?
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4. What is a firm offer and when is it used? In the case of a firm offer, how is the sales contract concluded?
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5. What is the difference between a trial order and an initial order?
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6. What is the difference between a repeat order and a follow-up order?
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7.What is the difference between a standing order and merchandise on call?
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8. What do you understand by breach of contract? (Jive some examples.
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9. Describe the reasons a buyer may have to make a complaint. What kind of compensation would you, as the buyer, offer in each case?
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10.What can you, as the seller, do if the buyer fails to fulfil his liability of paying on time?
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Приложение 1
Получение и сообщение информации (Getting and giving the information)
1. Как поздороваться и попрощаться
Как поздороваться 1. Good morning./Good afternoon./Good evening.
2. Hello./Hi.
3. How are you? – I’m fine, thank you, and you? – I’m fine, thanks.
Как попрощаться 1. Goodbye./bye.
2. See you./See you soon./See you on Monday.
3. Have a nice time./Have a good weekend.
4. Don’t forget to drop me a line.
5. I’ll call you
6. Give me a ring some time!
Как представить других 1. John, this is Peter./John, meet Peter.
2. John, I’d like you to meet Peter.
3. Let me introduce Peter Black to you./May I introduce Peter Black.
Как представиться 1. My name’s Peter Jones./I'm Peter Jones.
2. Nice to meet you. /Pleased to meet you.
3. How do you do?
Как начать разговор 1. Excuse me, is this seat taken?/ Excuse me, could you tell me the time?
2. Have you been here before? I’m new here.
3. Peter, is that you? We haven’t seen each other for…
4. Lovely weather, isn’t it? – Yes, it is
Как закончить разговор 1. Well, it’s been nice talking to you.
2. I’m sorry, I must be going.
3. Bye, bye, take care.
2. Как поддержать разговор.
Как попросить объяснить или повторить 1. Could you repeat that, please?
2. Sorry, I didn’t catch what you said. Could you say it again, please?
3. I’m not sure to understand. Could you explain that, please?
4. What do you mean ..?/I don’t quite see what you mean.
Как вежливо вступить в разговор 1. By the way,..
2. Excuse me, I’d just like to say that…
3. May I say something?
Как выразить неуверенность 1. You see …/Well,../In fact,../Actually,..
2. The point is…
3. Let me think,..
4. Frankly speaking,..
3. Как запросить и получить информацию.
Как запросить информацию 1. Could you tell me where I can find a drug store?
2. Excuse me, what size is this jacket?
3. I wonder if you could help me?
4. Do you know this bus goes to Victoria Station?
Как сообщить информацию 1. Yes, of course. It’s just round the corner.
2. I’m afraid I don’t know. Ask the man over there.
3. Well, let me think…
Как дать отказ предоставить информацию 1. I have no idea./I’m sorry, I really don’t know./I don’t live here.
2. I can’t tell you. I’m afraid. I’m a tourist myself.
4. Как дать указания и совет.
Как попросить дать указания 1. Do you know how to fill this form?
2. Could you tell me how to operate this cash machine?
3. Excuse me, how do you make this thing work?
Как сформулировать инструкцию 1. You press this button and then a red light appears.
2. You fill in this form then go to the counter.
3. Be careful, don’t touch the handle.
Как дать совет 1. You’d better not drink so much coffee.
2. Why don’t you look for a job?
3. I think you could talk to him once more.
4. I don’t think you should take this exam now.
5. If I were you, I’d smile more often.
5. Как показать дорогу.
Как спросить дорогу 1. Excuse me, could you tell me the way to the station, please?
2. How can I get to the Centre?
3. Excuse me, I’m trying to find the Cathedral.
Как показать дорогу 1. Walk/Drive/Go straight on untill you see/reach the church.
2. Turn left at the traffic light.
3. Cross the street at the zebra crossing.
4. Take a number 23 bus and get off at the seventh bus stop.
5. It’ five minutes from here on foot/by bus/by car.
6. The bank is right in front of you.
6. Как выразить различные чувства.
Как выразить удивление и сомнение 1. What a surprise!
2. It can’t be true!
3. You must be kidding./You must be joking.
4. I’m shoked./I’m surprised to hear that!
Как выразить страх и как успокоить человека 1. I’m really worried about…
2. I’m scared to death.
3. It was the most frightening experience I’ve ever had!
4. Don’t worry! It’ll be all right!
5 That’s nothing to worry about.
Как выразить ощущения 1. I could smell cigarette smoke.
2. She looks terrific!
3. The soup tasted delicious – spicy but not too hot.
4. I felt something like cold and wet touching my neck.
7. Как выразить просьбу.
Как выразить просьбу 1. Will you help me with this bag?
2. Do you think you could close the window?
3. Could you lend me some money?
4. Do you mind speaking more slowly?
5. Would you mind waiting a little/give me a lift?
Как дать отказ 1. Sorry I can’t.
2. I can’t help you. I’m afraid.
3. I’d love to, but…
4. I’m awfully sorry, but I have to…
Как выразить согласие 1. Sure. OK.
2. I’d love to. I’d be glad.
3. By all means.
7. Как говорить по телефону.
Как начать телефонный разговор 1. Hello, (this is) Mary Smith speaking.
2. Can I speak to Mr. Brown, please?
3. I’d like to speak to Peter, please. – Speaking.
Как попросить оставаться на линии 1. Hang on, I’ll see if she’s in.
2. Just a minute, I’ll connect you.
3. Hold on a sec. I’ll put on you through.
4. Hold on, please./Hold on while I find a pen.
Как сообщить, что позвать кого-либо к телефону в данный момент невозможно 1. He’s out, I’m afraid.
2. I’m afraid he’s not available at the moment.
3. Can you call back this afternoon?
4. He’ll call you back as soon as he comes in.
Как оставить сообщение 1. Could I leave a message?
2. Do you think you could take a message?
3. Would you like to leave a message?
4. Can I take a message?
Приложение 2
Языковой комментарий.
UNIT 2. Предприятия сферы обслуживания. Продукты и услуги. (Products and services).
Text A. The stages of industry. The chain of distribution. Services.
stages of industry этапы промышленности
saleable пригодный для продажи
raw materials сырье
extractive industry добывающая промышленность
natural resources природные ресурсы (полезные ископаемые)
processing industry перерабатывающая промышленность
manufacturing industry производство (как отрасль)
semi-finished goods полуфабрикаты
finished goods готовый товар (продукты)
oil rig нефтяная вышка
to spin wool прясть шерсть
a carpenter плотник
jewelry ювелирные изделия
a cotton weaver ткач из хлопка
filaments for light bulbs нити накала для лампочек
shoelaces шнурки
chain of distribution сеть реализации
manufacturer производитель
wholesaler оптовый торговец
retailer розничный торговец
consumer, end-user (конечный) потребитель
to contribute вносить непосредственный вклад
to insure застраховать
to render services оказывать услуги
public services общественные (государственные службы)
private services частные услуги
consumer services потребительские услуги
commercial services коммерческие услуги
a plumber водопроводчик
Text B. Terms of payment for domestic trade (Условия оплаты для внутренней торговли)
to grant предоставлять
to deduct удерживать
bulk discount оптовая скидка
early payment discount скидка за предоплату
cash discount скидка при оплате наличными
сash with order
oплaтa пpи зaкaзe
favourable
предпочтительный
unrеliable
ненадежный
to dispose of избавляться от (сбывать)
сash on delivery
оплата при поставке «по факту»
сarrier
пepeвoзчик
mail order сompany
посылочная компания (компания посылочной торговли)
payment on invoice оплата по получении счета
hire purchase покупка в рассрочку
down payment первый взнос; предоплата
balance остаток
instalment взнос
interest проценты
open-account terms условия открытого счета
statement of account выписка по счету
to owe быть должным
to settle расплачиваться, рассчитываться
debt долг
to retain оставлять; сохранять
lease аренда; договор аренды
lessor арендодатель
leaseholder, lessee арендатор
rent арендная плата
to expire истекать
to extend продлевать
UNIT 3. Business Letters. From enquiry to sales contract: Enquiries. Offers. Orders. Sales contract. Complaints and adjustments. Reminders.
enquiry, inquiry запрос
Chamber of Commerce Торговая палата
consulate консульство
embassy посольство
ambassador посол
supplier поставщик
general enquiry общий запрос
specific enquiry специальный запрос
terms of delivery условия поставки
delivery times срок поставки
terms of payment условия оплаты
discount скидка
packing упаковка
seller продавец
quotation расценки; прайс-лист
buyer покупатель
to place an order разместить заказ
solicited offer ответное предложение по запросу
unsolicited offer предложение по собственной инициативе
firm offer, binding offer твердое предложение
offer without engagement, non-binding offer предложение без обязательств
to withdraw an offer отменить/отозвать предложение
valid действительный, имеющий силу
fluctuate колебаться
limited stocks ограниченный запас
industrial dispute конфликты в промышленности
sales contract договор купли-продажи
party to a contract договаривающаяся сторона
to conclude a contract заключить договор
unconditional безусловный, безоговорочный
to fulfil выполнять
liability обязательство
title право собственности
document of title документ, дающий право собственности
breach of contract нарушение договора
injured party пострадавшая сторона
compensation компенсация
trial order пробный заказ
firm order твердый заказ
standing order постоянный заказ
initial order первоначальный заказ
follow-up order последующий заказ
merchandise on call товар по требованию
advance order предварительный заказ
bulk order оптовый заказ
repeat order повторный/многократный заказ
execution выполнение
complaint претензия; рекламация
inferior здесь: некачественный, плохой
damaged поврежденный
in transit в пути
delay in delivery задержка поставки
shortshipped недопоставленный
sample образец
justified обоснованный
adjustment поправка
reminder (письмо)-напоминание
deadline крайний срок
to reserve the right оставлять за собой право
to cancel отменять
to suffer a loss понести убытки
to claim damages требовать возмещения
deferment отсрочка
overdue просроченный; запоздалый
hidden, covert скрытый; косвенный
offer предложение
invitation to tender объявление тендера
tender тендер
award of contract присуждение контракта
awarding authority присуждающий орган
award рroсedure процедура присуждения
bid заявка, (предложение цены)
bidder покупатель
receipt of bids поступление заявок

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