Учебно-методический материал по английскому языку на тему: Рабочая тетрадь для практических работ по дисциплине «Иностранный язык(английский)» в разделе «Профессионально-направленный модуль» для специальностей социально-экономического профиля: 080110 Банковское дело, 080114 Экономика и бухгалтерский учет


ГБ ПОУ КСО «Свердловское художественное училище имени И.Д. Шадра»
Рабочая тетрадь
Для практических работ по дисциплине «Иностранный язык(английский)»
В разделе «Профессионально-направленный модуль»
для специальностей социально-экономического профиля:
080110 Банковское дело, 080114 Экономика и бухгалтерский учет
Преподаватель: Коровкина Т.В.

Содержание
Введение.
Методические указания по изучению дисциплины. 4
5
UNIT 1. Levels of economics: Macroeconomics and Microeconomics
Text.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercises.
Communication in Business. Telephone conversation. 7
UNIT 2. What Bookkeeping is all about. Keeping a Record of Transaction.
Text.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercises.
Communication in Business. Telephone conversation. 12
UNIT 3. The Balance Sheet. The Income Statement. Assets and Liabilities.
Text.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercises.
Communication in Business. Apologizing. 21
UNIT 4. The Financial Statements. The Accounting Period
Text.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercises.
Communication in Business. Expressing Disagreement.
UNIT 5. Taxation. Taxation Accounting.
Text.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercises.
Communication in Business. Making an Appointment.
UNIT 6. Auditing. Types of Auditors’ reports
Text.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercises.
Communication in Business. Talking at work.
UNIT 7. Business letters.
7. 1. The structure of Business letters.
Practical exercises.
7. 2. Inquiry Letters.
Practical exercises.
7. 3. Letters of Offer.
Practical exercises.
7. 4. Reminder Letters and Payments.
Practical exercises.
UNIT 8. Contracts.
Practical exercises.
Приложение 1
Языковой комментарий.
Приложение 2
Лингвокоммерческий комментарий.
Приложение 3
Примеры ситуационных задач (cases).
Приложение 4
Стратегии работы с кейсами. 30
37
44
51
61
67
90
94
102

Введение
Рабочая тетрадь предназначена для практических работ по дисциплине «Иностранный язык» в разделе «Профессионально-направленный модуль» для специальностей социально-экономического профиля: 080110 Банковское дело, 080114 Экономика и бухгалтерский учет.
Основное назначение рабочей тетради – закрепить и активизировать языковой и речевой материал раздела «Профессионально-направленный модуль», автоматизировать лексико-грамматические навыки при работе с финансовыми документами, развить умения обучающихся в чтении и письменной речи в сфере бухучета, анализа хозяйственной деятельности, финансового анализа, банковского кредитования и двусторонних экономических отношений.
Широкий спектр разнообразных практических заданий, организующих самостоятельную работу, требует от обучающихся творческого отношения при их выполнении (наличие заданий повышенной трудности), позволяет реализовать личностно-ориентированный подход при работе с обучающимися в разным уровнем подготовки и с разными интересами.
В тетрадь включены задания, готовящие обучающихся к объективному контролю и самоконтролю в процессе изучения английского языка.
Рабочая тетрадь соответствует уровню подготовки студентов по дисциплине «Иностранный язык (английский)» в разделе «Профессионально-направленный модуль» для специальностей социально-экономического профиля: 080110 Банковское дело, 080114 Экономика и бухгалтерский учет в соответствии со стандартами третьего поколения.

Методические указания по изучению дисциплины
В соответствии с ФГОС по дисциплине Иностранный язык (английский) для специальностей социально-экономического профиля: 080110 Банковское дело, 080114 Экономика и бухгалтерский учет студент должен:
УМЕТЬ: общаться (устно и письменно) на иностранном языке на профессиональные и повседневные темы; переводить (со словарём) иностранные тексты профессиональной направленности; самостоятельно совершенствовать устную и письменную речи, пополнять словарный запас;
ЗНАТЬ: Лексический (1200 – 1400 лексических единиц) и грамматический минимум, необходимый для чтения и перевода (со словарём) иностранных текстов профессиональной направленности.
Структура практических занятий UNIT 1 – UNIT 6 включает в себя:
“Texts”. Тексты, относящиеся к анализу хозяйственной деятельности предприятий и финансовому анализу.
“Exercises’. Упражнения, направленные на обучение пониманию специальных материалов и использованию их в практической деятельности, прорабатывают основные проблемные области грамматики и словообразования.
“Communication in Business”. Деловое общение, способствуют активному усвоению тематического материала и использованию его в устной и письменной речи в соответствии с потребностями данного вида деятельности и правилами ведения деловой беседы.
Структура практических занятий UNIT 7 – UNIT 8 включает в себя:
1. Образцы (samples) основных видов деловой корреспонденции и переписки с правилами их составления.
2. “Practical exercises”. Упражнения, направленные на овладение основами ведения деловой переписки в типичных ситуациях.
Приложение 1. Содержит языковой комментарий представляющий собой словарь с наиболее частотной лексикой и выражениями, встречающимися в финансовых документах и при деловом общении.
Приложение 2. Содержит лингвокоммерческий комментарий, объясняющий смысл основных коммерческих понятий, встречающихся в сфере двусторонних экономических отношений.
Приложение 3. Содержит банк ситуационных задач, которые моделируют ситуации или используют реальные ситуации в целях анализа данного случая, выявления проблем, поиска альтернативных решений и принятия оптимального решения проблем, что дает возможность изучить сложные или эмоционально значимые вопросы в безопасной обстановке, а не в реальной жизни с ее угрозами, риском, тревогой о неприятных последствиях в случае неправильного решения. Цель обучаемых - проанализировать данные ситуации, найденные решения, использовав при этом приобретенные теоретические знания.
Приложение 4. Содержит стратегии по решению ситуационных задач, включая основные знания по экономике (макроэкономике, микроэкономике)
UNIT 1. Levels of economics: Macroeconomics and Microeconomics.
Text: Macroeconomics and Microeconomics
Task 1. Read the text below. Underline the key terms in it. Fill in the table to show the difference between Macroeconomics and Microeconomics.The word Macroeconomics means economics in the large. The macroeconomist’s concerns are with such global questions as total production, total employment, the rate of change of Overall prices, the rate of economic growth, and so on. The questions asked by the macroeconomist are in terms of broad aggregates — what determines the spending of all consumers as opposed to the microeconomic question of how the spending decisions of individual house-holds are made; what determines the capital spending of all firms combined as opposed to the decision to build a new factory by a single firm; what determines total unemployment in the economy as opposed to why there have been layoffs in a specific industry.
Macroeconomists measure overall economic activity; analyze the determinants of such activity by the use of macroeconomic theory: forecast future economic activity; and attempt to formulate policy responses designed to reconcile forecasts with target values of production, employment, and prices.
An important task of macroeconomics is to develop ways of aggregating the values of the economic activities of individuals and firms into meaningful totals. To this end such concepts as gross domestic product (GDP), national income, personal income, and personal disposable income have been developed.
Macroeconomic analysis attempts to explain how the magnitudes of the principal macroeconomic variables are determined and how they interact. And through the development of theories of the business cycle and economic growth, macroeconomics helps to explain the dynamics of how these aggregates move- over time.
Macroeconomics is concerned with such major policy issues as the attainment and maintenance of full employment and price stability. Considerable effort must first be expended to determine what goals could be achieved. Experience teaches that it would not be possible to eliminate inflation entirely without inducing a major recession combined with high unemployment. Similarly, an overambitious employment target would produce labor shortages and wage inflation.
During the 1960s it was believed that unemployment could be reduced to 4 percent of the labor force without causing inflation. More recent experience suggests that reduction of unemployment to 5.5 percent of the labor force is about as well as we can do.
The word «micro» means small, and Microeconomics means economics in the small. The optimizing behavior of individual units such as households and firms provides the foundation for microeconomics.
Microeconomists may investigate individual markets or even the economy as a whole, but their analyses are derived from the aggregation of the behavior (individual units. Microeconomic theory is used extensively in many areas of applied economics. For example, it is used in industrial organization, labor economic, international trade, cost-benefit analysis, and many other economic subfield. The tools and analyses of microeconomics provide a common ground, and eve a language, for economists interested in a wide range of problems.
At one time there was a sharp distinction in both methodology and subject matter between microeconomics and macroeconomics.
The methodological distinction became somewhat blurred during the 197C as more and more macroeconomic analyses were built upon microeconomic foundations. Nonetheless, major distinctions remain between the two major branches of economics. For example, the microeconomist is interested in the determination of individual prices and relative prices (i.e., exchange ratios between goods), whereas the macroeconomist is interested more in the general price level and its change over time.
Optimization plays a key role in microeconomics. The consumer is assume to maximize utility or satisfaction subject to the constraints imposed by income or income earning power. The producer is assumed to maximize profit or minimize cost subject to the technological constraints under which the firm operates. Optimization of social welfare sometimes is the criterion for the determination of public policy.
Opportunity cost is an important concept in microeconomics. Many course of action are valued in terms of what is sacrificed so that they might be undertaken. For example, the opportunity cost of a public project is the value of the additions goods that the private sector would have produced with the resources used for the public project.
Exercises
Macroeconomics vs Microeconomics
Macroeconomics
Microeconomics
Task 2. Answer the questions.
What does the word macroeconomics mean?
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What is the difference between the questions asked by macroeconomists and microeconomics?
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What is, according to the text, the important task of macroeconomist?
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What are the most important theories of macroeconomics?
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What is said about the correlation between the inflation and unemployment?
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What is, according to the text, microeconomics?
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What is meant by «economics in the small»?
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What economic phenomena are of microeconomists attention?
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Where is microeconomic theory used?
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What is «optimization»?
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Task 3. Which of the following statements are true or false about macroeconomics and macroeconomists:
T F Macroeconomics deals with global questions only.
T F Macroeconomics means economics in the large because it puts more questions than microeconomics
T F Macroeconomist analyzes activities of families and large firms.
T F Such concepts as gross domestic product, national income and personal disposable income serve as meaningful totals.
T F Macroeconomic analysis shows the development of the economic theory.
T F Theory of business cycles concerns business. That is why this is a microeconomic theory.
T F Inflation could not be eliminated without some negative changes in economics.
T F More recent experience proves that macroeconomists of 60s were wrong.
Task 4. Translate into Russian:
The questions asked by the macroeconomist are in terms of broad aggregates.
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Macroeconomists measure overall economic activity; analyze the determinants of such activity by the use of macroeconomic theory.
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Macroeconomic analysis attempts to explain how the magnitudes of the principal macroeconomic variables are determined.
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More recent experience suggests the reduction of unemployment to 5.5 percent of the labor force.
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Microeconomic theory is used extensively in many areas of applied economics.
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Then analyses are derived from the aggregation of the behavior of individual units.
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The consumer is free to choose whatever quantities income allows but has no influence over prevailing market prices.
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The producer recognizes that price declines as sales are expanded.
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Under pure competition, the producer is a price taker who may sell at the going market price whatever has been produced.
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Task 5. Chose the right variant.
The money (is, are) on the desk.
Where (is, are) the money? Where did you put (it, them)! I can’t find (it, them).
- He is making a lot of money.
-And what does he do with (it, them)?
What (is, are) the news?
The news (is, are) very good.
I have got very good news for you. Where (do, does) it come
from?
There (is, are) no news.
His progress in French (is, are) not surprising. His wife is a teacher of French.
This information (come, comes) from the journal.
I often followed his advice. (It was, they were) good.
There (is, are) no news at the moment.
His knowledge of accounting (is, are) very good.
Task 6. Insert necessary prepositions.
Bookkeeping consists … keeping records of transactions.
In the past bookkeepers kept business records … big books.
What company are you working …?
We want to know how much money has come … the business.
Bookkeepers are responsible … keeping records of transactions.
Transactions are recorded … chronological order.
Task 7. Insert necessary articles.
… business consists of selling and buying at profit.
Many things have changed but … principle remains the same.
Now … bookkeepers use … same methods when they work for
different companies.
Business is … game with many players and bookkeepers keep … score.
Any transaction involves … money.
… money which you transferred to this account is for bonuses.
Communication in Business. Telephone conversation.
Task 1. A) Read the mini-dialogues.
– Let me introduce you, Mary. This is Charles Hammond. Charles, this is Mary.
– How do you do, Mary.
– How do you do, Charles.
– I think you two have already met. Steve Brown - Ann Randel.
– How are you, Ann?
– Fine. And how are you, Steve?
– Nice to meet you.
–Nice to meet you too.
– Well, if you’ll excuse me, I have to go now.
– It was nice meeting you.
– I was very glad to have met you too. Hope to see you again some time.
B) Write down your own mini-dialogues according to the situations.
Introduce yourself to some English businessmen at a party.
Introduce your colleague who does not speak English.
Your friend introduces you to an English businesswoman.
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Task 2. A) Read the telephone conversation.
949-21 40, Accounts Department
Hello, I’d like to speak to Mrs Somova, please.
Who’s calling?
George White, Chief Accountant of Sinclair Communications Ltd.
Mr. White, I’m afraid, Mrs Somova isn’t in. She is away on business in St.Petersburg.
When will she be back?
She is coming back tomorrow. Would you like to leave a message for her?
Yes, please. Tell her I’ll call her tomorrow at 4 o’clock. Will she be here by that time?
Most probably, she will. I’ll tell her you called.
Thank you very much. Good-bye
OK. Bye.
B) Write down your own telephone conversation according to the given one.
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UNIT 2. What Bookkeeping is all about. Keeping a Record of Transaction.
Text: What Bookkeeping is all about. Keeping a Record of Transaction.
Task 1. Read the text below. Underline the key terms in it.
The word “business” is very popular. What is business? We may say that business consists of selling goods and services at a profit. In other words, any enterprise in which we purchase and sell goods, spend, borrow, save and lend money is a business. It may be a drugstore, a TV repair shop, a manufacturing plant or something else. Business is a game with many players, and bookkeepers keep the score in this game.
In the past, bookkeepers kept business records in big volumes: “the books.” Today, the people who keep the records are still called bookkeepers, even though they don’t use quill pens and “the books” may be computer disks. But the principle remains the same. Bookkeepers tell the owners, how much money comes into the business, how much goes out, how much money the business owns and owes. Is the business gaining or losing in value?
Essentially, bookkeepers use the same methods when they are working for a sole proprietorship (which has only one owner) a partnership, or a corporation.
A transaction is any business operation that involves money. It may be a sale, a purchase, a loan, a lease payment, or any other activity in which money is transferred from one account to another. The money can be in the form of cash (currency), cheque or money order.
The first responsibility of a bookkeeper is to keep a record of every transaction of the business he/she works for.
Bookkeepers record transactions in the journal. In the journal the bookkeeper enters transactions in chronological order (making a journal entry). Later the bookkeepers transfer entries to the accounts and use them to prepare many kinds of financial reports.
The journal page has two columns. A bookkeeping entry is either a debit or a credit. A debit is always in the left-hand column. A credit is always in the right-hand column. Debits and credits must always balance (must be equal to each other). Every transaction involves both a credit and a debit.
Exercises.
Task 2. Find English equivalents to the Russian phrases.
Russian phrases English equivalents
Мы можем сказать, что бизнес заключается в продаже товаров и услуг с целью извлечения выгоды.
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Другими словами ...
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... любое предпринимательство, когда мы покупаем и продаем товары, тратим, берем взаймы, экономим и ссужаем деньги, является бизнесом.
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4. ... и бухгалтеры ведут счет.
В прошлом бухгалтеры хранили деловую документацию в больших томах “книгах”.
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…хотя они не пользуются гусиными перьями, а “книги” могут быть компьютерными дисками.
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Но принцип остается тем же самым.
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Бухгалтеры говорят владельцам ,сколько денег приходит в бизнес, сколько денег уходит _________________________________
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Бухгалтеры говорят, сколько денег находится в распоряжении, какова задолженность... _________________________________
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Сделка - это любая деловая деятельность, которая связана с деньгами _________________________________
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Это может быть продажа, покупка, заем, арендный платеж...
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Это может быть любая другая активность, при которой деньги переводятся с одного счета на другой.
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Бухгалтеры используют записи для подготовки различных видов финансовой отчетности. _________________________________
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Бухгалтерская запись - это или кредит, или дебет. Дебет всегда в левой колонке. Кредит всегда в правой колонке.
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Каждая сделка проходит как по кредиту, так и по дебету _________________________________
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Task 3. Which of the following statements are true or false about Bookkeeping and Keeping a Record of Transaction.
T F A transaction does not involve money transfers from one account to another.
T F The money which is transferred may be in different forms.
T F The bookkeeper doesn’t record every transaction of the business.
T F In the journal the bookkeeper can enter transactions in any order he/she likes
T F A bookkeeping entry is either a debit or a credit.
T F Debits are on the left
T F Credits are on the right..
T F Business does not involve selling goods and services at a profit.
T F Bookkeepers keep records of transactions.
T F Thanks to bookkeepers the owners of the business know how much money they own and how much they owe.
T F In different companies bookkeepers use different methods of accounting.
Task 4. Complete the sentences in the text with the words and combinations from the box.
in the right-hand column, accounts, in the left-hand column, chronological order, spent, financial reports, received, be equal
Bookkeepers record transactions every day. They enter debits and credits in the journal in _________________________. Then they transfer journal entries to various _______________. A debit is always _______________. A credit is _______________. Debits and credits must_______________ to each other. Bookkeepers use accounting entries for many _______________.
The owners of the business know how much money the business _______________ and how much it _______________.
Task 5. Build the nouns from the verbs using suffices –er/or.
1.He writes books for children. He is a popular writ....
2.They plan to borrow a big sum next year. There are many borrow... on the market now.
3.This company exports computers to many countries. They are among the most popular export....
4.Many accountants use this programme. We are us...of this programme too.
5.Very competent accountants audit books of different companies. They are called audit....
6.- What companies import cars?
- Oh, there are very many import... of cars.
7.She designs beautiful houses. She is a very talented design...
Task 6. Translate the sentences into Russian paying attention to the “either…or”.
You can either use this method or that one.
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When there is a crisis, they either do nothing of do something useless.
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You can use either a diskette or a disk.
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You must answer either or a disk.
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You can either walk or take a lift.
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You can either post it to this account or to that one.
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A bookkeeping entry is either a debit or a credit.
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Task 7. Use the right form of the verbs.
Bookkeepers (to enter) transactions in chronological order.
The bookkeeper (to enter) this transaction yesterday.
The bank (to lend) a big sum of money to the business a month ago.
They (not to own) this factory. They (to sell) it some time ago.
The business (to gain) in value last year.
We hope that our business (to gain) in value next year.
This business (to spend) much money on lease payments every year.
His work (to consist) of preparing financial statements. He is responsible for the annual report.
She (to transfer) this sum to the bank tomorrow.
They usually (to save) money for summer holiday.
Communication in Business. Telephone conversation.
What to say What to expect
Personal calling
Hello, this is Helen Ling.
My name’s David White.
Good morning. It’s Anna Dimova.
Person called
Hello, Helen Ling. Can I help you?
Accounts Division of Nokia Corp.
Asking if someone is in
Can I speak to Mr. Richter, please?
Hello, is Mrs Somova there?
Good morning. Could you put me through to Margaret Simpson, please?
Can I speak to someone in Financial and Information Systems, please?
Speaking.
Hold the line (не кладите трубку), please
Hold on (не кладите трубку), please, I’ll see…
Yes, I’ll just get her.
Yes, I’m putting you through.
Yes, just a moment
Person who is wanted is not there
I’m afraid she isn’t at the moment.
Would you like to leave a message?
Sorry, he’s not in the office. Would you like to call him later?
She’s away for a few days. Can I give her a message?
He’s out of the office this week, I’m afraid.
You can contact her on her mobile. The number is 8 926 133 47 55
When will the person be in
What time will she be back?
Will he be back later today?
Can I contact her tomorrow?
When would be a good time to call again? She should be back by 4 o’clock.
We’re expecting him at around 11.00.
Why don’t you try in a couple of hours?

Task 1. Make up the dialogue. Imagine as if you call a company. Introduce yourself and ask someone to the phone. Play the role as if the person you need is out of the office, (he is on long leave /he’ll be back in a moment), he is in the office, and you are putting through…
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UNIT 3. The Balance Sheet. The Income Statement. Assets and Liabilities.
Text: The Balance Sheet. The Income Statement. Assets and Liabilities.
Task 1. Read the text below. Underline the key terms in it.
After the journal entries are transferred to various accounts, the bookkeeper prepares financial statements. Annual reports are based on financial statements.
There are two important kinds of financial statements, the balance sheet and the income statement (which is also called an operating statement or a profit and loss account).
The balance sheet shows what the company owns and what it owes on a certain date. And it shows what is left to the owners (that is the owners’ equity, capital or net worth).The balance sheet is like a snapshot photograph since it reports on the financial position as of the end of the year.
The income statement, on the other hand, is like a motion picture since it reports on how the company worked during the year. It also shows what profit or loss its operations resulted in. It lists income over a certain period such as a year or a calendar quarter, subtracts expenses over the same period and shows what profit was earned or what loss was incurred.
Any property the business owns, and any claim it has on the property of others, is called an asset. Bookkeepers list any business property as an asset. Any amount which is owed is listed as a liability.
The two main kinds of assets are current assets and fixed assets. Fixed assets are sometimes called capital assets or plant assets.
A fixed asset is an item with a life of more than one year: for example, a warehouse, equipment, a machine or a truck .Inventories (stock of goods for sale) and materials (raw materials and components) are current assets.
Current assets are listed in the balance sheet in order of their liquidity, the speed with which they are turned into cash. Cash (on hand or in a demand deposit in the bank) is listed first. Cash is the first resource for paying bills. Marketable securities are securities that are easily sold.
Accounts receivable is the money which is owed by customers of the business for goods and services which are purchased on credit. They are listed next because they will soon become cash. Next come inventories (goods for sale and raw materials), and prepaid items such as insurance and rent paid in advance.
A liability is a claim on the assets of the company. Liabilities take many forms. If the owner of a business borrows money, it is known as an account payable. Accounts payable is the money which is owed by the business.
Liabilities are classified as short-term or long-term. Current liabilities are like current assets. Long-term liabilities are like fixed assets. Generally, liabilities are considered current if they fall due within the current accounting year.
Equity (or shareholders’ equity) is what a business owes both to shareholders and owners.
The fundamental accounting equation is often given as A=L+E. It means that assets must equal liabilities plus owners’ equity (capital).
ASSETS = LIABILITIES + EQUITY
Exercises
Task 2. Find English equivalents to the Russian phrases.
Russian phrases English equivalents
После проведения журнальных записей на различные счета....
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… бухгалтер готовит финансовую отчетность _________________________________
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... любое предпринимательство, когда мы покупаем и продаем товары, тратим, берем взаймы, экономим и ссужаем деньги, является бизнесом. _________________________________
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4. Годовые отчеты основываются на финансовой отчетности. _________________________________
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5. Есть два важных вида финансовой отчетности - баланс (балансовый отчет) и счет прибылей и убытков. _________________________________
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6. В балансовом отчете указывается, чем компания владеет и какая у неё задолженность на определенную дату. _________________________________
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7. В балансовом отчете указывается, что остается владельцам, если предприятие выплачивает всю задолженность из своих средств. _________________________________
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8. Счет прибылей и убытков отражает работу компании в течение года. _________________________________
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9. Бухгалтеры зачисляют любую собственность предприятия в актив.
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10. Любая сумма, которая представляет собой долговое обязательство, зачисляется в пассив.
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11. Двумя основными видами активов являются текущие (оборотные) активы и фиксированные активы (иногда называемые капитальными или основными активами).
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12. Фиксированный актив - это статья баланса со сроком использования более года...
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13. Товарно-материальные запасы и материалы относятся к текущим активам. _________________________________
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14. Дебиторская задолженность - это средства, причитающиеся предприятию. _________________________________
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15. Пассив - это требование на активы компании. _________________________________
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16. Пассивы называются текущими, если они подлежат оплате в течение текущего отчетного года. _________________________________
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Task 3. Which of the following statements are true or false about Bookkeeping and Keeping a Record of Transaction.
T F Journal entries are not transferred to the accounts.
T F The financial statements give a full idea of the company’s work.
T F The net worth is shown in the balance sheet.
T F The operating statement does not list either income or expenses.
T F The income statement shows how much the company earned or lost during a certain period of time.
T F The basic principle of bookkeeping is the balance between assets and liabilities plus owners’ equity.
T F Bookkeepers list current assets in any order they like.
T F Land, buildings, warehouses and different types of equipment are fixed assets.
T F Liabilities do not fall into categories.
T F Long-term liabilities are paid within the current accounting year.
T F The amount which is left after all the debts are paid is the owners’ equity.
Task 4. Complete the sentences in the text with the words and combinations from the box.
idea, sides, date, assets, activities, balance, picture, liabilities, investors
The balance sheet shows the financial _____________________ as it stood on one particular day, December 31, 2008. The balance sheet is divided into two _____________________: on the left are shown _____________________; on the right are shown _____________________ and owners’ equity. Both sides are always in _____________________.
While the balance sheet shows the fundamental strength of the company on a given _____________________, the operating statement may be of greater interest to _____________________ because it shows the result of operating _____________________ for the whole year. It is a valuable guide, because it gives an _____________________ how the company will do in the future.
Task 5. Translate the sentences into English. Pay attention to the Complex sentence with if /when subordinate clause.
Если вы вычтете эти расходы из общей суммы, то получите правильный итог (the correct total).
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Они подготовят финансовую отчетность, когда соберут все данные.
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Если вы проанализируете отчет о прибылях и убытках за два года, то получите полное представление о деятельности компании. ____________________________________________________________________
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Если вы внесете (to put up) $ 20 ООО наличными для того, чтобы начать дело, то это увеличит вашу наличность (актив) и также увеличит ваш капитал на $ 20 ООО. ____________________________________________________________________
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Компетентный бухгалтер будет проверять каждую проводку, как только она будет сделана. ____________________________________________________________________
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До того как сделать финансовый отчет, бухгалтер проверит все записи и проводки. ____________________________________________________________________
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Если только он не получит других инструкций, бухгалтер подготовит отчет за текущий месяц. ____________________________________________________________________
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Если вы проведете анализ финансовой отчетности, это поможет вам в принятии решений в будущем. ____________________________________________________________________
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Он не подготовит отчет до тех пор, пока не получит всей информации. ____________________________________________________________________
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Task 6. Translate the sentences into Russian paying attention to:
to owe, to own, ownerTell me how much money I owe you. ____________________________________________________________________
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The companies owe $ 200 billion to foreign lenders. ____________________________________________________________________
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The company owes its good result to its management. ____________________________________________________________________
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Henry doesn’t own a car - in fact he doesn’t know how to drive. The owners turned the garage into a bedroom.
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The basic principle of bookkeeping is what is owned must always balance what is owed.
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Liabilities consist of money which is owed to sellers or to banks or loan companies for equipment. ____________________________________________________________________
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The resources which are owned by the company are assets.
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like, unlikeНе looks like his father.-____________________________________________________________________
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Do you have another catalogue like this one?
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Unlike his brother he is interested in sports.
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Like her husband, she is blond.
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Her last book is unlike books she wrote in the past. ____________________________________________________________________
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Assets like liabilities are recorded at their historic cost (первоначальная стоимость). ____________________________________________________________________
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due, to fall due
Current liabilities list all debts that fall due within 12 months.
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All debts due after one year from the date of the financial report are long-term liabilities.
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This loan will fall due in 2010.
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Under liabilities bookkeepers list all debts due.
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The debt due to the various taxing authorities (налоговые органы) is the same as any other liability.
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All the liabilities of the Company to the Central Bank are listed under the item “Due to Central Bank”.
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Task 7. Use the right form of the verbs.
Bookkeepers (are transferred, transfer) journal entries to the accounts.
Journal entries (are transferred, transfer) to the accounts.
No profit (was earned, earned) on this transaction.
The firm (was earned, earned) a big profit on this transaction.
Heavy losses (reported, were reported) in the accounting year.
The company (reported, were reported) heavy losses in the accounting year.
The land (is recorded, records) at a historical cost.
This amount (reflects, is reflected) in the financial statements.
Heavy losses (suffered, were suffered) as a result of this mistake.
The financial statements (are prepared, prepare) on a regular basis.

Communication in Business. Apologizing.
Самое общее извинение - I’m sorry.
Перед тем, как причинить кому-либо неудобство (когда проталкиваетесь, когда задаете незнакомому человеку вопрос, когда прерываете разговор, когда ненадолго отлучаетесь из офиса и т.д.) - Excuse me …
Apologizing Responses
Если причинили какие-то неудобства – толкнули в толпе
Sorry
I’m sorry
I’m so sorry That’s all right
Never mind
It does not matter
Если вы были невежливы
I didn’t mean that
Sorry to trouble you
I hope I’m not disturbing you That’s all right
No, not at all
Если вы опоздали
I’m sorry to be late
I must apologize for being late
Sorry to keep you late
It does not matter
It’s all right
Never mind
Если вы не услышали собеседника или не поняли его
I beg your pardon
Pardon? Sorry? What?
Could you repeat it?
Are you saying that?
Sorry to interrupt, but… That’s all right
Task 1. Make up mini – dialogues imagining the situations.
You have come to the meeting late.
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You pushed your colleague.
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You are sitting at a table in the restaurant. You have to go out.
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You have lust broken a vase standing on your boss’ table.
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You can’t understand what your American colleague is saying.
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UNIT 4. The Financial Statements. The Accounting Period
Text: The Financial Statements. The Accounting Period
Task 1. Read the text below. Underline the key terms in it.
Most people go to a doctor once a year to get a checkup to make sure everything is all right with their health. Similarly, companies are interested in their financial health. Where does the revenue of the company come from? Where does the company spend its money? How much profit is it making? Where is its cash coming from, and where is it going to?
Companies give answers to such questions in five documents, called financial statements: the balance sheet, income statement, statement of changes in shareholders’ equity, statement of cash flows and footnotes.
The balance sheet presents a snapshot of the company’s resources and claims against those resources at a specific point of time.
The income statement shows the profitability of a company over a specified period of time. A company’s profit or net income is equal to its revenues and gains minus its expenses and losses.
The statement of changes in shareholders’ equity analyzes the changes from year to year in the shareholders’ equity.
The statement of cash flows reports the net cash (inflows minus outflows) from the three principal business activities-operating, investing and financing.
The footnotes provide more detailed information on the balance sheet and income statement.
These financial statements present the accounting information in formal reports that tell interested groups, such as managers, creditors, potential investors and government agencies, how the business is doing. These reports are prepared from accounting information obtained from the various business transactions.
Thus, transactions involving assets, liabilities and capital become the data used in the preparation of the financial statements. Financial statements are prepared at least once a year. This is known as the accounting period. An accounting period may follow the calendar, in which case it begins on January 1 and ends on December 31 of the same year. This business then has a calendar year accounting period. Any business that has an accounting period consisting of 12 months other than a calendar year is generally known as a fiscal-year accounting period.
Organizations may prepare financial statements for periods of time that are less than the accounting period; such statements are generally known as interim statements. An interim statement is prepared for a period of time other than a fiscal or calendar year. Examples of interim statements are statements prepared for 6-month, 3-month, or even monthly periods. Regardless of the periods of time covered by the individual financial statements, the kinds of information presented by the various statements do not change.
Exercises
Task 2. Answer the questions using information from the text.
What questions do financial statements answer?
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What are the principal financial statements?
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What does the balance sheet reflect?
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What information is given in the income statement?
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What details are given in the footnotes?
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What people are interested in the financial statements?
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What time does the accounting period cover?
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What does a calendar year accounting period mean?
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What does a fiscal- year accounting period mean?
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For what periods are interim statements prepared?
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Task 3. Which of the following statements are true or false about Bookkeeping and Keeping a Record of Transaction.
T F Companies are not interested in financial analysis.
T F The principal components of the financial statements are the balance sheet, income statement, statement of changes in shareholders’ equity, statement of cash flows and footnotes
T F The income statement reports on the company’s performance during the year.
T F The statement of changes in shareholders’ equity reflects the activity in the equity section of the balance sheet.
T F The statement of cash flows does not report on the movement of cash by the company.
T F The footnotes provide detailed information on cash flows.
T F The financial statements do not present valuable information to investors.
T F Financial statements are always prepared for a given period of time.
T F An accounting period may be based on different time periods.
T F Interim statements are not practised.
T F The information given in different financial statements remains the same.
Task 4. Complete the sentences in the text with the words and combinations from the box.
longer, a firm, prepare, once, business, weekly, chosen
Remember:
to draw up a balance sheet – составить балансtax liability – налоговые обязательства
Accounting period is the period over which ___________________ prepares its income statement and at the end of which it draws up its balance sheet. Joint stock companies ___________________ these accounts at least ___________________ a year, but trading companies prepare trading accounts much more frequently, perhaps ___________________ to check the progress of their ___________________.
An accounting period for tax purposes is the period for which corporation tax. An accounting period for tax purposes is the period for which corporation tax liability must be calculated. An accounting period can never be ___________________ than 12 months but it can be less. The dates for the accounting period are ___________________ by the company.
Task 5. Complete the sentences using appropriate Indefinite Pronouns: somebody, anybody, nobody, someone, anyone, no one, something, anything, nothing, somewhere, anywhere, nowhere.
I need help. I’d like to find __________ to help me.
Has__________ lost his car keys?
I can’t borrow this sum from __________
I didn’t see__________ in the darkness. The was no sound.
There are so many errors here. Can __________ check the document?
This information cannot be obtained from __________
7. Did you have to pay__________ for the car repair?
8. - Let’s go __________ to have a rest.
- Where would you like to go to?
- __________ you like.
9. There’s __________ interesting in this bookshop. Let’s go __________. else.
10. It’s very difficult to do it. I’m afraid __________ can help me.
11. I can stay only with my friends. There is __________ else for me to stay.
Task 6. Build the nouns using suffix –ment. Translate the sentences into Russian.
Changes in the structure will result in more effective manage...
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The new office is well equipped. A lot of money is spent on the equip... every year.
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Before final financial reports are made it is necessary to make adjust....
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Companies are given discounts for prompt pay....
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Invest... in new technology is very important for our business.
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Annual reports are based on financial state....
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In the chart of accounts the names of ledger accounts and their numbers are arranged in the order in which they usually appear in financial statements. This arrange... is used by all businesses.
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Task 7. Use the right form of the verbs.
Listen to him, please. He (speaks, is speaking) Chinese.
She often (speaks, is speaking) French when she (travels, is travelling) in France.
Mary is in the office now. She is very busy. She (works, is working) on the computer.
What foreign languages (does your friend learn, is your friend learning) now?
What (do you read, are you reading) now?
Bookkeepers (are not using, do not use) quill pens now.
The family (owns, is owning) a big house in the country.
The business (is owing, owes) $ 100,000 to the bank.
Most of the students (were listening , listened) to the teacher but Mary (was reading, read) a history book. She (hated, was hating) maths.
These people never (owned, were owning) a house. They always (lived, were living) in apartments.
Everyone (was reading, read) quietly when the door (was opening, opened) and a policeman came in.
- Your office was full of people yesterday morning. What (were they doing, did they do)?
- They (were looking, looked) for the lost documents.
The dentist’s waiting room was full of people. Some (were reading, read), others (were just turning, just turned) pages.
Task 8. Choose the right variant. Remember:
To do – делать, выполнять какое-либо действие, работу
To make – делать, создавать, производить
Each time a bookkeeper (makes, does) a record of transactions he/ she (makes, does) an entry.
An error (has been done, has been made).
Every entry a bookkeeper (makes, does) in the journal is posted to a ledger account. All bookkeepers know how (to make, to do) it.
The report (made, done) at the meeting was interesting.
He (has done, has made) the translation. It’s well (done, made).
You can easily (do, make) without these materials.
Is there anything I can (do, make) for you?
The company (made, did) a considerable profit last year.
Payment (will be made, will be done ) on time.
They (made, did) a reservation at our hotel.
TO DO TO MAKE
to do business – торговать, заниматься коммерческой деятельностью
to do an exercise - делатьупражнениеto do a job - выполнятьработуto do one’s best - прилагать все усилия
to do one’s duty - выполнять свой долг
to do one’s hair - причесываться to do smb good - приносить к-л. Пользу
to do smb harm - причинять вред к-л.
to do sports - заниматься спортом
to do a sum - решать арифметическую задачу
to do a translation - сделать переводto do well - преуспевать, что-то делать успешно
to do without - обходиться без...
to do work - делать работуto make adjustment – вносить уточнения/поправки
to make an appointment - назначить встречуto make arrangements for - договориться о ...
to make a calculation - сделать подсчет to make a call - позвонить по телефону to make a career - сделать карьеру to make changes - вносить изменения to make a contract - заключить контрактto make a decision - принять решение to make an entry - вносить запись to make a fortune - составить состояниеto make an impression on - произвести впечатление на..to make a mistake (an error) - сделать ошибкуto make money - зарабатывать деньги
to make payment - производить платеж to make preparations - подготавливать
to make a profit - извлечь прибыль
to make progress - делать успехи, продвигаться вперед
to make a record - делать запись
to make a reservation - забронировать
to make a speech - произнести речь
Communication in Business. Expressing Disagreement.
When disagreeing with somebody try not to be categorical and impolite. The following expressions may be helpful:
Well, oh,
Personally,
As a matter of fact,
Task 1. Read the mini – dialogues.
What a charming city Berlin is, isn’t it? - Well, personally I don’t like it.
It’s very cold today, isn’t it? - Oh, I don’t think it’s really cold.
Agatha Christie’s such a wonderful writer, don’t you think? - Well, as a matter of fact, I don’t quite like her detective stories.
Task 2. Express polite disagreements to the given statements.
That’s a pretty melody, isn’t it?
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Don’t you think she looks terrible in that trouser suit?
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I don’t like this football player, do you?
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I don’t believe this team has a chance.
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What a charming restaurant it is!
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6. Of course, he’s a very intelligent man.
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7. That was a good speech, wasn’t it?
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UNIT 5. Taxation. Taxation Accounting.
Text: Taxation. Taxation Accounting.
Task 1. Read the text below. Underline the key terms in it.
All business firms with employees are required by law to deduct certain federal and local taxes and to remit these taxes directly to various governmental taxing authorities on a regular basis. A taxpayer is entitled to certain standard tax deductions, which means that in calculating the tax to be withheld, the tax will not be levied on such tax deductions.
The system of taxation is different in different countries. The Russian Tax Code regulates local, republican and federal system of taxation. It includes income tax on individuals and companies, single social tax (called “four in one”, for it consists of several parts: taxes remitted to the Federal Budget, to the Social Security Fund, to the Federal Fund of Mandatory Medical Insurance and the Territorial Fund of Mandatory Medical Insurance), value-added tax and profits tax.
Taxation in the United Kingdom involves payments to the local government and the Central government (HM Revenue and Customs). These taxes include income tax, national insurance contribution, value-added tax and corporation tax. Corporation tax is the profits tax to which all incorporated businesses are subject.
Taxation in the US involves payment to four different levels of government: federal, state, local and regional Income tax forms the bulk of taxes collected by the US government. This tax is imposed on the taxable income of both individuals and most corporations.
The federal income tax uses a system of direct withholding, which means that the employers deduct part of a taxpayer’s income directly from their paychecks. The Federal Income tax is a progressive tax: the more money the taxpayer earns, the larger is the amount owed.
The next largest tax is Social Security tax. The social security tax is levied on all employees. Employers must contribute an equal percentage of their employees’ social security taxes
Tax[ation] is very important to business. Taxation accounting deals with the rules needed to determine the taxable income to be reported to tax authorities.
From the standpoint of tax accounting various government agencies need the information in order to determine the tax liability of the business.
The people involved with the tax accounting information are the tax departments of the companies. The tax people need accounting information for planning future transactions and filing tax returns required for reporting to government agencies.
Tax accounting involves the accumulation of information from the accounting system and adjusting it to the requirements of the Tax Code and other legislation.
In situations when tax filings are not challenged by tax authorities, the process generally ends with the completion and filing of tax returns in accordance with the laws. This is often a difficult process for companies may use different methods of depreciating their fixed assets for tax purposes and for accounting purposes. For example, a company can decide to take advantage of accelerated methods of depreciation which permits the taxpayer to write off assets in a tax-deductible way at an early stage of the life of an asset in order to reduce tax liability.
Exercises
Task 2. Find English equivalents to the Russian phrases.
Russian phrases English equivalents
Согласно закону все фирмы должны удерживать определенные федеральные и местные налоги.
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Эти налоги требуется переводить в различные правительственные налоговые органы.
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Налоговый Кодекс России регулирует систему налогообложения.
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Система налогообложения включает подоходный налог на физические лица и компании. _________________________________
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Единый социальный налог.
Фонд социального страхования.
Фонд обязательного медицинского страхования.
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Налогообложение в Великобритании включает подоходный налог, взносы по социальному страхованию, налог на добавленную стоимость и налог на прибыль корпорации.
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Подоходный налог составляет основную массу налогов, собираемых правительством США.
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Налоговый учет имеет отношение к правилам определения налогооблагаемого дохода. _________________________________
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Налоговый учет необходим для планирования будущих сделок и подачи налоговых деклараций.
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Когда подача налоговой декларации не вызывает вопросов у налоговых органов ... _________________________________
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Компании могут пользоваться разными методами амортизации фиксированных активов для целей налогообложения и учета. _________________________________
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... ускоренная амортизация ... дает возможность налогоплательщику списывать активы с целью сокращения налогооблагаемой базы для уменьшения налогового обязательства. _________________________________
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Компании могут воспользоваться методом ускоренной амортизации.
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Task 3. Which of the following statements are true or false about Taxation and Taxation Accounting.
T F All federal and local taxes are remitted to taxing authorities.
T F No tax deductions are allowed in calculating the tax to be withheld.
T F Taxation in the United Kingdom includes taxes remitted to two government levels.
T F Taxes in the US are remitted only to federal and state government levels.
T F Employers in the US have to pay for their employees the social security tax.
T F Taxable income is reported to tax authorities.
T F Tax accounting information is needed to determine the tax liability to various government agencies.
T F Tax returns are reported to government agencies.
T F The information accumulated from the accounting system is adjusted to the requirements of legislation.
T F Companies depreciate their assets by the same method both for tax and accounting purposes.
Task 4. Complete the sentences in the text with the words and combinations from the box.
bulk, tax, difference, payable, collection, services, pays, department
Remember: rate – курс (валюта), to offset – возмещать, (компенсировать)
Value-added ________________ is levied on sales of goods and services in one form or other throughout the European Union. The large _________________ of goods and _________________ in the UK carry VAT at the standard rate which is _________________ by the end-user.
A business is normally allowed to offset the tax it _________________ on its bought-in goods and services against the VAT collected on its sales. Only the _________________ is paid or claimed from the Customs and Excise, which is, in the UK, the government _________________ responsible for _________________ of taxes.
Task 5. Translate the sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the Comparative pattern “the more... the better” (“чем (больше)... тем (лучше)”)
The higher the price of the goods, the fewer people are ready to buy them.
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The more money I get, the more things I can buy.
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The bigger the house is, the more money it will cost.
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The longer the text, the longer it takes me to translate it.
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The more work he has, the happier he is.
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The older you get, the more difficult it becomes to find a job.
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The longer the journey is, the more expensive the ticket is.
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The more money the taxpayer earns, the greater will be the percentage of his or her income to be paid in taxes.
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The quicker the turnover of inventory, the better the performance of a business.
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The greater the liquidity of an enterprise, the lower the risk of enterprise failure.
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Task 6. Translate the words into Russian paying attention to the Conversion:
answer - to answer
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air - to air
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change - to change
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class - to class
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cable - to cable
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damage - to damage
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end - to end
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hand - to hand
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head - to head ____________________________________
house - to house
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light- to light
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market - to market
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offer - to offer
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order - to order
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purchase - to purchase
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profit - to profit
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show - to show
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tax - to tax
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trade - to trade
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work - to work
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Task 7. Insert the articles where it is necessary (a, the, -).
Taxation in England involves payments to … local governments and to … Central government.
… bulk of taxes in … US is made up by … income tax.
Income tax is imposed on … taxable income of individuals and … most corporations.
All corporations are subject to … profits tax.
… equal percentage of … employees social security taxis contributed by … employers.
… taxable income is determined by … special rules.
… tax departments of companies deal with … accumulation of accounting information.
Accounting information is adjusted to … requirements of … Tax Code
Communication in Business. Making an Appointment.
Appointment can be made in person or by telephone.
Over the phone:
I’m calling to make an appointment with Mr…
I’d like to make an appointment with Mr… this afternoon.
Would you kindly make an appointment for me with Mr…I was wondering if Mr… could see me today.
I’m afraid I can’t keep the appointment today. Could you make another appointment for me?
Other situation:
I was wondering if you could join me for dinner tomorrow night?
Shall we schedule an appointment an appointment for next Friday?
I’m afraid I can’t keep the appointment today.
Mr Johnson’s secretary called to cancel the appointment with him.
I feel very bad. I think I’ll have to cancel all my appointments.
Task 1.Read the mini – dialogues. Dramatize them.
Would you make an appointment for me with Mr… for tomorrow afternoon?
Yes, certainly.
***
Have you got an appointment?
No, but I was hoping Mr … would see me. It’s urgent.
***
I was hoping Mr… could see me today.
I’m afraid Mr… is at a meeting now.
***
I was wondering if Mr… would be able to see me this afternoon?
I’m afraid Mr… has several other appointments today. Would you like me to make appointment for you for some other time?
***
He said he’d cancelled the appointment with Mr …
Had he? How strange. I thought it was important for him.
Write down your own mini-dialogues according to the situations.
You can’t keep the appointment. Make a call and explain the reason.
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You don’t feel quite well, but you have an important appointment scheduled for the afternoon. ______________________________________________________________________
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You have some problems you want to discuss with your partner. Phone his secretary and make an appointment to see some time next Thursday.
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UNIT 6. Auditing. Types of Auditors’ reports
Text: Auditing. Types of Auditors’ reports
Task 1. Read the text below. In what order do the parts of the text go? Underline the key terms in it.
A There are two types of auditors:
Internal auditors - are employees of a company hired to evaluate its system of internal control. To maintain independence, they present their reports directly to the Board of Directors. Since internal auditors are employees of the company, they can easily find out the frauds and any mistakes.
External auditors - are independent staff assigned by an auditing firm to evaluate financial statements of their clients. Most external auditors are employed by accounting firms.
B Audits are performed to determine the validity and reliability of information and to provide an evaluation of a system’s internal control. The aim of an audit is to express an opinion on the organization based on the generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP).
It is performed by a competent, independent and objective person or persons, known as auditors, and accountants licensed to act in that capacity.
All published company accounts must be audited by an individual or a company.
Usually auditors are professional firms of accountants and should be entirely independent of the company. The duty of the auditors is to examine the company’s financial statements to ensure that the accounts provide a true and fair representation of the financial affairs of the business, that there is no material misstatement or fraud on the part of the management. The auditors are also required to certify that the accounts have been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the legislation
C Other Types of Auditors’ Reports include:
Alternatives to an unqualified report include an unqualified opinion with explanations, a qualified opinion, an adverse opinion, or a disclaimer of opinion.
Qualified Opinions restrict the auditors’ responsibility. The opinion states that except for some deficiencies in the financial statements, or some limitation in the scope of the auditors’ examination, the financial statements are presented fairly.
Adverse Opinions are the opposite of an unqualified opinion; it is an opinion that the financial statements do not present fairly the financial position in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. Whenever the auditors issue an adverse opinion, they should disclose in the report the reasons for the adverse opinion.
Disclaimer of Opinion is no opinion. A disclaimer is required when substantial scope or other conditions restrict the auditors’ compliance with the generally accepted auditing standards.
D Types of Auditors reports include:
The Auditors’ Unqualified Report is the standard unqualified report, which is considered as a clean bill of health, the auditor makes no adjustments and inserts no qualifications in the report. An unqualified opinion can only be expressed when the independent auditor has formed the opinion on the basis of an examination made in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.
The standard unqualified report consists of three paragraphs. The first paragraph clarifies the responsibilities of management and the auditors. The second paragraph describes the nature of the audit .The final paragraph is the opinion paragraph, which is a concise statement of the auditor’s positive opinion based on the audit.
Exercises
Task 2. Match the ideas and their explanations and fill the table below.
A Auditing is absolutely necessary to determine accuracy of the financial statements.
B Audit is carried out by professional people.
C Auditors should be absolutely independent in their evaluation.
D The aim of auditors is to exclude any possibility of misstatement or fraud and to ensure compliance with the legislation.
E Internal auditors can easily find out any mistakes or fraud.
F External auditors are employees of the auditing firms who analyze the company’s financial statements.
G The auditor’s unqualified report certifies true and fair presentation of the financial statements.
H There are four alternatives to the unqualified report.
I Adverse opinions reflect unfairness in the presentation of the financial statements.
J A disclaimer of opinion means that the auditors cannot evaluate the financial statements for some reasons.
1 It is performed by a competent, independent and objective person or persons, known as auditors, and accountants licensed to act in that capacity.
2 Audits are performed to determine the validity and reliability of information and to provide an evaluation of a system’s internal control. The aim of an audit is to express an opinion on the organization based on the generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP).
3 Internal auditors - are employees of a company hired to evaluate its system of internal control. To maintain independence, they present their reports directly to the Board of Directors. Since internal auditors are employees of the company, they can easily find out the frauds and any mistakes.
4 External auditors - are independent staff assigned by an auditing firm to evaluate financial statements of their clients. Most external auditors are employed by accounting firms.
5 Usually auditors are professional firms of accountants and should be entirely independent of the company.
6 The duty of the auditors is to examine the company’s financial statements to ensure that the accounts provide a true and fair representation of the financial affairs of the business, that there is no material misstatement or fraud on the part of the management. The auditors are also required to certify that the accounts have been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the legislation.
7 Alternatives to an unqualified report include an unqualified opinion with explanations, a qualified opinion, an adverse opinion, or a disclaimer of opinion.
8 The Auditors’ Unqualified Report is the standard unqualified report, which is considered as a clean bill of health, the auditor makes no adjustments and inserts no qualifications in the report. An unqualified opinion can only be expressed when the independent auditor has formed the opinion on the basis of an examination made in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.
9 Qualified Opinions restrict the auditors’ responsibility. The opinion states that except for some deficiencies in the financial statements, or some limitation in the scope of the auditors’ examination, the financial statements are presented fairly.
10 Disclaimer of Opinion is no opinion. A disclaimer is required when substantial scope or other conditions restrict the auditors’ compliance with the generally accepted auditing standards.
11 Adverse Opinions are the opposite of an unqualified opinion; it is an opinion that the financial statements do not present fairly the financial position in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. Whenever the auditors issue an adverse opinion, they should disclose in the report the reasons for the adverse opinion.
A B C D E F G H I J
Task 3. Which of the following statements are true or false about Bookkeeping and Keeping a Record of Transaction.
T F Audit is an independent examination of the financial statements of an organization.
T F Auditors do not have to be independent.
T F In financial accounting, an audit is an independent evaluation of the company’s financial statements presented by its management.
T F Internal auditors are not necessary. They can be replaced by external auditors.
T F The work of both internal and external auditors is very responsible.
T F The auditor’s unqualified report is a certificate of good health of the company.
T F An unqualified opinion with explanations is worse than an unqualified report.
T F A qualified opinion reflects mismanagement of the company.
T F An adverse opinion is a signal to shareholders and investors.
T F The auditors should motivate their adverse opinion.
T F Disclaimer of opinion can affect the reputation of the client.
Task 4. Complete the sentences in the text with the words and combinations from the box.
responsibility, financial, creditors, proper, accounting
The Company is Responsible for Financial Statements
The management of a company has the responsibility for maintaining adequate ___________________ records and for preparing ___________________ financial statements for the use of stockholders and ___________________. Though the ___________________ statements are sometimes written in the auditors’ office, primary ___________________ for the statements remains with the management.
Task 5. Translate the sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the Modal Verbs.
When a qualified or adverse opinion is given, the financial statement user should read carefully and try to understand the auditor’s objections.
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Pension expense represents the amount of money that management should invest at the end of the year to cover future pension payments owed to employees.
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Companies’ accounts are reviewed by an external auditor who must certify that these accounts present a fair and true view of the company’s affairs.
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The company which wants to report lower tax income will have to report lower earnings to shareholders.
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The Finance Minister is to make a speech on the 15th December.
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The annual report is to be prepared by the 20th December.
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Accelerated depreciation methods reduce the taxable income in the early years of the productive life of the assets, but taxes must be paid in the future.
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The company is to pay interest on the loan by quarterly installments.
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Task 6. Translate the sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the Negative Prefix Mis-
If the credit manager acting on the basis of misleading information gives trade credit, he may not receive payment and may have to write the transaction off as a loss.
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Generally accepted accounting principles require that the financial statements should be free from material misstatements
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Mis-sent items are cheques sent by error to the wrong bank for payment.
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Internal auditors are employees of the company and they can easily find out the frauds and any misrepresentation.
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Misdelivery includes both delivery to the wrong address and delivery of goods damaged by the transport organization.
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Mismatch is a situation in asset-liability management when interest- earning assets and interest expense liabilities do not balance.
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Misrepresentation is an untrue statement of fact.
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Task 7. Use the right variant.
She (has to, must) leave home early to get to the office in time. The traffic is heavy.
Tell her that she (must, has to) be here at six. That’s the boss’s instruction.
Office manager: Employees (have to, must) be at their desks by 9.00.
The Sellers (have to, are to) deliver the merchandise by 29th September.
This report (has to, is to) be presented by the year-end.
- When does the plane arrive in Moscow?
It (is to, has to) land at 5 o’clock.
The auditor’s opinion (is to, has to) be presented on the 1st of December.
All the auditing firms (have to, are to) plan their audits in advance.
All the bookkeepers (are to, have to) adhere to the generally accepted accounting principles.
To obtain a loan the company (is to, has to) provide collateral.
Communication in Business. Talking at work.
Task 1. Read the mini – dialogue and dramatize it.
Have you finished that work?
Not yet.
Now long will it take you?
A couple of hours.
This statement is to be seen by the chief accountant.
Don’t worry. I’ll hand it to him the moment I am through with it.
Task 2. Match the phrases (1 – 5) and the replies (A – E) on it.
1 You would like to put an end to a long conversation with a colleague. A I’m sorry. I have dialed the wrong number
2 What would you say if you dialed the wrong number? B Hello. This is Mr. Black’s line. May I take a message for him?
3 You answer the phone at someone else’s office and you take a message for your colleague from the caller. What would you say? C Mr. Hardy, please excuse me for not getting back to you earlier. I was in a meeting (out of town, etc)
4 You do not understand a particular word or expression. Ask your colleague to explain it to you. D Well...excuse me. I’ve got to go-
Listen, let’s talk later. I’ve got to finish something on my desk.
5 You are returning a call to Michael Hardy. You have to apologize for not calling him until now. E Excuse me, I didn’t catch that…
UNIT 7. Business letters.
7. 1. The structure of Business letters.
Government of Canada
(1 - шапка письма: большинство писем пишутся на бланках, где уже есть название, адрес, номера телефонов фирмы и прочие данные.
Office of the Chairman
Public Service Commission
Ottawa, Ontario
KIA ON7
(2 – внутренний адрес: адрес того, кому предназначено письмо, размещается вверху слева)
Attention: P.Smith(3- строка: Внимание (необязательно): в тех случаях, кода письмо отправляется на фирму, но адресовано кому-то лично. Часто пишется на конверте в нижнем левом углу)
December 8, 2014
(4- дата: обычно пишется следующим образом: March 1, 2014 или 1 March 2014)
Dear Sir,
(5 –за приветствием стоит двоеточие или запятая)
****************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************************
Yours sincerely,
–обычное окончание:
Yours sincerely, Yours faithfully, Yours truly)
A. Robertson
A. Robertson
Director
General Service Division
(7- подпись, расшифровка подписи, должность, адрес следуют друг за другом в строку в левом либо в правом углу письма)
AP/CL
– посылочные инициалы указываются на тех, кто писал (переводил) письмо и/или печатал его)
Encl.
(9– если к письму прилагаются какие-то материалы (реклама, прейскуранты и др.), то об этом упоминается после посылочных инициалов)
cc: D.Dube(10 – указания на адресатов копий письма даются в самом конце)
Task 1. Read the phrases. Choose the right place where these phrases are in the letter:
A - at the beginning
B - at the end
A B feel free to contact
A B as soon as possible
A B please don’t hesitate
A B I am contacting you for the following reason...
A B as you may recall
A B in response to
A B I am enclosing ...
A B this is to inform you
A B I would be happy to have an opportunity to work with your firm.
A B In reply to your request, ...
Task 2. You are going to make a business trip to Edinburg. Send a letter to firm Black & Co, to Mr. Henry Smith to the address: 10 Garden St.; tell him about your arrival (date, flight number, time of arrival) and ask him to meet you at the airport.
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Inquiry Letter. (sample)
Pet Products Ltd.
180 London Road
Exeter EX4 4JY
England
25th February, 2014
Dear sir,
We read your advertisement in the ‘Pet Magazine’, of 25th December. We are interested in buying your equipment for producing pet food. Would you kindly send us more information about this equipment:
-price (please quote CIF Odessa price)
-dates of delivery
-terms of payment
-guarantees
- if the price includes the cost of equipment installation and staff training
Our company specializes in distributing pet products in the Ukraine. We have more than 50 dealers and representatives in different regions and would like to start producing pet food in Ukraine. If your equipment meets our requirements, and we receive a favourable offer, we will be able to place a large order for your equipment.
Your early reply would be appreciated.
Yours faithfully,
V. Smirnov
V. Smirnov
Export-Import Manager
Task 1. Write the inquiry letter to the English company:

сообщите, где Вы прочитали рекламу о производимых этой компанией мужских костюмах (men’s suits);
напишите, что Вы хотели бы закупить партию мужских костюмов в количестве 200 штук;
узнайте их стоимость на условиях поставки CIF Одесса;
сообщите в письме, что, если Вас устроят цена и качество костюмов, Вы в дальнейшем сможете делать большие заказы;
попросите дать ответ как можно скорее.
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7.3. Letter of Offer. (sample)
Письмом-предложением поставщик (the Supplier) обычно отвечает на письмо-запрос. Отвечая на общий запрос, он благодарит за проявленный интерес и обычно прилагает прейскуранты (pricelists), каталоги (catalogues) или условия типового договора (Typical Contact). Ответ на специальный запрос предусматривает ответы на все вопросы потенциального клиента.
Структура письма-предложения
Повод написания
Ответы на вопросы потенциального заказчика.
Дополнительные предложения.
Выражение надежды на заказ.
Отвечая на вопросы, следует дать точное описание товара, по возможность сопроводить его фотоматериалами и/или рисунками и/или образцами (samples). При определении цены (price) учитываются возможные скидки (discounts). Отдельно решаются вопросы расходов на упаковку (packing), транспортных расходов (transportation costs), условий поставки (terms of delivery) и оплаты (terms of payment).
Письма-предложения посылают также без предшествующего запроса, если поставщик желает привлечь внимание потенциальных клиентов или найти новых заказчиков на конкретные продукты (special products) или их ассортимент (range). Твердое предложение (firm offer) предусматривает особые условия, например, конечный срок (deadline) получения заказа и систему скидок в зависимости от количества товара и других условий.
Mr. Fred North
Purchasing Manager
Broadway Autos
November 11, 2014.
Dear Mr. North,
Thank you very much for your enquiry. We are of course very familiar with your range of vehicles and are pleased to inform you that we have a new line of batteries that fit your specifications exactly.
The most suitable of our products for your requirements is the Artemis 66A Plus. This product combines economy, high power output and quick charging time and is now in stock.
I enclose a detailed quotation, specifications and delivery terms. As you will see from this, our prices are very competitive. I have arranged for our agent Mr. Martin of Fillmore S. A. to deliver five of these batteries to you next week, so that you can carry out the laboratory tests. Our own laboratory reports, enclosed with this letter, show that our new Artemis 66A Plus performs as well as any of our competitor’s product and, in some respects, outperforms them.
If you would like further information, please telephone or telex me: my extension number is 776. Or you may prefer to contact Mr. John
Martin of Fillmore S.A. in M -------------:histelephonenumber is
01 77 99 02.
I look forward to hearing from you.
Yours sincerely,
Fred Stock
Fred Stock
Task 1. Read the telephone conversation between the client and the supplier. Translate it into Russian.
Sundel, Electrotech Sales Manager. Can I help ypu?
Good afternoon, Mr. Sundel. This is Mr. Hart from Santina Hotel speaking.
Have you got any refrigerators IPD Modal 245?
Yes, we have, but we have had a lot of orders for this modal.
What is its price?
Its retail price is 460 dollars per unit.
What is the discount for a lot of 100 units?
Usually we give a 5 % discount..Is there a discount if I pay cash?
I am not sure. I should consult with our Financial Manager.
What is the minimum time for delivery?
A month.
Task 2. Write the letter of offer to the firm to order 50 refrigerators.
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_________________________________________________________________________7.4. Reminder Letter and Payment (sample).
Часто деловые партнеры осуществляют свои взаиморасчеты чеками в соответствии с условиями платежей. Иногда оплата в срок не производится, и необходимо напомнить должнику о неоплаченном счете. Первое письмо-напоминание пишется в дружеском тоне. Однако если в ответ на это письмо платеж все еще не произведен, то кредитор пишет снова в более твердом тоне.
Carsons Inc.
Bay Avenue
San Francisco
July 23, 2014
Dear Mr. Carsons:
According to our records payment of our invoice No. 3823, sent to you in April, has not yet been made.
As specified on all our estimates and invoices our terms of payment are 30 days. Your invoice has now been outstanding for 90 days. In the case of unsettled debt of this duration it is our company policy to take legal action.
We would naturally prefer not to have to go so far. Would you please send us a check by return. In case you have lost or mislaid the original I am enclosing a copy of our invoice.
We look forward to receiving your payment by return.
Yours sincerely,
Pierre Lacoste
Pierre Lacoste
Credit Controller

Task 1. You made the contract in which the form of payment is L/C (Letter of Credit). Ask the partner questions according to the scheme.
Whether the L/C is available for one or several shipments.
The amount of the L/C in sterling or a foreign currency.
The expiry date.
The name and address of the exporter.
The type of L/C (Revocable or Irrevocable).
Shipping details, including whether transhipments are allowed. Also recorded should be the latest date for shipment and the names of the ports of shipment and discharge.
Task 2. Translate the English statements into Russian
An accountant is a man hired to explain to you that you didn’t make the money you did. (Anonymous)
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A bargain is something you have to find a use for once you have bought it.
(Benjamin Franklin (1706—1790), American statesman, scientist, and philosopher)
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Public money is like holy water. Everyone helps himself. (Italian proverb)
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Economics is a subject that does not greatly respect one’s wishes. (Nikita Khrushchev (1894—1971), Russian statesman)
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It makes no difference whether you think you can, or you think you can't. You will. (Henry Ford (1863—1947), U.S. automobile manufacturer).
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Task 3. Fill in the table paying attention to the phrases with numbers.
twenty three point seven per cent An annual rate of interest of ____________________
The list price is 61, 558
one million seven hundred and fifty three thousand Profit before interest and tax of _______________ pounds
seventeen hundred and ninety-five six hundred and fifty three million ________________ operating profits
31 March 2014
four point two twoTotal interest charges of __________________ pounds
A handling charge of 1 ½ %
three о five stroke nineteen G Invoice No. 305/19G
one and a quarter per cent A handling charge of _______________
__________________________________
__________________________________ A gross profit 17,5 %
Task 4. Read the letter of Inquiry (1) and the Reply on it. Write the Reply on Inquiry Letter (2).
Inquiry (1):
Please send your catalogue and charge my AMEX # 667589980 expiry date august 15, 20 —, regards Hanson, Johnson oil, Brisbane, AustraliaYOUR REPLY: Thank you for your inquiry. We are sending you our catalogue. We have debited your American Express card $50 US. The $50 will be discounted from your purchase. Please pet in touch with me ('name') if you have any queries.
Inquiry (2):
Please quote you best DDP (direct delivery price) and shipping date for 10 screen protectors, as advertised in High Life magazine. As far as we know there are no restrictions on importing these into Japan.
YOUR REPLY: _______________________________________________________________
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UNIT 8. The contract.
Task 1. Read the Contract between Continental Equipment and Victor Klimenko (the representative of TST Systems) for the supply of processing equipment. Here are some clauses of this contract. Translate it into Russian.
Brighton, England
April 10, 2014
Continental Equipment Pic, Brighton, England, hereinafter referred to as “the Seller”, on the one part, and TST Systems Ltd., Kiev, Ukraine, hereinafter refer- erred to as “the Buyer”, on the other part, have concluded the present Contract as follows:
Contract as follows:
Subject of the ContractThe Seller has sold and the Buyer has bought the machinery, equipment, materials, and services (“Equipment”) being an integral part of this Contract.
Prices and Total Value of the Contract
The Total Contract Value is as follows:
Equipment and engineering FOB U.K. port + documentation £_____________________
Supervision, start-up and training £_____________________
Spare and wear parts£_____________________
Freight £_____________________
Total price CIF Odessa £_____________________
Discount£_____________________
Total Contract Value _____________________
The prices are understood to be CIF Odessa including cost of packing, marking, loading on board a ship, stowing and fastening the eqipment in the hold, and the cost of the materials used for this purpose.
The prices are firm for the duration of the Contract and shall not be subject to any revision except on account of any mutually agreed changes or modifications to equipment specification and/or quantities to this Contract.
Time of Delivery
The equipment of the present Contract is to be delivered within two (2) months from the date of opening the Letter of Credit specified in Clause 4.1 of this Contract.
The delivery date is understood to be the date of the clean Bill of Lading issued in the name of the Buyer, destination Odessa, Ukraine.
Term of payment
Within thirty (30) days from the date of signing this Contract, the Buyer is to open in favour of the Seller an irrevocable confirmed Letter of Credit with CityBank, London, for hundred per cent (100%) of the total contract value. The Letter of Credit is to be valid for three (3) months.
Payment from this Letter of Credit at the rate of hundred per cent (100%) of the total contract value is to be effected in GB pounds against the following shipping documents:
Original Bill of Lading issued in the name of the Buyer, destination Odessa, Ukraine.
Shipping Specification.
4.2.3. Certificate of Quality.
4.2.4. Certificate of Origin.
4.2.5. Packing List.
4.2.6 Insurance Policy.
5. Technical Documentation
5.1. Within five (5) days from the delivery date the Seller shall send two (2) sets of the technical documents to the address of the Buyer.
5.2. All instructions on the drawings are to be in English.
6.Guarantee of the Quality of the Equipment.
6.1. The guarantee period is twelve (12) months from the date of the start-up of the equipment, that is reflected in an appropriate Act signed by the representatives of the Parties to the present Contract, but not more than eighteen (18) months from the date of delivery of the equipment.
6.2. If the equipment proves to be defective or faulty during the guarantee period, the Seller has at its expense at the choice of both Parties either to remedy the defects or to replace the faulty equipment with new equipment of good quality which is to be delivered without delay to the port of delivery.
7. Packing
7.1. The equipment is to be shipped in export sea packing suitable for the type of equipment delivered. Packing should also be suitable for transshipment in transit and reasonable long storage of the equipment.
7.2. Each container is not to exceed the following dimensions: length = 2,500 mm, width = 2,500 mm, height = 2,500 mm.
7.3. The Seller is responsible to the Buyer for any damage to tequipment resulting from inadequate packing of the equipment.
8. Marking
All the containers are to be marked on three (3) sides. Each container should bear the following markings made in indelible paint (in Russian and English):
Contract No.
Seller: Continental Equipment Pic (Address)
Buyer: TST Systems Ltd. (Address)
Railway Station of Destination: Kiev
Container No.:
Gross weight:kg
Net weight:kg
Case dimentions in cm (length x width x height)
If a case requires special handling it should bear additional marks: “Fragile”, “Top” or “This side up”, etc.
Shipping Instructions and Notifications
Within twenty-four (24) hours after shipment, the Seller is to inform the Buyer by fax regarding the date of shipment, the Bill of Lading number, number of containers, their weight, the vessel name.
Insurance
The Seller is to take care of and cover expenses for insurance of the equipment under the Contract from the moment of its dispatch up to the moment of its arrival at the port of Odessa.
Sanctions
In the event of delay in delivery of the equipment the Seller is to pay the Buyer a penalty at the rate of 1.0% of the total contract value for every week of delay. However, the total amount of penalty for delay in delivery is not to exceed 10% of the total contract value.
While calculating penalty for delay, the amount of days comprising over half of a calendar week is considered to be a full week.
Force Majeure
The Parties are released from their responsibility for partial or complete non-execution of their liabilities under the Contract should this non-execution be caused by the force majeure circumstances including, but not limited to: fire, flood, earthquake, and if these circumstances have had a direct damaging effect on the execution of the present Contract.
The Party which is unable to fulfil its obligations under this Contract is to inform the other Party within ten (10) days from the beginning of force majeure circumstances.
Arbitration
The Seller and the Buyer will take all possible measures to settle amicably any disputes or differences which may arise out of the present Contract or in connection with it.
If the Parties do not come to an agreement, all the disputes and differences are to be submitted for Arbitration in Stockholm, Sweden, in accordance with the rules and regulations of the Chamber of Commerce in Stockholm and applying the substantive laws of Sweden.
Other Terms
14.1. The Seller upon written consent of the Buyer shall be permitted to substitute equipment of comparable quality and conforming to the technical requirements for any item of equipment that may not be available for one reason or another.
14.2. Any changes, amendments or supplements to the terms and conditions of this Contract shall be valid only if set forth in a written document duly signed by authorized representatives of both Parties to the present Contract.
14.3. After the Contract has been signed all the preliminary agreements, discussions and correspondence between the Parties concerning this Contract are to be considered null and void if conflicting with this Contract.
14.4. The Contract becomes effective and comes into full force from the date of signing.
15. Legal Addresses of the Parties
SELLER (ПРОДАВЕЦ):
Continental Equipment Plc
9 North Road Brighton BN 1 5JF
England
for and on behalf of the Seller (от имени и по поручению Продавца)
Alfred Rogers
Alfred Rogers
Chairman (Президент)
BUYER (ПОКУПАТЕЛЬ):
TST Systems Ltd.
P.O.Box 171 '
Kiev 253100
Ukraine
for and on behalf of the Buyer (от имени и по поручению Покупателя)
Виктор Клименко
Commercial Director (Коммерческий директор)
Task 2. Translate the phrase into English:
Предмет контракта и общая сумма контракта;
____________________________________________________________________________
быть неотъемлемой частью контракта;
____________________________________________________________________________
сопровождение и пуск оборудования;
____________________________________________________________________________
запасные части оборудования;
____________________________________________________________________________
товары, поставляемые согласно настоящему контракту;
____________________________________________________________________________
цена остается неизменной на протяжении всего срока действия контракта;
____________________________________________________________________________
место назначения указано в коносаменте;
____________________________________________________________________________
грузоотправитель и грузополучатель;
____________________________________________________________________________
товары должны быть отправлены (to be shipped) из порта с первым же судном (by the first vessel available);
____________________________________________________________________________
срок поставки и дата поставки;
____________________________________________________________________________
товары должны быть поставлены в течение шести месяцев с момента оплаты;
____________________________________________________________________________
обстоятельства непреодолимой силы;
____________________________________________________________________________
контракт становится действительным с момента его подписания;
____________________________________________________________________________
Task 2. Read the description of the basic contract conditions. Define the type of the basic contract conditions. Fill the table.
Description of the basic contract conditions. The type of the basic contract conditions
The term of delivery in accordance with which the Seller pays for transportation and insurance of goods until they arrived at the ship and the Buyer pays for loading the goods; The term of delivery in accordance with which the Seller pays for transportation and insurance of goods to the point of loading and their shipment on board a ship; The term of delivery in accordance with which the Seller pays for loading and transporting goods but the Buyer pays the insurance costs once the goods have been loaded; The term of delivery in accordance with which the Seller pays for transportation to the port of destination, costs of loading and arranges marine insurance of the goods for the time of transportation. Приложение 1
Языковой комментарий.
Unit 1.
total production
total employment
the rate of change of overall prices
rate of economic growth
broad aggregates
individual households
layoffs
economic activity
determinants
values
meaningful totals
gross domestic product (GDP)
national income
personal income
personal disposable income
business cycle
economic growth
attainment -
maintenance
price stability
eliminate
labor shortage
reduction
behavior
to investigate
applied economics
distinction
subject
matter
to blur
to remain
exchange ratios
optimization
utility
satisfaction
constraints
opportunity cost
to sacrifice
to undertake
utility function
to allow
to influence
to maximize
revenue общая производительность
общая занятость
коэффициент изменений предельных цен
темпы экономического роста
масштабные совокупности
индивидуальные хозяйства
увольнение
экономическая активность
показатели, определители
ценности
значимые итоги
валовой внутренний продукт (ВВП)
национальный доход
личный доход
личным доход после уплаты налогов
экономические цикл
экономический рост
достижения
поддержание, содержание
стабильность цен
ликвидировать, исключать
нехватка рабочей силы
уменьшение
поведение
исследовать
прикладная экономика
отличие
предмет, субъект
вопрос, материал
затуманивать, размывать
оставаться
ставка (соотношение) обмена
оптимизация
полезность
удовлетворение
ограничение, стеснение
альтернативные издержки
пожертвовать, приносить в жертву
взять на себя
функция полезности
позволять, разрешать
влиять
максимально увеличивать
доходы
Unit 2.
bookkeeping
bookkeeper
Business
accountant
to consist of smthto sell (sold, sold)
profit (at a profit)
in other words
enterprise
to purchase
to spend (spent, spent)
to borrow
to save
to lend (lent, lent)
records
to record
volume бухгалтерия
бухгалтер
1. дело, занятие, коммерческая деятельность 2. коммерческое предприятие, фирма
бухгалтер (более высокой квалификации)
состоять из чего-л.
продавать
выгода (с выгодой)
другими словами
предприятие
покупать
тратить (время,деньги)
занимать, брать взаймы
1. экономить 2. Сохранять
давать взаймы, одалживать, ссужать
записи, документация, учетные документы
записывать, регистрировать
том, книга
to remain
owner
to own
to owe to smb
to gain
to lose (lost, lost)
value
essentially
sole proprietorship
рartnershipcorporation
transaction
to involve (It involves great expenses)
sale
loan оставаться
владелец
владеть, иметь в собственности
1. быть должным кому-л. 2. быть обязанным
получать, приобретать, извлекать выгоду
терять
стоимость, ценность
по существу
индивидуальное частное предприятие
товарищество
корпорация
сделка
включать в себя, вызывать (Это влечет за собой большие расходы)
продажа
заем, ссуда
lease payment
to transfer
account
cash платеж за аренду, лизинговый платеж переводить, переносить, перемещать
счет
наличные
cheque (check – Am. E.) чек
money order
promise
responsibility for smthto be responsible for smthto enter smthentry ['entri] journal
to make an entry
financial reports
either... or
debit
credit
left-hand column
right-hand column
to balance
equal
item
both (both … and)
платежное поручение
обещание
ответственность за что-л.
быть ответственным за что-л
вносить, записывать, регистрировать
1. запись 2. проводка запись в учетном журнале
вносить запись; делать проводку
финансовая отчетность
или … или
дебет
кредит
левая колонка
правая колонка
сводить баланс, выравнивать дебет и кредит счета
равный
позиция, пункт, единица
оба, обе (как …так и, и … и)
Unit 3.
balance sheet
income
income statementsyn. operating statement, profit and loss account
various
to prepare
financial statements syn. financial reports
annual
be based on...
to show (showed, shown)
to leave (left, left)
owners’ equity
syn. shareholders’ equity
syn. net worth
share
capital
to pay
since
to report
as of the end of the year
on the other hand
e.g. on the one hand
on the other hand
to result in smth
loss
heavy losses
to suffer losses
to sustain losses
to incur losses
at a loss
ant. at a profit
to list
to subtract from
syn. to deduct from
expenses
heavy expenses
to bear expenses (bore, borne)
to incur expenses
to earn
assets
liabilities
property
claim on smth
as
amount
current assets
fixed assets
syn. capital assets
plant assets
item
warehouse
equipment
truck
inventories
stock of goods
raw materials
component
liquidity
speed
to turn into
cash on hand
demand deposit
resource
bill
marketable securities
accounts receivable
due
the sum due to us
prepaid
insurance
rent
in advance
accounts payable
short-term
long-term
like
generally
to consider
current
within
to fall due
accounting year
syn. reporting year, year under review
shareholder
equation
accounting equation
to equal
owners’ equity баланс, балансовая таблица
доход
счет прибылей и убытков,
отчет о доходах и
расходах компании
различный
подготавливать
финансовая отчетность
годовой, ежегодный
основываться на...
показывать
оставлять
капитал акционеров (все активы за вычетом всех пассивов)
акционерный (собственный) капитал
акция
капитал
платить, оплачивать
так как
сообщать, описывать
по состоянию на конец года
с другой стороны
с одной стороны…
приводить к чему-л.
убыток
крупные убытки
нести расходы
с убытком, в убыток
с прибылью
записывать, учитывать
вычитать из
расходы
большие расходы
нести расходы
зарабатывать
активы
пассивы, денежные обязательства
собственность
право на что-л.
как, в качестве
сумма
текущие (оборотные) активы фиксированные (капитальные) активы, основной капитал, основные фонды
бухгалтерская запись, позиция в балансе
склад, товарный склад
оборудование
грузовик
товарно-материальные запасы
запас товаров
сырье
компонент, составная часть
ликвидность
скорость
превращать
наличность в кассе
вклад до востребования
ресурс; зд.источниксчет
легко реализуемые ценные бумаги
дебиторская задолженность подлежащий выплате, причитающийся к оплате
сумма, причитающаяся нам
заранее оплаченный
страхование, страховка
арендная плата
заранее
кредиторская задолженность
краткосрочный
долгосрочный
подобно, похожий, подобный
в общем смысле, вообще
рассматривать, считать
текущий
в течение
подлежать оплате при наступлении срока
отчетный год
акционер
уравнение
бухгалтерское уравнение (формула, по которой активы компании должны равняться пассивам плюс собственный капитал)
равнятьсяакционерный капитал
Unit 4.
accounting period
checkup
similarly
to be interested in (doing) smth
to spend (spent, spent)
to spend money on smthstatement of changes in shareholders’ equity
statement of cash flows
footnotes
to present
specific
profitability
net
net income
gains
syn. revenue, income, profit
inflow
outflow
to provide, to provide for
to obtain
thus
at least
fiscal year
interim statement
regardless of
to cover учетный период
проверка, контроль; зд. диспансеризация
так же, подобным образом
быть заинтересованным в чем-л., интересоваться чем-л.
тратить {деньги, время)
отчет об изменениях в средствах акционеров
отчет о движении денежных средств
примечания; сноски
представлять
конкретный
прибыльность, доходность
чистый, без вычетов
чистый доход
доходы
приток
отток
снабжать, обеспечивать
предусматривать
получать, добывать
таким образом
по крайней мере
финансовый год
промежуточный отчет
независимо от
покрывать; охватывать

Unit 5.
taxation
to remit
taxpayer
to entitle
to be entitled to ...
tax deduction
to withhold (withheld, withheld)
to withhold a tax
to levy a tax
tax code
to regulate
income tax
single social tax
Social Security Fund
Federal Fund of Mandatory
Medical Insurance
Territorial Fund
value-added tax, VAT
HM Revenue and Customs, Her Majesty’s Revenue and Customs
national insurance contributions
corporation tax
to be subject to taxation
levelgovernment
bulkналогообложение, взимание налогов пересылать, перечислять (деньги)
налогоплательщик
давать право
иметь право на …
налоговый вычет
удерживать
удерживать налог
взимать налог
налоговый кодекс
регулировать
подоходный налог
единый социальный налог
фонд социального страхования
Федеральный фонд обязательного медицинского страхования
территориальный фонд
налог на добавленную стоимость, НДС
Департамент внутренних доходов (брит.)
взносы по социальному страхованию (брит.)
налог на прибыль корпорации
подлежать налогообложению
уровень
правительство
большая часть чего
Unit 6.
to perform
validity
evaluation
aim
to express
independent
to license
licence
capacity
to publish
entirely
duty
affair
material
misstatement
fraud
on the part of smbto certify
in accordance with
internal auditor
to find out
external auditor
auditor’s unqualified report
qualification
to clarify
to describe
concise
qualified opinion
adverse opinion
disclaimer of opinion
to restrict
scope
fairly
whenever
to disclose выполнять, исполнять
юридическая сила, действительность
оценка
цель
выражать
независимый
лицензировать, предоставлять лицензию
лицензия
должность
публиковать
всецело, полностью
долг, обязанность
дело
существенный
неправильное, ложное заявление
обман, мошенничество
со стороны кого-л.
удостоверять
в соответствии с
внутренний аудитор
узнать, разузнать
внешний аудитор
безусловное позитивное мнение/ заключение аудитора
оговорка, ограничение
уточнять, разъяснять
описывать
сжатый, краткий
условное позитивное мнение/заключение
аудитора
негативное мнение/заключение аудитора
аудиторское заключение с отказом от выражения мнения о достоверности финансовой отчетности
ограничивать
масштаб
справедливо, беспристрастно
когда бы ни, всякий раз когда
раскрывать
Useful phrases and vocabulary for Communication in Business.
Introductions.
Let me introduce you to ...
Let me introduce ... to you.
Let me introduce myself.
May I introduce ...?
I’d like to introduce ...
I’d like you to meet...
Please, meet...
Do you know ...?
Have you met...?
I don’t think we have met.
I’m General Manager of …
My name is…
Pleased to meet you.
Nice to meet you.
Nice meeting you.
A pleasure to meet you. Разрешите представить вас ...
Разрешите представить вам ...
Разрешите представиться.
Можно представить ...?
Я хотел бы представить ...
Хочу познакомить вас с ... Познакомьтесь, пожалуйста. Это ...
Вы знаете ...?
Вы встречались с ..?Вы знакомы с ...?
Мне кажется, мы не знакомы.
Я генеральный директор...
Меня зовут... / Моя фамилия
Радпознакомитьсясвами.
Unit 7.
Useful phrases and vocabulary for writing Business letters (Unit 7.1.)
Salutation• Dear Mr. Brown• Dear Ms. White• Dear Sir• Dear Madam• Dear Sir or Madam• Gentlemen
Starting•  We are writing - to inform you that ...- to confirm ...- to request ...- to enquire about ...• I am contacting you for the following reason...• I recently read/heard about ..... and would like to know ....• Having seen your advertisement in ..., I would like to ...• I would be interested in (obtaining / receiving) ...• I received your address from ----- and would like to ...
Referring to previous contact• Thank you for your letter of March 15.• Thank you for contacting us.• In reply to your request, ...• Thank you for your letter regarding ...• With reference to our telephone conversation yesterday...• Further to our meeting last week ...• It was a pleasure meeting you in London last month.• I enjoyed having lunch with you last week in Tokyo.• I would just like to confirm the main points we discussed on Tuesday.
Making a request• We would appreciate it if you would ...• I would be grateful if you could ... • Could you please send me ... • Could you possibly tell us / let us have ... • In addition, I would like to receive ...• It would be helpful if you could send us ...• I am interested in (obtaining / receiving) ...• I would appreciate your immediate attention to this matter.• Please let me know what action you propose to take.
Offering help• Would you like us to ...?• We would be happy to ...• We are quite willing to ...• Our company would be pleased to ...
Giving good news• We are pleased to announce that ...• I am delighted to inform you that ..• You will be pleased to learn that ...
Giving bad news  • We regret to inform you that ...• I'm afraid it would not be possible to ...• Unfortunately we cannot / we are unable to ...• After careful consideration we have decided (not) to ...
Complaining  • I am writing to express my dissatisfaction with ...• I am writing to complain about ...• Please note that the goods we ordered on ( date ) have not yet arrived.• We regret to inform you that our order № _____ is now considerably overdue.• I would like to query the transport charges which seem unusually high.
ApologizingWe are sorry for the delay in replying to ...
I regret any inconvenience caused (by) ...
I would like to apologize for the (delay, inconvenience)...
Once again, please accept my apologies for ...
OrdersThank you for your quotation of ...
We are pleased to place an order with your company for..We would like to cancel our order № .....Please confirm receipt of our order.
I am pleased to acknowledge receipt of your order № .....Your order will be processed as quickly as possible.
It will take about (two/three) weeks to process your order.
We can guarantee you delivery before ...(date)
Unfortunately these articles are no longer available / are out of stock.
PricesPlease send us your price list.
You will find enclosed our most recent catalogue and price list.
Please note that our prices are subject to change without notice.
We have pleasure in enclosing a detailed quotation.
We can make you a firm offer of ...
Referring to paymentOur terms of payment are as follows  ...
Our records show that we have not yet received payment of ...
According to our records ...
Please send payment as soon as possible.
You will receive a credit note for the sum of ...
Enclosing documentsI am enclosing ...
Please find enclosed ...
You will find enclosed ...
Closing remarksIf we can be of any further assistance, please let us know.
If I can help in any way, please do not hesitate tocontact me.
If you require more information ...
For further details ...
Thank you for taking this into consideration.
Thank you for your help.
We hope you are happy with this arrangement.
We hope you can settle this matter to our satisfaction.
Referring to future businessWe look forward to a successful working relationship in the future.
We would be (very) pleased to do business with your company.
I would be happy to have an opportunity to work with your firm.
Referring to future contactI look forward to seeing you next week.
Looking forward to hearing from you, ...
Looking forward to receiving your comments,
143256093408500I look forward to meeting you on the (date).
I would appreciate a reply at your earliest convenience.
An early reply would be appreciated.
Ending business lettersSincerely,     Yours sincerely,  for all customers / clientsSincerely yours,  
Yours faithfully, in more formal letters
Regards, for those you already know and/or with whomyou have a working relationship
10 good opening lines
With reference to your letter of 8 June, I … .I am writing to enquire about … .After having seen your advertisement in … , I would like … .
After having received your address from … , I … .
I received your address from … and would like … .We/I recently wrote to you about … .Thank you for your letter of 8 May.
Thank you for your letter regarding … .Thank you for your letter/e-mail about … .In reply to your letter of 8 May, … .10 good closing lines
If you require any further information, feel free to contact me.
I look forward to your reply.
I look forward to hearing from you.
I look forward to seeing you.
Please advise as necessary.
We look forward to a successful working relationship in the future.
Should you need any further information, please do not hesitate to contact me.
Once again, I apologise for any inconvenience.
We hope that we may continue to rely on your valued custom.
I would appreciate your immediate attention to this matter.

Useful phrases and vocabulary for writing Inquiry Letters (Unit 7.2.)
We read your advertisement in...
With regard to your advertisement in ... of... , we would ask you ...
We have heard of your products from ...
We have seen your current catalogue showing...
We are interested in buying (importing, etc.) ...
Please inform us (let us know) as soon as possible ...
Would you please inform us if it is possible to deliver...Please let us know what quantities you are able to deliver till...
Could you let us have a quotation for...Would you kindly quote your prices and terms of delivery (terms of payment, etc.) for…
We would like to have further details about…
Please send us samples of... (your catalogues, leaflets, etc.)
As distributors we have a large network of…
In connection with this ...
We would like to get in touch with manufacturers (suppliers, sellers, etc.) of…
There is a large market here for your products.
For over ... years our company has imported from western countries ..We usually effect payment by letter of credit (cheque, bank transfer, etc.).
If your prices are competitive (the samples meet the standards, your equipment complies with our requirements, etc.) we may be able to let you have regular orders.
We look forward to your early reply. Мы прочитали вашу рекламу в…
В связи с публикацией вашей рекламы в ... от ... мы хотели бы попросить вас ...
Мы узнали о продукции вашей компании из ...
Мы обратили внимание на ваш последний каталог, в котором описаны ...
Мы хотели бы купить (импортировать и т. п.) ...
Просим сообщить нам как можно скорее ...
Просим сообщить нам, сможете ли вы поставить ...
Пожалуйста, сообщите нам, какое количество вы сможете поставить до ...
Сообщите нам, пожалуйста, расценки на ...
He могли бы вы установить нам цены и условия поставки (условия оплаты и т. п.) на ...
Мы бы хотели получить более подробную информацию о ...
Пожалуйста, вышлите нам образцы ... (свои каталоги, брошюры и т.п.)
Как дистрибьюторы мы имеет обширную сеть ...
В связи с этим ...
Мы бы хотели установить контакт с производителями (поставщиками, продавцами и т. п.) …
Ваши изделия найдут у нас своего покупателя.
Более, чем ... лет наша компания импортирует из западных стран.
Мы обычно производим оплату путем открытия аккредитива (чеком, переводом и т. п.)
Если ваши цены устроят нас (образцы будут удовлетворять требованиям стандартов, ваше оборудование будет удовлетворять нашим требованиям и т. п.), мы будем регулярно заказывать вашу продукцию.
С нетерпением ждем Вашего ответа.

Useful phrases and vocabulary for writing Letter of Offer (Unit 7.3.)
We were pleased to learn your interest in …
We are most pleased that you want to buy ...
We are glad to say that we can reserve you ...
It is good of you to take so much interest in our work…
We take pleasure in sending you the desired samples and offer ...
As to your inquiry of... we are informing you that...
We enclose our catalogue with the latest price-list.
Our detailed catalogue will demonstrate the wide range of our products.
Our proposal is valid till...
We deliver our goods on CIF terms
The price covers packing and transportation expenses.
We can give you а 5 per cent discount.
As you can see from our price-list, our prices are at least 3 % lower than market prices.
I especially call your attention to…
Besides the above mentioned goods our company also products…
The model... will meet most of your requirements.
We ask you to consider our proposal once more and let us know if we can expect your order.
I encourage you to order as soon as possible as the quantity of this product available at our warehouse is limited.
We would appreciate if we get the order from you as soon as possible.
We are looking forward to hearing from you soon. Нам было приятно узнать о Вашей заинтересованности в ...
Мы очень довольны, что вы пожелали купить ...
Мы рады сообщить, что можем оставить за вами ...
Было очень любезно с Вашей стороны проявить такой интерес к нашей работе ...
С удовольствием посылаем выбранные вами образцы и предлагаем ...
На Ваш запрос от ... мы сообщаем Вам, что ...
Мы прилагаем наш каталог с новейшим прейскурантом.
Наш подробный прейскурант убедит вас в разнообразии нашего ассортимента.
Наше предложение действительно до ...
Мы поставляем на условиях СИФ.
Цена включает упаковку и транспортные расходы.
Мы можем предоставить вам 5 % скидку.
Как видно из нашего прейскуранта, наши цены по крайней мере на 3% ниже рыночных.
Я особенно обращаю ваше внимание на...
Кроме упомянутых выше товаров наша фирма производит также…
Для ваших целей вам лучше всего подойдет модель ...
Мы просим вас еще раз обсудить наше предложение и сообщить нам, можно ли рассчитывать на получение заказа.
Я прошу вас быстрее оформить заказ, так как количество этого товара на складе ограничено.
Мы были бы очень рады получить от вас заказ как можно скорее.
С нетерпением ждем ответа.
Useful phrases and vocabulary for writing Reminder Letter and Payment (Unit 7.4.)
Payments:
Payment by irrevocable L/C in US dollars to a United States bank, allowing part-shipment, and valid for 90 days from order date.
Payment with order by banker’s draft or check to a UK bank.
We have pleasure in enclosing our check for 500 dollars.
Payment is being made by banker’s draft in settlement of your invoice for 500 dollars.
Lloyds Bank will accept your draft.
We have opened L/C with Lloyds Bank.
Please draw 500 dollars on us at 90 day’s sight.
Reminders:
May we again remind that this account is still overdue.
According to our conditions of sale, your remittance was due on March 12.
It is no doubt through an oversight on your part that settlement is three months overdue.
We must insist on receiving payment by 31th January; failing this we shall be compelled to take legal action.
We have often reminded you of the outstanding amount, but have received no reply or remittance from you.
The recent devaluation of the dollar has caused a setback in business.
Would you allow те to postpone settlement of your account?
Since you have always met your obligations in the past, we are prepared to allow you a postponement of payment.
Please send us half of the amount by return, and sign the enclosed acceptance for the remainder.
We trust you will settle the remainder by paying in monthly instalments. Платежи:
Платеж безотзывным аккредитивом действительным в течение 90 дней от даты заказа, через любой американский банк. При этом разрешается частичная отгрузка и перевалка (с одного судна на другое).
Оплата по приказу посредством банковской траты или чеком на английский банк.
С удовольствием вкладываем наш чек на 500 долларов.
Платёж будет произведен банковским векселем в погашение вашего счета-фактуры на 500 долларов.
Ллойд банк примет ваш вексель.
Мы открыли аккредитив через Ллойд банк.
Выпишите, пожалуйста, нам счет на 500 долларов со сроком оплаты 90 дней.
Напоминание и продление кредита:
Позвольте еще раз напомнить вам, что этот счет все еще не оплачен.
В соответствии с условиями нашей сделки, ваш перевод должен был поступить 12 марта.
Нам кажется, что вы забыли погасить свой долг, срок которого истек 3 месяца назад.
Мы настаивает на получении платежа к 31 января; если этого не произойдет, то мы будем вынуждены обратиться в суд.
Мы часто напоминали вам о неоплаченном счете, но не получили от вас ни ответа, ни перевода.
Последняя девальвация доллара привела к снижению деловой активности.
Просим разрешить нам задержать оплату вашего счета.
Так как в прошлом вы всегда выполняли свои обязательства, то мы можем разрешить вам задержать оплату.
Пожалуйста, верните нам половину суммы и подпишите вложенный акцепт на остаток.
Мы надеемся, что вы погасите остаток путем выплаты ежемесячных взносов.
Unit 8
FOB, CIF
Loading
time of delivery
irrevocable confirmed Letter of Credit
to shipvessel
Bill of Lading
act
liabilities (obligations, commitment) under the contract
insurance
delay in delivery (in shipment)
force majeure, force majeure circumstances
arbitration
subject of the contract
contract an integral, part of the contract
total value of the contract
spare and wear parts
freight
Specification
to be valid
destination shipping
waybill
consignor, shipper
consignee
shipment
shipment, consignment
packing
marking
to consider null and void базисные условия поставки, используемые при заключении контрактов (в соответствии с «Международными правилами толкования торговых терминов» — “INCOTERMS”)
погрузка
срок поставки
безотзывный подтвержденный аккредитив
1) производить погрузку (на корабль); 2) перевозить, отправлять (груз) (любым видом транспорта); ship — корабль
1) судно; 2) сосуд; 3) самолет
Коносамент (транспортная накладная на груз при морских перевозках). Коносамент подтверждает факт отправки товара грузоотправителем (consignor, shipper) грузополучателю (consignee) и выполняет функции расписки капитана судна о приеме товара к перевозке и товарно-распорядительного документа.
1) дело, поступок; 2) закон, постановление; 3) акт (приемки-сдачи оборудования и т. п.)
обязательства (сторон) по контракту
страхование, страховка (страховая премия)
задержка в поставке (погрузке и т. п.).
форс-мажор, форс-мажорные обстоятельства (обстоятельства непреодолимой силы)
арбитраж, третейский суд. Наиболее часто при заключении международных контрактов предусматривается разрешение споров в арбитражном суде г. Стокгольма, арбитраж по правилам международной торговой палаты, либо разрешение спора в третейском суде. При отсутствии в контракте оговорки о том, какое право должно применяться для разрешения конфликтов, используется право страны, где учреждена, имеет местожительство или основное место деятельности сторона, являющаяся продавцом (поставщиком, лицензиаром
предмет контракта
неотъемлемая часть контракта
общая сумма контракта
запасные и изнашиваемые детали
фрахт (судна и т. п)
спецификация, технические условия
быть действительным
место назначения
транспортная накладная
грузоотправитель
Грузополучатель
погрузка, перевозка
груз, партия товара
упаковка
маркировка
считать не имеющим силы

Приложение 2.
Лингвокоммерческий комментарий.
Базисные условия поставки, используемые при заключении контрактов
(в соответствии с «Международными правилами толкования торговых терминов» — "INCOTERMS”)
В деловой практике наибольшее распространение получили следующие типы базисных условий поставки, используемых при заключении контрактов:
Ex-Factory, Ex-Mill, Ex-Works — цена с завода-поставщика. При этих условиях цена на товар определяется его себестоимостью и расчетной прибылью продавца. Покупатель несет все расходы, связанные с транспортировкой товара с завода-поставщика.
Ex-Store — со склада. Покупатель оплачивает все расходы, связанные с транспортировкой товара со склада, а также платит за доставку товара на склад.
Ex-Stock — из настоящих запасов. При этих условиях цена устанавливается для текущих поставок товара. В будущем цена на товар может быть изменена.
Последние два типа условий используются главным образом для поставки товаров на небольшие расстояния, а также при заключении контрактов между оптовыми и розничными торговцами.
FAS (Free alongside Ship) — свободно вдоль борта судна. При этих условиях продавец (поставщик) за свой счет производит:
поставку товара с приложением документов, подтверждающих его соответствие требованиям контракта;
упаковку товара для транспортировки;
доставку товара в указанные в контракте сроки в порт и складирование его на причале (on quay) вдоль борта судна;
уведомление покупателя о размещении товара на причале и передачу ему расписки порта о принятии груза.
Кроме того, продавец (поставщик) обязан по просьбе покупателя и за его счет оказать последнему помощь в получении дополнительных документов, необходимых для ввоза товара в его страну.
Покупатель за свой счет:
фрахтует судно и извещает продавца (поставщика) о дате прибытия судна в порт;
страхует груз и оплачивает погрузку товара на судно;
производит оплату товара.
Риск повреждения (damage) или утраты (loss) груза, а также право собственности на него (property in the goods) переходят от продавца к покупателю в момент размещения товара на причале.
FOB (Free on Board) — свободно на борту судна. При этих условиях продавец обязан также за свой счет, кроме действий указанных для предыдущего случая, получить экспортную лицензию, выполнить таможенные формальности, погрузить товар на судно, известить покупателя о погрузке и передать ему документы (в т. ч. и коносамент) о принятии груза на судне.
Покупатель при этих базисных условиях (в отличие от предыдущего случая) не оплачивает погрузку товара на судно, но оплачивает его размещение там. (Условие “Free on Board and Trimmed” предполагает и размещение сыпучих грузов (обычно угля) на борту за счет продавца.)
Риск повреждения или утраты груза, а также право собственности на него переходят от продавца к покупателю в момент пересечения грузом борта судна.
Аналогичными условиям FOB являются условия FOR (Free on Rail) — свободно в вагоне (на ж/д платформе), FOT (Free on Truck), FOC {Free on Car) — свободно на грузовике.
FOB Airport — свободно в аэропорту. При этих условиях продавец поставляет товар авиационному перевозчику, заключает договор с перевозчиком от своего имени, получает экспортную лицензию и выполняет таможенные формальности, передает покупателю комплект документов (в т. ч. и авианакладную). Покупатель должен оплатить товар и все расходы, связанные с его транспортировкой, после передачи его перевозчику. Риск и .право собственности переходят от продавца к покупателю после передачи товара перевозчику.
C&F, CAF (Cost and Freight) — стоимость и фрахт. Эти условия отличаются от условий FOB тем, что продавец за свой счет фрахтует судно до порта назначения. Покупатель при этом несет все расходы, связанные с транспортировкой, за исключением фрахта. Право собственности на товар переходит от продавца к покупателю в момент пересечения грузом борта судна.
CIF (Cost, Insurance, Freight) — стоимость, страхование и фрахт. Эти условия аналогичны условиям C&F, за исключением того, что продавец должен еще застраховать товар до места назначения.
Новые термины, включенные в “INCOTERMS”. Эти
термины используются в основном, когда груз-транспортируют в контейнерах несколькими видами транспорта (железнодорожным, автомобильным и т. п.):
FRC {Free Carrier ",named port/point”) — свободно у перевозчика в «наименование порта/пункта». Эти условия полностью аналогичны условиям FOB, за исключением того, что риск повреждения или утраты груза, а также право собственности на него переходят от продавца к покупателю не в момент пересечения грузом борта судна, а в момент передачи груза перевозчику в указанном пункте. '
DCP (Freight/Carriage Paid to ",named port/point”) — фрахт или доставка оплачены до «наименование порта/пункта». При этих условиях продавец за свой счет производит:
- поставку товара с документами, подтверждающими его соответствие условиям контракта;;.
заключение договора о перевозке товара в указанный пункт и оплату перевозки;
передачу товара перевозчику в установленный срок;
уведомление покупателя и отсылку ему комплекта документов с квитанцией о приеме груза к перевозке.
— получение экспортной лицензии и оплату вывозных пошлин и сборов.
Покупатель оплачивает товар продавцу, страхует*его, покрывает все расходы, связанные с транспортировкой- (кроме оплаты перевозки), а также расходы, связанные с ввозом товара в его страну. Риск и право собственности на товар переходят от продавца к покупателю в момент передачи продавцом груза первому перевозчику (перевозка может осуществляться несколькими транспортными фирмами).
Условия CIP (.Freight or Carriage and Insurance Paid to) аналогичны предыдущим, за исключением того, что продавец оплачивает также страховку товара.
Различия в американской и английской деловой терминологии:
Амер. вариант
administration
around (ten)
blue-chip investments
call loan
checking account
claim letter
collect on delivery
common stock
corporation law
express man
to fix a meeting
freight not prepaid
freight prepaid
freight train
government bonds
in good shape
investment bank
law business
local taxes Англ. вариант
government in power
about (ten)
first-class investments
short-term loan
current account
letter of complaint
cash on delivery
ordinary share
company law
carrier
to arrange a meeting
carriage forward
carriage paid
goods train
government securities
in good condition
merchant bank
practice (law)
rates Значение
правительство (действующее)
около (десяти)
первоклассные инвестиции
краткосрочный займ
текущий счет
письмо-рекламация
оплата при доставке
обыкновенная акция
закон о компаниях
посыльный
назначать встречу
без оплаты перевозки
с оплатой перевозки
товарный поезд
государственные ценные бумаги
в хорошем состоянии
инвестиционный банк
процессуальное право
местные налоги

Приложение 3.
Примеры ситуационных задач (cases).
ITALIAN RESTAURANT BackgroundA friend of yours owns an Italian restaurant in Lincoln Park. Historically it has been a successful restaurant. Recently, profits have dropped.
QuestionWhy are profits dropping?
Additional InformationThe restaurant could be characterized as a mid-priced "Italian Grill”, similar to Bella Vista or Mia Francesca. It is a tried and proven restaurant concept in the Chicago area.
Revenue has fallen, while costs have remained steady or have fallen slightly.
There have been no changes in competitors or competitive behavior.
There have been no changes in overall customer preferences, or customer incomes.
There are three types of entrees served at the restaurant: pasta, fillets and seafood.
Recently, the restaurant has been serving more pasta and less of the other entrees.
Pasta entrees are lower margin than the other types of entrees.
The same numbers of customers come through the restaurant in a given night.
There havebeenno major changes is unit costs (i.e. the cost of products orlaborhave not changed significantly).
BUSINESS SCHOOL COFFEE SHOP
BackgroundA business school coffee shop has traditionally been profitable. Lately, profits have dropped.
QuestionWhy is the coffee shop losing money?
Additional InformationThe coffee shop sells two types of products: coffee and quick snacks (e.g. individually wrapped, ready to eat food).
Product offerings have remained the same.
Unit costs have remained constant.
Fixed costs have remained the same.
Revenue has increased
Sales of Coffee, in units, have remained constant.
Sales of Quick Snacks, in units, have increased.
In percentage terms, Coffee used to comprise 90% of sales (it now comprises 60%), and Quick Snacks used to comprise 10% of sales (and now comprise 40% of sales)
A nearby campus cafeteria has recently closed down
The margin on a cup of Coffee is 20 cents, while the margin on a Quick Snack is -2 cents.
RETAIL STORE
BackgroundA consulting firm was hired by a well-known manufacturer of designer men’s and women’s clothing. A few years ago, the client decided to open a new distribution channel - their own retail store. They opened one store in New York City, which quickly became very profitable and successful. They then decided to open 3 new stores in Chicago, Boston, and Dallas, respectively. After 5 years, they found that the Boston store was not as profitable as the one in New York City.
QuestionWhy is the Boston store less profitable? How would you go about assessing the source of the problem?
Additional InformationBoth stores are in very good shopping locations
The stores are the same size
In terms of fixed costs, they are about the same although the lease for the New York store is slightly higher
In terms of variable costs, labor, inventory, electricity, overhead, and taxes are all the same
They sell different merchandise. The New York store sells more upscale clothing, i.e. suits, based on the local demand. The Boston store sells more weekend or casual wear , i.e. sweaters, khakis (Note: This is key to answering the case and should only be provided if the candidate asks for this information.).
The profit margin on the upscale clothing is higher than on weekend or casual wear (Note: This is key to answering the case and should only be provided if the candidate asks for this information.).
SOAP PRICING
BackgroundA company that makes one soap product has noticed that it is losing market share and suspects that its pricing is to blame. The company currently charges $1.20/bar as opposed to $1.00/bar charged by competitors.
QuestionShould the company lower price?
Additional InformationMarket Currently selling 15 million bars/year; were selling 20 million bars/year before the firm started losing market share.
The soap market is a mature industry (not growing rapidly).
The company believes that lowering its price to $1.00/bar would boost volume back to 20 million bars/year. (How would you test this? Consider a demand analysis using demand instruments.)
Industry The company has a reputation of producing the highest-quality product on the market.
The industry is dominated by four main competitors. Currently the firm’s market share is 12 percent. The competitors have market shares of 30, 20, 17 and 10 percent respectively.
Currently, the client has the capacity to handle virtually any increase in demand.
Cost StructureThe company cannot specify the overall cost of a unit (except that it is less than $1.00 and greater than $0.80), but it does know the cost structure to be the following:
30percent labor20percent inputs20percent generaland administrative20percent overhead10percent otherThe company is unsure if it has any cost advantage over other competitors, but it clearly enjoys a reputation for the highest-quality products.
CREDIT CARD - MILES & MORE PROGRAMBackgroundThe CEO of a major credit card company is interested in having an airline frequent flyer program. The program would give the customer one frequent flyer mile for every dollar charged. Customers can redeem the miles for one round-trip ticket (within US) for every 5000 miles. The program is intended for a new card that the company is planning.
Question• Is this a good idea ?This case does not have any specific information - the candidate must be tested for structure, organization and creativity in his analysis. The candidate is also expected to make estimates of market size.
Additional InformationCompany gets 1% for every transaction from merchants
Average customer is expected to have balance of $2000 on the card and have transactions worth $5000 a year. The interest rate is 20%
Cost of the redeemed ticket - $200.00
No new investment is required - existing systems/personnel can beused.
REGIONAL ASIAN BANK
Background:The processing division of a large regional Asian bank wants to improve its cost-to- revenue ratio (CRR). Present calculations reveal that the current CRR is 0.60. The client wants to improve this to the industry standard of 0.40.
Question:What strategies can the client pursue to lower its CRR to 0.40?
Case Information:The client provides back-office services for the bank’s three other divisions: Retail Banking, Corporate Banking, and Regional Banking. These services include: credit processing, payment processing, customer service processing, call center services, and credit card processing.
The client receives $100M in annual revenues. In the past, revenues have always grown or diminished in accordance with industry trends; costs increase and decrease in proportion to revenue. This trend is expected to continue in the future. An analysis of the revenue/cost distribution will show that revenue and costs are distributed evenly among the three customers. [The candidate can calculate that costs are approximately $60M]
The client is organized into three highly independent groups, with each group servicing one customer. Analyzing the individual groups will reveal that none of them stand out as being particularly inefficient, and they all have CRR’s of about 0.60. However, there are many similarities and overlaps in the processes they perform (all processes are handled internally). [There is no need for the candidate to explore the specific processes or overlaps.]
A cost analysis will reveal two types of costs: labor and systems. Labor costs stem from the organization’s workforce of 1,000 employees, with an average annual salary of $40,000 to $45,000; salaries are in accordance with industry standards. [Salary cuts are not advisable.] Systems costs are primarily IT related and comprise the remainder of costs.
A study of the client’s IT systems will reveal that they are below industry level in sophistication.
A competitive analysis will reveal that the average industry cost distribution is 60% labor, 40% systems. No other information is available about competition.
The client has no control over the volume of revenue it receives from its three internal customers. Furthermore, the client believes that strategies to boost revenue by fine-tuning the operations of its customers are beyond the scope of the engagement.
The client’s pricing for its internal customers is consistent with the industry standard. The client is aware that it can increase revenues by increasing internal pricing, but would like to hear other recommendations.

Приложение 4.
Стратегии работы с кейсами.
As you practice the cases you will most likely develop a style that is most comfortable for you. But below are a few basic tips on approaching the case solution, most of which are common sense.
Basic Approach Tips:
Take Notes Make no assumptions Who is our client?
Has the company faced this issue before? If so outcome?
What have other companies done facing this solution?
Ask Questions... Concise & Logical Remember to listen to the answers you get.
Take your time Think out loud.
Present thinking in a clear, logical manner. Where useful use frameworks and business concepts to organize your answer.
Quickly summarize your conclusions at the end.
CASE FRAMEWORKSFrameworks - are methods that have been found to be useful in structuring your thought process. Many of the models and concepts are right out of classes such as marketing and economics.
A common method of effectively using frameworks is to understand and integrate them into your personal methodology of approaching the case.
Basic FrameworksThe following are methods that will work with most any case (Basic Frameworks:
Cost-benefit analysis (Анализ затрат и выгод)- Basic microeconomics and strategy concepts
Internal verse external market factors (Внутренние и внешние факторы рынка)- Strategy and marketing concepts
Fixed verse variable costs (фиксированные факторы и переменные затраты) - Microeconomics concept
Opportunity Costs (издержки) - Microeconomics conceptProduct Life Cycle (Marketing) Maturity of the product or service:
Emerging (появление на рынке) - Sales gaining, negative profits. Concentrate on R&D and engineering, define product and generate need with little or no competition
Growth (рост) - Sales increasing, profits becoming positive. Emphasize marketing, manage rapid growth, focus on quality, and expect new entrants (участники).
Maturity (зрелость) - Sales starting to plateau, profits plateau. Focus on manufacturing costs, Prices fall and competition increases.
Declining (снижение) - Decrease across sales & profits. High-cost and low-share competitors exist, focus on being low-cost or niche strategy
The Four Ps (Marketing)
Price: Predatory or Premium effect.
Product: Product meets a particular customer need. Or extension of existing products, thus less benefit.
Position / Place: Physical location is an advantage if superior to competition. Easier to consume for buyers.
Promotion: What can it do to stand out in category?
The Four Cs (Marketing)
Especially useful for analyzing new product intros and industry analysis
Customers: How is the market segmented? What are the purchase criteria customers use.Competition: What is the market share of the client? What is the market position. What is the strategy? What is their cost position? Do they have market advantages?
Cost: What kind of economies of scale does the client have? What is the client’s experience curve? Will increase production lower cost.
Capabilities: What resource can the client draw from? How is the client organized? What is the production system?
A CASE INTERVIEW EXAMPLECase Title: Jams & Jelly Company
Background: Our client is a jam & jelly manufacturer in the New England area. They have experienced a drop in profitability over the past few years.
Question: Why has profitability fallen?
Available Information:
Profitability decreased 2 years ago.
Firm is a single store operation. Niche player so no major competitors.
Product is a premium jam / jelly product line.
Small operation, with no new capital, labor, operations investment expenditures in the past few years.
Revenues have increased Volume has gone up Prices have stayed the same Product mix has stayed the same
No changes in direct material, labor, overhead. But transportation costs have risen.
Transportation change was instituted a little over 2 years ago (26 months ago).
Shipping was done to allow for sales in New York and Boston.
Another local firm does the distribution. They are chargingus at therate of
transportation, no profit for them. We pass these costs on toour customers.
Bad products are returned with a full refund.
Jellies and jams go bad with low temperatures.
Example of solution 1 Example of solution 2
This sounds like a profitability case. I’d like to break this initially into revenue and cost issues. I would guess jams & jellies have a relatively stable cost structure. So I’d like to start with revenues.
When did profitability drop?
Starting with revenues. What’s happening with revenue trends?
Is it because volume is increasing or price?
Why is volume increasing?
Are they selling a same mix of jellies?
Interesting, I’d like to switch over to costs.
Variable costs change in direct materials? Direct labor? Overhead costs? Transportation?
Why have transportation costs increased?
Why did you change distribution and when?
Tell me more about the distribution?
Is there anything different in what he sells versus our jams & jellies?
Is the freezer method affecting our jellies?
What happens when our customers don’t like the product?
I would suggest stopping this method of transportation as it is spoiling the jellies during the distribution. Interesting. May I ask for some clarifying information?
What are the products sold?
How big is the firm and how long have they been in business?
Who are the major competitors?
I will be approaching this case by analyzing the market dynamics and following with profitability analysis.
Starting with market dynamics. Is the overall market declining?
Who are their competitors?
Looking at their costs quickly I want to confirm no changes to variable cost structure. So any changes in operations costs? Labor? Product raw materials? New capital improvements?
Has the product pricing decreased?
Switching gears, have they seen a change in their product sales, say the mix?
So have sales increased?
Has volume increased?
So product and prices have not changed?
No advertising cost changes?
How do they sell the product?
So they sell products to New York and Boston as well. Do these products cost more to distribute?
When was this started?
Interesting... So they started sell products a little over 2 years ago.
I would state that the problem is in this distribution program?
So how is this shipped? How much does this cost us?
What else is shipped with our products? Is it making our our products go bad?
I would state that the freezer is definitely the wrong means to transport.
I suggest ceasing this method and investigating into an alternate means of transportation.
Wrap-up / AnalysisAttacked it from a profitability angle, as the question appeared to lend itself to this approach.
Was looking for inconsistencies in the revenue or costs, which were resulting in the lowered profitability of the company.
Keyed into the new change in distribution as a potential cause and found it was the root of the lowered profitability. Attacked it with elements of the 4P’s and profitability. These allowed for a determination of what the market was internally and externally for the firm.
The key thing to take away from this example is that there are many ways to approach a case. By no means should you take either example as the "right” way to approach these cases, as there is no definitive right or wrong way to "crack” the case. What is important is that your approach is logical and structured.

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