Рабочая тетрадь для практических работ по дисциплине «Иностранный язык(английский)» в разделе «Профессионально-направленный модуль» для специальности 54.02.01 Дизайн (по отраслям)


РАБОЧАЯ
ТЕТРАДЬ
ДЛЯ ПРАКТИЧЕСКИХ РАБОТ ПО ДИСЦИПЛИНЕ
«ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК(АНГЛИЙСКИЙ)» В РАЗДЕЛЕ
«ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНО-НАПРАВЛЕННЫЙ МОДУЛЬ»
ДЛЯ СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТИ 54.02.01 ДИЗАЙН (ПО
ОТРАСЛЯМ)
Коровкина Татьяна Владимировна 5357167center00

Содержание
Введение.
Методические указания по изучению дисциплины. 3
4
UNIT 1. Исторические и современные тенденции в развитии дизайна. (Historical and Modern Trends in the Development of Design). TEXT 1. Industrial Design in Pre-Industrial Societies.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercises. 5
TEXT 2. The First Industrial Designer.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercises. 10
TEXT 3. The Revolution in the Fine Art
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercises. 15
TEXT 4. The Triumph of Modern Design 1900-1925.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercises. 20
TEXT 5. Design from 1925 to 1950.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercises. 25
TEXT 6. Design from 1950 to Present.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercises. 30
UNIT 2. Направления дизайна. Потребительский дизайн (Design directions.
Consumer design).
TEXT 1. Furniture Design.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercises. 34
TEXT 2. Fashion Design.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercises. 39
TEXT 3. Designing for Business.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercises. 44
UNIT 3. Направления дизайна. Экологический дизайн (Design directions. Ecological design).
TEXT 1. Green Design.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercises. 47
UNIT 4. Направления дизайна. Информационный дизайн (Design directions. Information design).
TEXT 1. Computer Design.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercises. 51
TEXT 2. Designing to Communicate
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercises. 55
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 1 (Appendix 1)
Языковой комментарий 59
Введение
Рабочая тетрадь предназначена для практических работ по дисциплине «Иностранный язык» в разделе «Профессионально-направленный модуль» для специальности 54.02.01 Дизайн (по отраслям). Основное назначение рабочей тетради – закрепить и активизировать языковой и речевой материал раздела «Профессионально-направленный модуль», автоматизировать лексико-грамматические навыки при работе с профессионально-ориентированными текстами. Тексты сопровождаются методически грамотно построенным комплексом упражнений, помогающим обучаемым совершенствовать навыки и умения самостоятельной работы с текстом. Лексико-грамматические упражнения нацелены на быстрое и качественное запоминание профессиональных терминов, используемых по специальности «Дизайн», повторение и практическое применение грамматических правил на базе профессионально-ориентированных текстов.
Рабочая тетрадь состоит из трех уроков (Units) и одного приложения (Appendix 1). Материал каждого раздела (Unit) предусматривает последовательное, поэтапное изучение определенной темы, связанной с будущей профессиональной деятельностью обучающихся и принципов, применяемых в практике дизайнерской работы. В основу каждого урока положен принцип развития речевой деятельности: чтения и устной речи. Специальные фонетические и морфологические упражнения способствуют лучшему усвоению звукового ряда английского языка. Приложение (Appendix 1) включают словарь профессиональных терминов и глоссарий.
Широкий спектр разнообразных практических заданий, организующих самостоятельную работу, требует от обучающихся творческого отношения при их выполнении (наличие заданий повышенной трудности), позволяет реализовать личностно-ориентированный подход при работе с обучающимися в разным уровнем подготовки и с разными интересами. Задания моделируют ситуации или используют реальные ситуации в целях анализа данного случая, поиска альтернативных решений и принятия оптимального решения проблем.
В тетрадь включены задания, готовящие обучающихся к объективному контролю и самоконтролю в процессе изучения английского языка.
Рабочая тетрадь соответствует уровню подготовки студентов по дисциплине «Иностранный язык (английский)» в разделе «Профессионально-направленный модуль» для специальности 54.02.01 Дизайн (по отраслям).
Методические указания по изучению дисциплины.
В соответствии с ФГОС по дисциплине Иностранный язык (английский) для специальности 54.02.01 Дизайн (по отраслям) студент должен:
УМЕТЬ: общаться (устно и письменно) на иностранном языке на профессиональные и повседневные темы; переводить (со словарем) иностранные тексты профессиональной направленности; самостоятельно совершенствовать устную и письменную речь, пополнять словарный запас;
ЗНАТЬ: лексический (1200 - 1400 лексических единиц) и грамматический минимум, необходимый для чтения и перевода (со словарем) иностранных текстов профессиональной направленности.
Структура практических занятий UNIT 1 – UNIT 4 включает в себя:
Texts. Тексты из оригинальных источников, раскрывающие фундаментальные понятия изобразительного искусства и рассказывающие об основных направлениях в искусстве и дизайне.
Exercises. Предтекстовые задания, облегчающие понимание текста; задания на проверку понимания содержания, задания на развитие и совершенствование грамматических умений и навыков, а также задания, стимулирующие развитие навыков на базе проблематики и словаря прочитанных текстов. Благодаря используемой системе упражнений данное пособие позволяет обучить студентов комплексу умений и навыков анализа смыслового содержания и логико-коммуникативной организации текста, необходимых как для полноты понимания читаемого, так и для его адекватного использования в речевой деятельности. Упражнения, направленные на обучение пониманию специальных материалов и использованию их в практической деятельности, прорабатывают основные проблемные области грамматики и словообразования.
В конце каждого раздела имеются вопросы, которые могут использоваться либо для выполнения домашних заданий, либо выступать в качестве тем для обсуждения во время занятий (Questions for revision).
Если обучающийся в своей работе сталкивается с термином, требующим перевода или толкования, и не обнаруживает его в настоящем рабочей тетради, огромное количество профессиональных переводчиков, работающих на сайте www.proz.com, помогут решить любые языковые проблемы.
Приложение 1. (Appendix 1). Содержит языковой комментарий (Глоссарий), представляющий собой словарь с наиболее частотной лексикой и выражениями, встречающимися в сфере дизайнерской работы. Содержит лингвистический комментарий, объясняющий смысл основных профессиональных терминов.
UNIT 1. Исторические и современные тенденции в развитии дизайна. (Historical and Modern Trends in the Development of Design).
TEXT 1. Industrial Design in Pre-Industrial Societies.
Exercise 1. Practice the pronunciation of the words from the text. Write the transcriptions of the words using a dictionary.
word transcription word transcription word transcription
paleontologist proto-industrial measure evolution standardization convenience philosophy Archaic particular particular ornate ostentation exuberant influential manufacture Exercise 2. Read and translate the text using a dictionary.
Many of the standard principles of industrial design were known to pre-industrial societies. If one looks first at the most primitive societies one sees that their tools are typified both by fitness for use, and by the way a particular problem could be solved. Paleontologists measure man's evolution partly through the changes in flint implements, the earliest of all found in the Olduvai Valley Gorge in Tanzania. These tools are roughly made, but they show a clear understanding of the nature of the substance from which they are formed, and of the way in which it can be shaped by flaking. There is a narrow range of types - hand-axes, scrapers and pounders - but each type is already adapted to do a different job. In fact, the whole of industrial design is already there in embryo.
More sophisticated flint tools show unsurpassed elegance and control of form. Standardization and even a kind of industrial production were understood by the civilizations of the Ancient World, and particularly by the Romans. A more complex example of standardization is Roman weaponry. Rome relied on the power of her armies, and her soldiers were outfitted to a series of standard patterns. The magnificent Praetorian Guard did not wear outfits chosen according to their own fancy, but were equipped with identical shields, helmets and swords. Uniformity of weapons and equipment was essential to Roman military tactics, which assumed that a large body of men could be deployed as a single mass.
It is particularly interesting to examine the European Middle Ages for evidence of proto-industrial thinking. Among the Greeks and Romans, there existed a high degree of standardization. Many of the English imperial measures were already fixed at this period, for example, the English foot was exactly the one now in use, giving three feet to a yard, six to a fathom, and 16 to a rod, pole or perch. Naturally this affected the shapes and proportions of buildings and the sizes of many standard household articles. The tile industry was even more highly organized than the potteries.
Medieval artisans, like the Roman potters, knew the convenience of the casting process when it came to making things in series and at the same time repeating the form exactly, and molds for making all kinds of objects have survived, among them the mold for making seals. In a society which was still partly illiterate seals were of great importance for verifying documents, and it was convenient to have a supply of identical blanks, ready for engraving when either a replacement or a new design was needed. This is in fact a simple example of design logic applied to a particular type of production. Medieval attitudes towards design were still very much present in the workshops of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
Eighteenth-century design philosophy was in many respects very close to that professed today. Designers excelled in devising plain but practical forms, with just enough ornamental detail to prevent dullness The George II walnut commode is basically a plain rectangular box. But its rectangularity is relieved both by the waist molding under the top drawer and by the bracket feet.
Metalwork in precious metals could be extremely ornate for reasons of ostentation and to show how much the craftsman-designer appreciated the fine quality of the material he was using. Yet a great deal shows extreme functional simplicity. The first English teapot, which dates to about 1670, is made of silver and looks more like a coffee-pot to twentieth-century eyes. But it shows an admirably direct use of material. A kettle on a stand, of about 1710-20, is almost equally plain. It is only in the curving cast feet of the stand that a little Baroque exuberance breaks out.
Eighteenth-century concern with visual style led to the issue of numerous pattern-books for the guidance of furniture-makers and their patrons. It would, however, be idle to pretend that there are no differences between eighteenth- century design attitudes and our own. The eighteenth-century household possessed many fewer machines than a contemporary one, and these machines were often of a type now completely obsolete.
Eighteenth-century designers produced a wide range of precision instruments for various purposes. They were of considerable complexity. They were sometimes unable to restrain an exuberant feeling for decoration, especially when the instrument in question was produced for an important patron.
Anyone interested in the pre-history of design must be prepared to look beyond Europe, simply because so many of the leading designers of our own day have drawn inspiration from non-European sources. Islamic art, for example, has been laid under contribution by many leading designers, from the mid-nineteenth century onwards. The powerful forms of some Ottoman metalwork foreshadow what leading modern designers have tried to achieve, and do it perhaps better than they, because the shapes are less self-conscious. Islamic manipulation of abstract pattern has been especially influential.
An even more profound contribution to modern design philosophy has been made by the peoples of the Far East. Chinese and especially Japanese tools and implements of all kinds seem to have achieved functional perfection through a long period of evolution, without the conscious intervention of a designer. These tools continue to be manufactured in precisely the same form at the present day because nothing better for the intended purpose has been discovered. Certain of them - the Japanese pull-saw is a case in point have become increasingly popular in Europe, as craftsmen discover their superior qualities. When trying to trace the sources of modern design, one must also be prepared to think in cross-cultural terms.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercise
Exercise 3. Find in the text English equivalents for the Russian words:
Russian words English equivalents Russian words English equivalents
промышленный дизайнзаверять документы промышленное производстводрагоценный металл непревзойденная элегантность предмет домашнего обихода производство черепицы процесс литья функциональная простота в середине девятнадцатого века практичная форма ремесленник-дизайнерсовременный осознанныйфункциональное совершенство грубосделанный
Exercise 4. Use one of the nouns given in the box to fill in each gap:
precision pottery weaponryphilosophy uniformity patron contribution design standardization artisan implement
1. Paleontologists measure man’s evolution partly through the changes in flint _____________.
2. Many of the standard principles of ______________ were known to pre-industrial societies.
3. Much Greek and Roman ____________ was made by methods which are recognizable industrial, and which must have involved the intervention of a designer.
4. A more complex example of standardization is Roman _______________ of weapons and equipment was essential to Roman military tactics.
5. Among the Greek and Romans, there existed a high degree of _______________.
6. Medieval _____________, like the Roman potters, knew the convenience of the casting process.
7. Eighteenth-century design ______________ was in many respects very close to that professed today.
8. Eighteenth-century concern with visual style led to the issue of numerous pattern-books for the guidance of furniture-makers and their ____________________.
9. Eighteenth-century designers produced a wide range of ______________ instruments for various purposes.
10. And even more profound _____________ to modern design philosophy has been made by the peoples of the Far East.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Exercise 5. Decide whether the following statements are True (T) or False (F) according to the text:
1. Many of the standard principles of industrial design were known to pre-industrial societies.
2. Paleontologists measure man’s evolution partly through the changes in flint implements, the earliest of all found in the Olduvai Valley Gorge in Tanzania.
3. Flint tools are roughly made and show little understanding of the nature of the substance from which they are formed.
4. There is a narrow range of tools, but each type is already adapted to do a different job.
5. Standardization was not understood by the civilizations of the Ancient World.
6. The medieval maker was perfectly capable of the kind of structural logic, economy and ingenuity.
7. The tile industry in the Middle Ages was less organized than the potteries.
8. Medieval attitudes towards design were not present in the workshops of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
9. Eighteenth-century designers produced a wide range of precision instruments for various purposes.
10. Many of the leading designers of our own day have drawn inspiration from non-European sources.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Exercise 6. Translate the sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the Comparative pattern “the more... the better” (“чем (больше)... тем (лучше)”)
The higher the price of the goods, the fewer people are ready to buy them.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
The more money I get, the more things I can buy.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
The bigger the house is, the more money it will cost.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
The longer the text, the longer it takes me to translate it.
______________________________________________________________________
The more work he has, the happier he is.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
The older you get, the more difficult it becomes to find a job.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
The longer the journey is, the more expensive the ticket is.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

Exercise 7. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct Passive form.
1. Standardization and even a kind of industrial production (to understand) by the civilizations of the Ancient World, and particularly by the Romans.
2. The magnificent Praetorian Guard did not wear outfits chosen according to their own fancy, but (to equip) with identical shields, helmets and swords.
3. Among Greek and Romans, there existed a high degree of standardization. Many of the English imperial measures already (to fix) at this period.
4. Islamic art, for example, (to lay) under contribution by many leading designers, from the mid-nineteenth century onwards.
5. The double-ended birch bark canoe can easily (to lift) out of the water and (carry) overland until occasion comes to launch it again. It (to make) of easily available materials.
6. One thing which too little (to notice) by writers on the history of design is the way in which experience gained in various specialized areas, and especially at sea, began to fertilize the whole design concept.
1 2 3 4 5 6
Questions for revision
Exercise 1. Write a short summery of the text describing the following:
1. The characteristics of design in pre-industrial societies.
2. Medieval design attitudes towards to eighteenth-century design philosophy.
3. Multicultural contribution to modern design philosophy.
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
TEXT 2. The First Industrial Designer.
Exercise 1. Practice the pronunciation of the words from the text. Write the transcriptions of the words using a dictionary.
word transcription word transcription word transcription
ad hoc significant technique amateur venture elaborate naturalistic orthodox gauge utilitarianism scientific tureen manufacture requirement vehicle Exercise 2. Read and translate the text using a dictionary.
Christopher Dresser, who was born in Glasgow in 1834, and who died in 1904, is the first industrial designer. Significantly, however, Dresser is associated solely with domestic items, not with the products of heavy industry. Whereas the designers who had preceded him fell into three categories - they were architects, amateurs who made their designs ad hoc, or artisans and engineers turned designers as a result of practical experience in the workshop - Dresser received a much more academic training, of a kind then just becoming available. He studied at the Government School of Design at Somerset House, London, from 1847 to 1854.
There were other significant aspects of Dresser's education. He had a strongly scientific bent, and studied as a botanist, writing books and papers on this subject.
His scientific studies led to an interest in the relationship between natural forms and ornament - this was the subject of his first important series of articles, published in the “Art Journal” of 1857. In a more general sense, they clearly pointed him towards a rational and logical approach to practical problems of design.
Where ornament was concerned, Dresser opposed the then-flourishing ‘naturalistic’ school. For him, plant forms had to be conventionalized in order to be useful to the designer. But botany, where Dresser was concerned, was more than simply a source of shapes and patterns. In his own phrase, plants demonstrated ‘fitness for purpose’, or ‘adaptation’. He was thus linked, from an intellectual point of view, with early nineteenth-century utilitarianism. Darwin was Dresser’s contemporary, and announced his theory of natural selection in 1859, when Dresser was beginning his career. Though the latter apparently stopped short of embracing Darwin’s ideas when they were first announced, they certainly influenced him in the long run.
From 1862 onwards Dresser’s practice as a freelance designer started to blossom. It was in this year that he published his first book on design, “The Art of Decorative Design”. His business interests eventually expanded beyond this. In 1876 and 1877 he paid an extensive visit to Japan, and made a large collection of Japanese objects, some of which were later sold through the firm of Tiffany in New York. In 1879 he entered into partnership with Charles Holmes of Bradford, later the founder of the “Studio” magazine. They had a wholesale warehouse that imported oriental goods. When this partnership came to an end, Dresser was already involved in a new venture - the Art Furnishers' Alliance, founded in 1880 'for the purpose of supplying all kinds of artistic house-furnishing material, including furniture, carpets, wall- decorations, hangings, pottery, table-glass, silversmiths' wares, hardware and whatever is necessary to our household requirements'. The venture was not a financial success, but it was recognized at the time as something pioneering because it tried to reach a popular audience in a way which had not been attempted before.
Dresser’s own surviving designs cover a wide range of materials, styles and techniques. He worked, for instance, for the Coalbrookdale Company, making designs for domestic items in cast iron. Dresser also made designs for glass, and a large number for ceramics. He worked briefly for Wedgwood, and did a much larger series of designs for Minton. A big collection of his watercolour designs can be found in the Minton archives, and a number of Minton pieces decorated with these survive.
He had better luck with the Linthorpe Art Pottery, founded in 1879 chiefly as a vehicle for Dresser’s ideas. At Linthorpe, factory production methods were used - the pottery was inexpensive, and was manufactured on a large scale. The emphasis was on original shapes, rather than elaborate surface decoration. Dresser turned for inspiration to all kinds of historical sources - Pre-Columbian pottery, as well as Chinese and Japanese ceramics. Some pieces even look as if they were inspired by the Minoan civilization that was then still undiscovered, and may indeed be based on Helladic and Mycenaean wares.
Dresser’s most original work was in metal, and was produced for various leading firms of Birmingham silversmiths, prominent among them J. W. Hukin and J. T. Heath, and Messrs Elkington & Co. These designs are notable for their simplicity and their direct use of materials. In addition, they often show great originality of form, with strong emphasis on a kind of stripped-down geometric purity. Dresser was one of the first to analyze the relationships between form and function in a rational way. In his “Principles of Decorative Design” (1873) he provided diagrams demonstrating the laws that governed the efficient functioning of handles and spouts on jugs and other vessels, such as teapots. His own teapots are often extremely distinctive in shape, with emphatic slanted handles. The ergonomic and the metaphorical aspects are skillfully combined.
Dresser’s metalwork also shows his concern with economical use of materials. A plain oval sugar bowl has its edges rolled inward to strengthen the metal at the rim, so that a thinner gauge can be used. Very often, and indeed almost invariably in larger pieces such as soup tureens. Dresser used electroplate rather than silver. In these designs Dresser seems to anticipate the Bauhaus. He anticipates it, but he is not a direct ancestor. It is Dresser's surprising success in building relationships with industry as it then existed which seems in some ways to isolate him from the mainstream of orthodox design history.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercise
Exercise 3. Find English equivalents for the Russian words in the text:
Russian words English equivalents Russian words English equivalents
склонность к науке
свободный (внештатный) дизайнерпрактический опытширокий спектр материаловтеория естественного отбора был изготовлен в больших масштабах восточные товары урезанная геометрическая чистотахудожественный материал для изготовления мебели чрезвычайно отличительный по форме прямое использование материалов серебряных дел мастерпрямой предок умело сочетаетсяэффективное функционирование
Exercise 4. Use a word given in the box to fill in each gap:
item gauge venture warehouse technique archive ceramics ornament
mainstream partnership
1. Dresser is associated solely with domestic ________, not with the products of heavy industry.
2. His scientific studies led to an interest in the relationship between natural forms and _______.
3. Dresser’s own surviving designs cover a wide range of materials, styles and __________.
4. In 1879 Dresser entered into __________ with Charles Holmes of Bradford, later the founder of the Studio magazine.
5. When this partnership came to an end, Dresser was already involved in a new ________.
6. They had a wholesale ____________ that imported oriental goods.
7. Dresser also made designs for glass, and a large number for ________.
8. A big collection of his watercolour designs can be found in the Minton __________, and a number of Minton pieces decorated with these survive.
9. A plain oval sugar bowl has its edges rolled inward to strengthen the metal at the rim, so that a thinner __________ can be used.
10.It is Dresser’s surprising success in building relationship with industry as it then existed which seems in some ways to isolate him from the ___________of orthodox design history.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Exercise 5. Decide whether the following statements are True (T) or False (F) according to the text:
1. Christopher Dresser, who was born in Glasgow in 1834, and who died in 1904, is the first industrial designer.
2. Dresser is associated solely with the products of heavy industry.
3. Where ornament was concerned, Dresser opposed the then-flourishing ‘naturalistic’ school.
4. Dresser published his first book on design, the Art of Decorative design, in 1864.
5. Dresser’s own surviving designs cover a wide range of materials, styles and ornaments.
6. Dresser’s most original work was in glass.
7. Dresser was first to analyze the relationship between form and function in a rational way.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Exercise 6. Match the words from the text with their a) synonyms b) antonyms.
a)
1 domestic
a consistently
5 survive
e change
2 extensive
b shortly
6 instruct
f wide
3 invariably c method
7 approach
g remain alive
4 briefly d household
8 modify h teach
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
b)
1 blossom a enthusiastic 5 deliberate e unknown
2 elaborate b insignificant 6 prominent f changeably
3 invariably c simple 7 reluctant g unintended
4 notable d fade
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Exercise 7. Use the right form of the verbs.
Listen to him, please. He (1) (speaks, is speaking) Chinese.
She often (2) (speaks, is speaking) French when she (3) (travels, is travelling) in France.
Mary is in the office now. She is very busy. She (4)(works, is working) on the computer.
What foreign languages (5) (does your friend learn, is your friend learning) now?
What (6) (do you read, are you reading) now?
The family (7) (owns, is owning) a big house in the country.
Most of the students (8) (were listening , listened) to the teacher but Mary (9) (was reading, read) a history book. She (10) (hated, was hating) maths.
These people never (11) (owned, were owning) a house. They always (12) (lived, were living) in apartments.
Everyone (13) (was reading, read) quietly when the door (14) (was opening, opened) and a policeman came in.
The dentist’s waiting room was full of people. Some (15) (were reading, read), others (16) (were just turning, just turned) pages.
1 9 2 10 3 11 4 12 5 13 6 14 7 15 8 16 Questions for revision
Exercise 1. Write a short summery of the text describing the following:
1. Christopher Dresser’s contribution to the development of design?
2. The creative work of Christopher Dresser. __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
TEXT 3. The Revolution in the Fine Art
Exercise 1. Practice the pronunciation of the words from the text. Write the transcriptions of the words using a dictionary.
word transcription word transcription word transcription
symbolism synthetic cubism detritus materialism dynamism juxtaposition neo-primitivism inexorable aesthetic futurists esoteric endow Dadaists barbarous frisson Exercise 2. Read and translate the text using a dictionary.
The late nineteenth-century decorative arts existed within the broad context of the Symbolist movement. Symbolism had its roots in literature, but came to affect all forms of artistic expression. General currency was first given to the term by the minor French poet Jean Moreas, in a manifesto published in the French newspaper “Le Figaro” in 1886. Symbolism in its first phase involved a dandified revolt against materialism.
Symbolism, like all major cultural movements, had an inexorable dynamism of its own. Artists and craftsmen who pursued ever more esoteric and refined effects and sensations eventually reached the point where both they and their audience began to feel permanently jaded. The first stage of the reaction is contained within the general current of Symbolism itself, and is summed up in the bold neo-primitivism of Gauguin. But the search for the barbarous soon proved to be as disillusioning as all the other quests the Symbolists had pursued, and eventually a new generation began to feel that there was something even more fascinatingly brutal in the heart of their own society - the machine.
The first group actually to proclaim this view was the Italian Futurists, and it was they who established mechanical objects and the products of industry as key subjects in modern art.
In their paintings the Futurists wanted to render the dynamism of contemporary life - the movements of crowds in cities, and the rapid motion of an automobile or a train. The Futurists' paintings of crowds and machines in motion were perhaps their most spectacular achievements, but they did tackle other subjects as well. They even made Futurist versions of traditional still- life. Ardengo Soffici’s “Decomposition of the Planes of a Lamp” takes as its principal motif a banal mass-produced object. Soffici treated it in a way which gave it a new and startling authority. The Cubists, too, gloried in the banality of much of their source material. The collage - the key invention of Synthetic Cubism - featured scraps of newspaper, old labels, fragments of wallpaper, in fact all kinds of industrial detritus. The invented ‘reality’ of art was brought into shocking juxtaposition with the kind of reality that surrounded everyone. The Dadaists, particularly Duchamp, took matters even further, presenting mass-produced objects completely unaltered within a fine art context. The ironic suggestion was made that these be looked at not as objects of use but as formal inventions.
Three things established themselves at the very heart of the modernist aesthetic, and continued to influence artists long after Futurism had exhausted its impetus. One was the cult of the machine itself. Machines could be treated in a number of different ways - as a basis for abstraction, as in the impressive drawings of “Mechanical Elements” which Fernand Leger did in the early 1920s.
The second development was perhaps subtler, and also further-reaching in its effects. Duchamp presented ordinary mass-produced objects as if they were works of art. Other artists, less radical than he, took them into their vocabularies as subjects for painterly transformation. The American artist Stuart Davis, heavily influenced by French Cubism, took the Lucky Strike package as the subject-matter for a picture. Even before Raymond Loewy redesigned it, this package was one of the most familiar and ordinary of twentieth-century American objects. Davis asked his audience to shift focus and look at it in a totally different way, almost as if they had never seen it before.
Another American painter, Gerald Murphy, already seems to anticipate the Pop Art of the 1960s in a canvas produced in 1922. A matchbox, a safety- razor and a fountain pen are presented in quasi-heraldic fashion, almost as if they were images on an inn sign. Murphy seems to be saying that these industrial products, trivial and little considered, are in fact the emblems of a whole civilization and tell more about it than things with much greater pretensions to significance.
The fascination with machine forms had an inevitable impact on the decorative arts. Luxury products acquired an added frisson when they imitated what factories produced by the thousands or even the millions. Parisian jewelers made pendants in the shape of shells for heavy guns, and bracelets that seemed to be studded with ball-bearings. These fashionable follies were nevertheless a symptom of something important. People had started to study the products of industry in a new way, to savor industrial logic for its own sake. It is not too much to say that modern art, by separating industrial forms from their context, and holding them up to be admired in isolation, robbed industry of its innocence.
But there was a different kind of dialogue as well. In the nineteenth century pure machine forms were invisible. They only acquired visibility once they were ornamented in some way. Now art had endowed them with a kind of moral authority of their own. Design ceased to be pragmatic; men began to think of industry not as a brute force barely under the control of those who had created it, but as the paradigm of an ideal world. The machine must now be allowed to suggest its own forms and images, rather than having these imposed upon it by ignorant mankind.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercise
Exercise 3. Find in the text English equivalents for the Russian words:
Russian words English equivalents Russian words English equivalents
изящные искусства передавать динамизм современной жизни ведущий мотив смещать акцент неумолимый динамизм изделия массового производства выдающиеся достижения основа для абстракции футуристская интерпретация традиционного натюрморта
Exercise 4. Use one of the words given in the box to fill in each gap:
canvas collage impact visibility achievement motif expression aesthetic
focus subject matter
1. Symbolism had its roots in literature, but came to affect all forms of artistic __________.
2. The Futurists’ paintings of crowds and machines in motion were perhaps their most spectacular ____________.
3. Ardengo Soffici’s Decomposition of the Planes of a Lamp takes as its principal _______a banal mass-produced object.
4. The _________ - the key invention of Synthetic Cubism – featured scraps of newspaper, old labels, fragments of wallpaper, in facts all kinds of industrial detritus.
5. Three things established themselves at the very heart of the modernist _______, and continued to influence artists long after Futurism had exhausted its impetus.
6. The American artist Stuart Davis, heavily influenced by French Cubism, took the Lucky Strike package as the ___________for a picture.
7. Davis asked his audience to shift ________________ and look at it in a totally different way, as if they had never seen it before.
8. Another American painter, Gerald Murphy, already seems to anticipate the Pop Art of the 1960s in a ____________ produced in 1922.
9. The fascination with machine forms had an inevitable _____________ on the decorative arts.
10. In the nineteenth century pure machine forms were invisible. They only acquired ____________ once they were ornamented in some way.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Exercise 5. Decide whether the following statements are True (T) or False (F) according to the text:
1. The late nineteenth-century decorative arts existed within the broad context of the Symbolist movement.
2. General currency of the term ‘symbolism’ was first given by the French poet Jean Moreas in a manifesto published in the French newspaper Le Figaro in 1886.
3. Symbolism had its roots in literature, but came to affect all forms of artistic expression.
4. In their paintings the Futurists wanted to render the dynamism of contemporary life.
5. The Dadaists, particularly Duchamp, took matters even further, presenting mass-produced objects completely unaltered within a fine art context.
6. The fascination with machine forms had little effect on the decorative arts.
7. In the nineteenth century pure machine forms were distinct and obvious.
8. The late nineteenth century design ceased to be pragmatic; men began to think of industry not as a brute force barely under the control of those who had created it but as the paradigm of an ideal world.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Exercise 6. Chose the right variant and underline it.
The money (is, are) on the desk.
Where (is, are) the money? Where did you put (it, them)! I can’t find (it, them).
- He is making a lot of money.
-And what does he do with (it, them)?
What (is, are) the news?
The news (is, are) very good.
I have got very good news for you. Where (do, does) it come
from?
There (is, are) no news.
His progress in French (is, are) not surprising. His wife is a teacher of French.
This information (come, comes) from the journal.
I often followed his advice. (It was, they were) good.
There (is, are) no news at the moment.
His knowledge of accounting (is, are) very good.
Exercise 7. Translate the sentences into Russian paying attention to the “either…or”.
You can either use this method or that one.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
When there is a crisis, they either do nothing of do something useless.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
You can use either a diskette or a disk.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
You must answer either yes or no.
______________________________________________________________________
You can either walk or take a lift.
______________________________________________________________________
Questions for revision
Exercise 1. Write a short summery of the text describing the following:
1. The late nineteenth-century art movements.
2. The Symbolist movement.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
TEXT 4. The Triumph of Modern Design 1900-1925.
Exercise 1. Practice the pronunciation of the words from the text. Write the transcriptions of the words using a dictionary.
word transcription word transcription word transcription
design frequentlysophisticatedavant-garde exceptionalaudiencemachineunrecognizablyflourishsuperfluousinfluentiallinearprototypeaccessibleencourage Exercise 2. Read and translate the text using a dictionary.
During the second half of the nineteenth century, a number of forces transformed the avant-garde design scene. Two in particular played an important role: a reaction against the prevalent taste for academic historicism; and the rediscovery of the arts of Asia. Machine-produced pastiches of historical styles were increasingly shunned in favor of new designs that derived forms and decorative motifs from nature. Designers also began to reject superfluous surface ornament, often applied simply for the novelty of its effect, and focused instead on the total integration of form and decoration, recalling Asian prototypes.
By the turn of the twentieth century, a new stylistic vocabulary with distinct regional characteristics had been firmly established with exploration of new design influences.
Art Nouveau flourished in France and Belgium. Organic forms inspired by nature, frequently accentuated with asymmetrical curves or elaborate flourishes, characterize its decorative vocabulary. Its elegant forms often evoke the Rococo style of mid-eighteenth-century France. The term Art Nouveau derives from the name of Siegfried Bing’s Parisian shop L’Art Nouveau (“The New Art”), which opened in 1895 and sold exceptional works by many of the best-known designers working in this mode. In response to popular demand, however, poor-quality mass-production hastened the demise of this original style in the years after 1900.
Austrian and German Jugendstil, or “youth-style,” took its name from the popular illustrated magazine “Jugend” that was published in Munich. Contemporaneous with and related to Art Nouveau, the most innovative Jugendstil designers replaced the exuberance and naturalism of French and Belgian design with a comparatively restrained and abstracted aesthetic. Forms and decorative motifs often were treated in a linear or geometric manner that rendered them almost unrecognizably derived from nature.
Originating in Britain the Arts and Crafts movement had considerable influence into the twentieth century. Primarily through publications, the movement quickly spread across Europe (it was notably influential in Austria and Germany) and to America. Reacting against the perceived dehumanizing effects of industrialization, nineteenth-century British design reformers such as William Morris advocated a return to handcraftsmanship. The necessary handiwork, however, proved to be time-consuming and expensive, and designs could only be produced in limited numbers. Making well-designed objects accessible to a wide public required the assistance of machines, and in the years around 1900, designers began to reevaluate the importance of mass production as they attempted to make a new and positive alliance of art and industry.
A number of Viennese avant-garde designers made a switch from the flowing organic lines of Jugendstil and Art Nouveau to a strict yet vigorous geometry. In 1903, these designers banded together to form the “Vienna Workshops” - a designers’ cooperative under the direction of the noted architect/designer Josef Hoffmann. They provided a wide range of well-designed, often handmade products for a sophisticated audience, and indeed could supply everything from an architectural setting to the smallest decorative accessory.
Disillusioned by the failure of Art Nouveau and competing with advances in design and manufacturing in Austria and Germany in the early years of the century, French designers felt the need to reestablish their role as leaders in the luxury trade. The Société des Artistes Décorateurs, founded in 1900, encouraged new standards for French design and production through its annual exhibitions at the Salon d’Automne. In 1912, the French government voted to sponsor an international exhibition of decorative arts. The exhibition, scheduled for 1915, was postponed on account of World War I and did not take place until 1925. It was this fair, the Exposition des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes, that gave its name to the style now commonly known as Art Deco.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercise
Exercise 3. Find in the text English equivalents for the Russian words:
Russian words English equivalents Russian words English equivalents
важная роль ускорить смерть декоративные мотивы огромное влияние отличительная характеристика выступать против органические формы выступать за возвращение популярный спрос ограниченное количество использование машин союз искусства и промышленности декоративные аксессуары отложить по причине
Exercise 4. Use one of the words given in the box to fill in each gap:
force pastiche name magazine reformer designer production account movement ornament
1. During the second half of the nineteenth century, a number of _________ transformed the avant-garde design scene.
2. A number of Viennese avant-garde __________ made a switch from the flowing organic lines to a strict yet vigorous geometry.
3. The Société des Artistes Décorateurs, founded in 1900, encouraged new standards for French design and ___________.
4. Austrian and German Jugendstil, or “youth-style,” took its name from the popular illustrated __________ “Jugend” that was published in Munich.
5. The exhibition, scheduled for 1915, was postponed on ____________ of World War I.
6. Machine-produced __________ of historical styles were increasingly shunned in favor of new designs.
7. Originating in Britain the Arts and Crafts ___________ had considerable influence into the twentieth century.
8. Reacting against the perceived dehumanizing effects of industrialization, nineteenth-century British design _______ advocated a return to handcraftsmanship.
9. Designers began to reject superfluous surface _______, often applied simply for the novelty of its effect.
10. The term Art Nouveau derives from the _________ of Siegfried Bing’s Parisian shop L'Art Nouveau.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Exercise 5. Decide whether the following statements are True (T) or False (F) according to the text:
1. One in particular played an important role - a reaction against the prevalent taste for academic historicism.
2. By the turn of the twentieth century, a new stylistic vocabulary had been firmly established.
3. Art Nouveau flourished in France and Belgium.
4. The term Art Nouveau derives from the popular illustrated magazine “Jugend” that was published in Munich.
5. Viennese avant-garde designers provided a wide range of well-designed, often handmade products for a sophisticated audience.
6. The exhibition, scheduled for 1915, was postponed on account of World War I and did not take place until 1925.
1 2 3 4 5 6
Exercise 6. Insert the right article.
During (1) _ second half of (2) _ nineteenth century, a number of forces transformed the avant-garde design scene.
(3)__ new stylistic vocabulary with distinct regional characteristics had been firmly established with exploration of (4) __ new design influences.
(5)__ term Art Nouveau derives from the name of Siegfried Bing's Parisian shop L'Art Nouveau.
(6)__ most innovative Jugendstil designers replaced (7)__ exuberance and naturalism of French and Belgian design with (8)__ comparatively restrained and abstracted aesthetic.
Making (9) __ well-designed objects accessible to (10) __ wide public required the assistance of machines.
(11)__ French designers felt (12) __ need to reestablish their role as leaders in the luxury trade.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Questions for revision
Exercise 1. Answer the following questions:
What were two main forces that influence the avant-garde design scene?
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What kind of new design influences were established?
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What kind of features characterize the decorative vocabulary of Art Nouveau?
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Where does the term Art Nouveau derive from?
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Austrian and German Jugendstil, or “youth-style,” took its name from the popular illustrated magazine “Jugend”, didn’t it?
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What was important for Jugendstil designers?
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What movement was opened in Britain?
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What did nineteenth-century British design reformers advocate? Why did they begin to reevaluate the importance of mass production?
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What kind of switch did Viennese avant-garde designers make? What did they provide?
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Why did French designers fell the need to reestablish their role as leaders in the luxury trade?
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Why did the exhibition, scheduled for 1915, was postpone? Until what time?
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What gave a name to the style now commonly known as Art Deco?
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Exercise 2. Write a short summery of the text describing the following:
The main features of the following design movement and style such as Art Nouveau.
The main features of the following design movement and style such as Jugendstil.
The main features of the following design movement and style such as Arts and Crafts.
The main features of the following design movement and style such as Vienna Workshops.
The main features of the following design movement and style such as Art Deco.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

TEXT 5. Design from 1925 to 1950.
Exercise 1. Practice the pronunciation of the words from the text. Write the transcriptions of the words using a dictionary.
word transcription word transcription word transcription
constructivism existence plywood quarter conspicuously furniture increasingly equipment consumer texture exigencies architecture extravagance enticing through Exercise 2. Read and translate the text using a dictionary.
The second quarter of the twentieth century saw radical changes in design. The Art Deco style, which reached its apogee at the 1925 Exposition des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes in Paris, gradually waned; its decorative flourishes and emphasis on rich and exotic materials seemed increasingly irrelevant, considering the economic pressures of the Great Depression in the United States and growing political instability in Europe. It was replaced by young modernist reformers who believed that beauty need not depend on ornament but could be achieved through the manipulation of form and the judicious use of color and texture, that simplicity and economy were preferable aesthetically - even morally and politically - to the elaboration and extravagance that typified Art Deco. The geometric forms and plain undecorated surfaces favored by modernists were, however, too demanding for most people. It was with relief that consumers turned to the warmer organic design, with its emphasis on wood and natural materials, that emerged in Scandinavia in the mid-1930s.
The Bauhaus, founded in Weimar in 1919 as a school of arts and crafts, soon became known as a center of avant-garde design under the direction of Walter Gropius. The school strove to mold designers who could create beautiful and useful prototypes suitable for commercial production. In 1933, the Nazis closed down the Bauhaus, but during its brief existence it produced a generation of architects, artists, and designers who spread its teachings around the world. Among these were the architects Gropius, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, and Marcel Breuer; the designers Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Marianne Brandt, and Wilhelm Wagenfeld; and the painters Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Oskar Schlemmer, and Josef Albers.
One of the strongest and most influential reactions against the Art Deco movement came from the Swiss architect Le Corbusier. His Pavilion de l’Esprit Nouveau at the 1925 Exposition was a forceful rejection of the use of expensive, exotic materials in the extravagant, one-of-a-kind objects that typified Art Deco. He defined the house as a “machine for living in,” while furniture was “domestic equipment.” The pavilion itself was a prototype for standardized housing, conspicuously furnished with commonly available items such as leather club chairs. Like members of the Bauhaus, Le Corbusier advocated furniture that was rationally designed along industrial principles to reflect function and utility in its purist forms, with a strict rejection of applied ornament. Other important movements positing avant-garde theories of design and architecture included De Stijl in Holland, which advocated a seamless unity of art and architecture, and Russian Constructivism, whose utopian projects embraced a combination of machine forms and abstract art.
In the United States, designers responded to European influences, gradually transforming them into a uniquely American idiom. Many of the most prominent figures in the pre-war period were, in fact, European émigrés. The American Designers' Gallery in New York opened in 1928 and introduced consumers to modern interiors and furnishings by designers including Ilonka Karasz, Joseph Urban, and Donald Deskey. Many of its designers used industrial materials such as steel and chrome in their furniture. The machine aesthetic was an important influence on design. The Streamlined style, with its aerodynamic forms and implications of speed, reinforced the growing importance of automobiles and trains. The role of the industrial designer itself gained prominence, especially during the Great Depression, when companies relied on designers such as Henry Dreyfuss and Raymond Loewy to create enticing new product designs in an effort to stimulate consumer demand.
World War II profoundly affected the material and formal developments of architecture and design. Items such as steel, aluminum, and copper were rationed for use in the war effort, forcing designers to substitute nonessential materials, including cardboard, glass, and plywood, in their designs. Many American designers worked for the war effort itself, applying their knowledge and expertise to military exigencies. Charles and Ray Eames, for example, worked on behalf of the U.S. Navy, developing molded plywood designs for leg splints.
Much of this new technology found its way into furniture design following the war. Charles and Ray Eames developed their highly influential LCW chair, an inexpensive, mass-produced molded plywood object, from their wartime experiments. Museums and designers across the country turned their energies to promoting American design through the Good Design movement, which promised quality-of-life enhancing products for any budget. Inspired in part by pre-war European efforts to democratize design through industrial production, this movement energetically promoted modern design to the American consumer through museum exhibitions, trade shows, and advertising. Likewise, European design councils sponsored exhibitions and designers in an effort to stimulate national consumer interest. Following years of economic and political turmoil, consumers now had access to goods of modern design in rapidly increasing quantities.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercise
Exercise 3. Find in the text English equivalents for the Russian words:
Russian words English equivalents Russian words English equivalents
радикальные перемены натуральные материалы экзотические материалы авангардный дизайн экономическое давление выдающиеся фигуры неукрашенная поверхность современный интерьер геометрическая форма предмет массового производства промышленные материалы экономический и политический беспорядок коммерческое производство единственный в своем роде предметы
Exercise 4. Use one of the prepositions given in the box to fill the gaps:
against along by for in on to with
1. The second quarter of the twentieth century saw radical changes (1) _ design.
2. The geometric forms and plain undecorated surfaces favored (2) _ modernists were, however, too demanding (3) __ most people.
3. It was with relief that consumers turned (4) __ the warmer organic design, with its emphasis (5) __ wood and natural materials, that emerged in Scandinavia in the mid-1930s.
4. The school strove to mold designers who could create beautiful and useful prototypes suitable (6) __ commercial production.
5. One of the strongest and most influential reactions (7) __ the Art Deco movement came from the Swiss architect Le Corbusier.
6. The pavilion itself was a prototype for standardized housing, conspicuously furnished (8) __ commonly available items such as leather club chairs.
7. Le Corbusier advocated furniture that was rationally designed (9) __ industrial principles.
8. In the United States, designers responded (10) __ European influences, gradually transforming them into a uniquely American idiom.
9. The machine aesthetic was an important influence (11) __ design.
10. Museums and designers across the country turned their energies (12) __ promoting American design through the Good Design movement, which promised quality-of-life enhancing products for any budget.
11. Inspired in part (13) __ pre-war European efforts this movement energetically promoted modern design to the American consumer.
12. Consumers now had access (14) __ goods of modern design in rapidly increasing quantities.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Exercise 5. Match the notion with the right information about it. Some notions may have more than one information:
a Art Deco 1 Its decorative flourishes and emphasis on rich and exotic materials seemed increasingly irrelevant, considering the economic pressures of the Great Depression in the United States and growing political instability in Europe.
b the American Designers' Gallery 2 Promised quality-of-life enhancing products for any budget.
c Charles and Ray Eames 3 Style, which reached its apogee at the 1925 Exposition des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes in Paris.
d The Bau-haus4 Opened in 1928 and introduced consumers to modern interiors and furnishings by designers including Ilonka Karasz, Joseph Urban, and Donald Deskey.
e The Good Design movement 5 Was a forceful rejection of the use of expensive, exotic materials in the extravagant, one-of-a-kind objects that typified Art Deco.
f Le Corbusier 6 Soon became known as a center of avant-garde design under the direction of Walter Gropius.
g De Stijl7 During its brief existence it produced a generation of architects, artists, and designers who spread its teachings around the world.
h Pavilion de l'Esprit Nouveau 8 Affected the material and formal developments of architecture and design. Items such as steel, aluminum, and copper were rationed for use in the war effort, forcing designers to substitute nonessential materials, including cardboard, glass, and plywood, in their designs.
iRussian Constructivism 9 Advocated furniture that was rationally designed along industrial principles to reflect function and utility in its purist forms, with a strict rejection of applied ornament.
j Streamlined style 10 Advocated a seamless unity of art and architecture.
k World War II 11 Utopian projects embraced a combination of machine forms and abstract art.
12 Developed their highly influential LCW chair, an inexpensive, mass-produced molded plywood object, from their wartime experiments.
13 Worked on behalf of the U.S. Navy, developing molded plywood designs for leg splints.
14 With its aerodynamic forms and implications of speed, reinforced the growing importance of automobiles and trains.
15 Was a prototype for standardized housing, conspicuously furnished with commonly available items such as leather club chairs.
a b c d e f g h ij k
Questions for revision
Exercise 1. Translate the poem into Russian or write your own.
Design
I found a dimpled spider, fat and white,
On a white heal-all, holding up a moth
Like a white piece of rigid satin cloth
Assorted characters of death and blight
Mixed ready to begin the morning right,
Like the ingredients of a witches' broth-
snow-drop spider, a flower like a froth,
And dead wings carried like a paper kite.
What had that flower to do with being white,
The wayside blue and innocent heal-all?
What brought the kindred spider to that height,
Then steered the white moth thither in the night?
What but design of darkness to appall? -
If design govern in a thing so small.
Robert Frost
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
TEXT 6. Design from 1950 to Present.
Exercise 1. Practice the pronunciation of the words from the text. Write the transcriptions of the words using a dictionary.
word transcription word transcription word transcription
enormous initially intellectual commercial perceive virtually encouraged emerge inherent fusion alternative manufacture conventional aesthetics value Exercise 2. Read and translate the text using a dictionary.
The years following World War II were characterized by enormous change on every level. The war ended, leaving a new worldwide generation of veterans with young families struggling to rebuild their lives. The pressing need for inexpensive housing and furnishings spurred a boom in design and production. Commercial jet travel was introduced in 1957, and ease of travel in the jet age encouraged a growing fusion of cultural influences. In particular, a blurring of Eastern and Western aesthetics and technology represented an entirely new cultural fusion.
The elaborate households of the prewar years were gone, replaced by in-formality and adaptability. Gone, too, was the conventional approach to furnishings as expensive and permanent status objects. New materials and technologies, many of which had been developed during wartime, helped to free design from tradition, allowing for increasingly abstract and sculptural aesthetics as well as lower prices for mass-produced objects.
The most marked changes occurred in America, Italy, Scandinavia, and Japan. A growing number of American firms such as the Herman Miller Furniture Company and Knoll International began to build a reputation for manufacturing and marketing well-designed, high-quality, inexpensive furniture made from new materials like fiberglass and plastics for the consumer market in the postwar years. In an effort to revive their depressed postwar economy, Italian designers made a self-conscious effort to establish themselves as leaders in the lucrative international marketplace for domestic design. While initially they looked to traditional forms or materials for inspiration, they also soon embraced new materials and technologies to produce radically innovative designs that expressed the optimistic spirit of high-style modernism. Scandinavian designers preferred to combine the traditional beauty of natural materials with advanced technology, giving their designs a warm and domestic yet modern quality. Japanese designers, obviously aware of contemporaneous developments in Western architecture and design, strove to create a balance between traditional Asian and international modern aesthetics, while still evoking national values with their distinctly Asian sensibility.
At the same time, in reaction to the perceived impersonality of mass production, an alternative group of artist-designers who were interested in keeping alive the time-honored practices of hand-working traditional materials emerged during the 1960s. Their one-of-a-kind objects, made with tour-de- force virtuosity, helped elevate design to the status of art.
By the mid-1970s, a radically transformed “modern design” expressed it-self through a variety of idioms. There was a style for virtually every taste, from the bold forms and colors of Op Art - inspired super graphics to the refinement of Studio Movement handcraftsmanship to the pared-down industrial aesthetics of High Tech.
The last quarter of the twentieth century saw a surge of unbridled consumerism manifested in a number of diverse, often contradictory, design currents. Some architects and designers chose to conform to the previously established intellectual strictures of modernism, seeking expression through form rather than applied ornament. Others, inspired by texts that denounced the cool aridity of modernism - including Robert Venturi’s “Learning from Las Vegas” (1972), “Collage City” (1973) by Colin Rowe and Fred Koetter, and Rem Koolhaas’ “Delirious New York” (1978) - developed a postmodernism that celebrated the vernacular and reinterpreted motifs of the past. Still others used the design of objects as a means to make countercultural social or political statements. Many of the leaders of the Studio Craft Movement consciously abandoned the creation of useful objects in favor of nonfunctional art. Toward the end of the 1980s, designers, recognizing the inherent beauty of materials developed for science, began to employ them in a wide range of consumer products. In the century’s last decade, the environment became a major concern for designers offering “green”, socially responsible solutions to design problems.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercise
Exercise 3. Find in the text English equivalents for the Russian words:
Russian words English equivalents Russian words English equivalents
заново построить жизнь потребительский рынок ускорять быстрый подъем возрождать экономику способствовать объединению радикально новый дизайн искажение чего-либо передовые технологии традиционные формы для вдохновения потребительский интерес традиционный подход национальные мотивы освободить дизайн от традиции в пользу чего-либо
Exercise 4. Put in the right forms of adjectives in brackets:
1. If the Modern Movement in art prepared the way for new attitudes towards design in (1) (broad) sense, in a much (2) (narrow) sense the change was due to a group of artists, architects, craftsmen, manufacturers, bureaucrats and politicians in Germany.
2. The single individual with (3) (great) responsibility for the Werkbund idea was a civil servant in the Prussian Ministry of Trade, Hermann Muthesius.
3. One of (4) (virulent) of rows occurred in July 1914, on the eve of the Werkbund’s Cologne exhibition.
4. Industrialization had taken place much (5) (late) than it did in England.
5. (6) (seminal) Werkbund designs were most of all to the increasing use of electricity in the home.
6. The single individual with (7) (great) responsibility for the Werkbund idea was a civil servant in the Prussian Ministry of Trade, Hermann Muthesius.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Exercise 5. Decide whether the following statements are True (T) or False (F) according to the text:
1. The war started, leaving a new worldwide generation of veterans with young families struggling to rebuild their lives.
2. The pressing need for inexpensive housing and furnishings spurred a boom in design and production.
3. New materials and technologies, many of which had been developed during prewar time, helped to free design from tradition.
4. Commercial jet travel was introduced in 1957.
5. A growing number of American firms began to build a reputation for manufacturing and marketing well-designed, high-quality expensive furniture.
6. Italian designers embraced new materials and technologies to produce radically innovative designs. 
7. An alternative group of artist-designers who were interested in keeping alive the time-honored practices of hand-working traditional materials emerged during the 1960s.
8. The last quarter of the twentieth century saw a surge of unbridled consumerism manifested in a number of diverse, often contradictory, design currents.
9. Toward the end of the 1990s, designers, recognizing the inherent beauty of materials developed for science, began to employ them in a wide range of consumer products.
10. In the century's last decade, the environment became a major concern for designers offering “red”, socially responsible solutions to design problems.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Exercise 6. Match the words (1-10) with the adjectives (a - j) to make word combinations:
1 housing a intellectual
2 design b cultural
3 number c national
4 objects d inexpensive
5 modernism e conventional
6 years f domestic
7 approach g high-style
8 values h mass-produced
9 strictures igrowing
10 influences j postwar
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Questions for revision
Exercise 1. Complete the following:
The war ended, leaving a new _____________________________________________________________________
New materials and technologies, many of which had been developed ______________________________________________________________________
The most marked changes occurred in _______________________________________________________________________
Italian designers made a self-conscious effort to establish themselves as _______________________________________________________________________
Scandinavian designers preferred to combine _______________________________________________________________________
Japanese designers strove to create a balance ______________________________________________________________________
An alternative group of artist-designers were interested in keeping alive the time-honored practices of _______________________________________________________________________
Some architects and designers chose to conform to the previously established intellectual strictures of modernism, seeking _______________________________________________________________________
9. Others used the design of objects as a means to ______________________________________________________________________
10. In the century's last decade, the environment became a major concern for designers offering ______________________________________________________________________

UNIT 2. Направления дизайна. Потребительский дизайн (Design directions. Consumer design).
TEXT 1. Furniture Design.
Exercise 1. Practice the pronunciation of the words from the text. Write the transcriptions of the words using a dictionary.
word transcription word transcription word transcription
aesthetic hygiene intuitive social homogeneous nostalgic tubular rationing ceramics laminates bureaucracy absurd assemblage puritanism Exercise 2. Read and translate the text using a dictionary.
Furniture - and the chair especially - has been used by 20th-century architects and designers as a means of making an aesthetic, social and ideological argument.
In the 1920s, European designers such as Marcel Breuer and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (Germany, 1886-1969), developed new, minimalist conceptions for furniture, using tubular steel and thin upholstery.
In the 1940s, furniture designers were excited by the possibilities offered to them by new laminates, new bending techniques, and combinations of laminated wood, metal and plastic. By making a means of molding materials in two directions at once, modern furniture designers were able to switch from constructed assemblage to sculptural forms. These new and rounder designs appeared also in Italy and to some extent in Britain.
Some of the most interesting furniture design in the early postwar years came from the USA, especially from the Cranbrook Academy of Art, founded in 1932 by George Booth, a newspaper baron, and Eliel Saarinen, the Finnish architect.
The American Look in furnishings and interior design was especially significant in the offices of Corporate America. American companies such as IBM, Ford, General Motors, Coca-Cola and Du Pont were regarded as supreme examples of business efficiency, and other companies in other countries wanted Jo copy their look. The characteristics of the official ‘Look’ were comfort, colour, brightness, order and hygiene. Surfaces were kept clear of cumbersome pattern or ornament, although the Look was tempered by simple pattern on the chair coverings or curtains or in the laminates that provided covering to the cupboard paneling. Ornamentation was provided by modern paintings, or through a reasonable number of potted plants. Overall, the style of decoration that became permitted in the interiors of the better homes, offices and reception areas might be described as ‘intellectual gingham’.
In Britain there was a lot of well made, modestly Modern furniture design using multi-plywood construction. Multiply - dozens of layers of wood veneer, bonded and then pressed to form a homogeneous sheet - allowed a designer to specify thin curved legs and back rails for chairs. This enabled the designer to create ‘drawings in space’ - a popular ambition, which they shared with contemporary sculptors. Wood predominated, but some elegant, well- proportioned, apparently comfortable and durable designs in metal also appeared in Britain soon after the war. A now classic example is the aluminium BA3 chair, designed by Ernest Race using aircraft salvage.
And there was Utility furniture, a range of simple, cheap-to-make furniture designed for production during the war. Its standards improved after the war. Britain maintained rationing of food and materials until 1954 and, during the war, use had to be made of materials such as low-grade hardboard, which gave a ragged edge when sawn. When timber supplies eased in the late 1940s the Utility range was updated. The designs and specifications were extremely detailed, in order that a variety of firms, large and small, could produce the work without dispute. Though popular with some designers and architects, the stigmas of utility, bureaucracy and puritanism damned the furniture in the eyes of most consumers who, as soon as choice was available in the 1950s, threw it out.
But eventually in furniture, as in so many other areas of design, the impetus for new styles came from Italy. The postwar growth of various design-led manufacturing and retailing companies in Italy provided a conduit between the designer's ideals and the market place. Among the important companies were (and are) Cassina, Driade, Kartell and Tecno.
During the 1980s, architects were designing office furniture because the top end of the market could finance high quality manufacture and intelligent modern design. The internationally recognized architect Sir Norman Foster designed an office furniture system called Nomos for the Italian company Tecno. It appeared in 1986 and demonstrated the values Foster expresses in his architecture: the pleasure of engineering structure and the elegance of planes traversing wide spaces.
During the 1980s, one of Britain’s most talented young designers emerged: Jasper Morrison. Like everyone else involved in design his subsequent breakthrough into manufacture came through his exposure in the design and fashion media. The first and main arena in which the ‘new furniture’ operated was the magazine and the colour photograph. The colour photograph and the press media’s greed for new ideas replaced the rich patron as a launching pad for new ideas.
Until the 1980s, wood was the only practical material that could be worked in solid planks but then, in the 19805, two new materials were developed that could be sawn and planed, and which found a ready use in furniture. The first, MDF (Medium Density Fibreboard) was the first of a generation of processed-wood boards that could be planed and treated like wood. It is strong, has a very smooth finish and is extremely heavy. It found favor with ‘Postmodern’ furniture designers who wanted the flexibility of wood without the grain and finish of wood.
The most famous furniture designer of the 1985 was the Frenchman Phil-ippe Starck. Starck came to public renown through being commissioned by French President Mitterrand to design the furnishings for Mitterrand's private apartment in the Elysee palace. In the midst of colourful Postmodernism, with its references to Neoclassicism and Las Vegas vulgarity, Starck’s designs were simple, neat and chic. Although Modern, they were also nostalgic for the Art- Modernc look of the French 1985. His preferred material was metal. His most famous designs remain those produced in the 1985 for the Italian company Driade - the Von Vogelsang chair (1984) and the Titos Apostos folding table (1985) are ‘classics’ of his style. Since the mid 1980s Starck's work has embraced interior and product design as well as architecture. He is quoted as saying: 'I work instinctively, and above all fast. I can design a good piece of furniture in fifteen minutes.’ In the early 1990s, he was designing buildings in Japan.
Also in Japan, a designer had emerged who was a master of using metal in furniture and in interior design: Shiro Kuramata. His work often uses the lattice effects that are possible in metal to create optical games, and several of his chairs are designed as things to contemplate - in the tradition of Japanese gardens or ceramics. For Western critics, Kuramata revitalized the issue of furniture design communicating not only through its design but through the quality of its craftsmanship - the importance of craft that had become ignored in European experiments.
Furniture can be made in low-technology workshops, and it is not dependent upon clever electronics or sophisticated engineering. It has become, since 1945, an ideal medium for designers to make their visual statements and construct their individual manifestos. In furniture there is a ping-pong game played out between absurd and useful design, and this game is one way in which the design profession explores itself: the designing, re-designing and re- re-designing of the chair is the design profession's equivalent of publishing a short scientific paper asking 'What if?'
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercise
Exercise 3. Find in the text English equivalents for the Russian words:
Russian words English equivalents Russian words English equivalents
минималистская концепция применить тонкие изогнутые ножки для стульев новые методы сгибания очевидно удобные и прочные конструкции были способны давал рваный край при распиливании дизайн интерьера высоко качественное производство колоссальные примеры эффективности бизнеса в большей степени потенциальный нежели нынешний громоздкой модели предмет мебели приемные сложное проектирование
Exercise 4. Use one of the words given in the box to fill in each gap:
photograph chic cheap-to-make MDF furniture significant metal interiors designers architect
1. By making a means of molding materials in two directions at once, modern furniture _____ were able to switch from constructed assemblage to sculptural forms.
2. The American Look in furnishings and interior design was especially ______ in the offices of Corporate America.
3. Overall, the style of decoration that became permitted in the _____ of the better homes, offices and reception areas might be described as ‘intellectual gingham’.
4. Wood predominated, but some elegant, well- proportioned, apparently comfortable and durable designs in _____ also appeared in Britain soon after the war
5. And there was Utility furniture, a range of simple, ____ furniture designed for production during the war.
6. The internationally recognized _____ Sir Norman Foster designed an office furniture system called Nomos for the Italian company Tecno.
7. The first, ______ was the first of a generation of processed-wood boards that could be planed and treated like wood.
8. The most famous furniture designer of the 19805 was the Frenchman Phil-ippe Starck
9. In the midst of colourful Postmodernism, with its references to Neoclassicism and Las Vegas vulgarity, Starck’s designs were simple, neat and ____.
10. The first and main arena in which the ‘new furniture’ operated was the magazine and the colour _____.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Exercise 5. Decide whether the following statements are True (T) or False (F) according to the text:
1. Furniture - and the table especially - has been used by 20th-century architects and designers as a means of making an aesthetic, social and ideological argument.
2. Some of the most interesting furniture design in the early postwar years came from the USA, especially from the Cranbrook Academy of Art, founded in 1932 by George Booth, a newspaper baron, and Eliel Saarinen, the Finnish architect.
3. The characteristics of the official ‘Look’ were comfort, colour, brightness, order and hygiene.
4. Plastic predominated, but some elegant, well- proportioned, apparently comfortable and durable designs in metal also appeared in Britain soon after the war.
5. Britain maintained rationing of food and materials until 1974 and, during the war, use had to be made of materials such as low-grade hardboard, which gave a ragged edge when sawn.
6. The postwar growth of various design-led manufacturing and retailing companies in Italy provided a conduit between the designer's ideals and the market place. 
7. Until the 1980s, glass was the only practical material that could be worked in solid planks.
8. The last quarter of the twentieth century saw a surge of unbridled consumerism manifested in a number of diverse, often contradictory, design currents.
9. In the midst of colourful Postmodernism, with its references to Neoclassicism and Las Vegas vulgarity, Starck’s designs were simple, neat and chic.
10. Shiro Kuramata’s work often uses the lattice effects that are possible in metal to create optical games, and several of his wardrobes are designed as things to contemplate - in the tradition of Japanese gardens or ceramics.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Exercise 6. Match a first part (1-10) with a second part (a-j):
1 The look was tempered a by modern paintings
2 Ornamentation was provided b by simple pattern on the chair
3 Furniture - and chair especially has been used c by Marcel Breuer and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe4 Tubular steel and thin upholstery was developed d by combinations of laminated wood, metal and plastic
5 Furniture designers were excited e by 20th century architects and designers
6 Modestly modern furniture design in Britain was developed f by making a means of molding materials in two directions at once
7 The designer was allowed to create drawing in space g by postwar British designers
8 Modern furniture designers were able to switch from constructed assemblage to sculptural forms h by Ernest Race
9 Elegant, well-proportioned, comfortable and durable designs in metal were made iby using multi-ply wood construction
10 The aluminium BA3 chair was designed j by multi-plying dozens of layers of wood veneer
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Questions for revision
Exercise 1. Write a short summery of the text describing the following:
1. Special features in chair constructions of different periods of time.
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
TEXT 2. Fashion Design.
Exercise 1. Practice the pronunciation of the words from the text. Write the transcriptions of the words using a dictionary.
word transcription word transcription word transcription
life-style customers theory accessories qualify modeling garments productions stylists exclusively unique modelers sportswear philosophy license Exercise 2. Read and translate the text using a dictionary.
Fashion design is the applied art dedicated to the design of clothing and lifestyle accessories.
The first fashion designer who was not merely a dressmaker was Charles Frederick Worth (1826-1895). Before the former draper set up his maison couture (fashion house) in Paris, clothing design and creation was handled by largely anonymous seamstresses, and high fashion descended from styles worn at royal courts. Worth’s success was such that he was able to dictate to his customers what they should wear, instead of following their lead as earlier dressmakers had done. With his unprecedented success, his customers could attach a name and a face to his designs once they learned that they were from the House of Worth, thus starting the tradition of having the designer of a house be not only the creative head but the symbol of the brand as well. Worth’s former apprentice Paul Poiret opened his own fashion house in 1904, melding the styles of Art Nouveau and aesthetic dress with Paris fashion. His early Art Deco creations signaled the demise of the corset from female fashion.
Following in Worth’s and Poiret’s footsteps were: Patou, Vionnet, Fortuny, Lanvin, Chanel, Mainbocher, Schiaparelli, Balenciaga, and Dior. Hand in hand with clothing, haute couture accessories evolved internationally with such names as Guccio Gucci, Thierry Hermès, Judith Leiber, and others.
The early twentieth century: Throughout the 1920s and ‘80s, all high fashion originated in Paris. American and British fashion magazines sent editors to the Paris fashion shows. Department stores sent buyers to the Paris shows, where they purchased garments to copy. Both made-to-measure salons and ready-to-wear departments featured the latest Paris trends, adapted to the stores’ assumptions about the lifestyles and pocket books of American customers.
Post-War fashion: The fashion houses closed during occupation of Paris during World War II, and several designers including Mainbocher permanently relocated to New York. Paris recovered its primacy in the post-war era with Dior’s New Look, but Paris was never the sole arbiter of trends again.
By the early 1960s, celebrities were becoming the new Fashion icons, even though they in turn wore designs from the couturiers of the day: influential “partnerships” of celebrity and highfashion designer included Audrey Hepburn and Givenchy, and Jackie Kennedy, Oleg Cassini.
The rise of British fashion in the mid-sixties and designers such as Mary Quant and Betsey Johnson signaled the end of French dominance. Taking their cue from street fashion, these designers catered to a younger consumer and offered retailers a new source of inspiration. Vivienne Westwood’s street- inspired styles “created” the image which is now generally considered as Punk.
Later, New York designers including Calvin Klein and Ralph Lauren raised American sportswear to the level of high fashion. The trend dictation of the old couture houses was over.
Modern fashion design and designers: Modern fashion design is roughly divided into two categories, haute couture, and ready-to-wear. A designer’s haute-couture collection is meant exclusively for private customers and is custom sized, cut and sewn. To qualify as an official “haute couture” house, a designer or company must belong to the Syndical Chamber for Haute Couture, a Paris-based body of designers governed by the French Department of Industry that includes American, Italian, Japanese, and other designers as well. A haute couture house must show collections twice yearly with at least 35 separate outfits in each show. It is often shown on the catwalk and in private salons.
Ready-to-wear collections are not custom made. They are standard sized which makes them more suitable for larger productions. Ready-to-wear collections can also be divided into designers/creature collections and Confection collections. Designer/creature collections have a high quality, a superb finish and a unique cut and design. These collections are the most trendsetting compared to Haute Couture and Confection. Designer/creatures ready to wear collections contain often concept items that represent a certain philosophy or theory. These items are not so much created for sales but just to make a statement. The designer’s ready-to-wear collection is also presented on the international catwalks by people who do fashion modeling.
Confection collections are the ones we see most commonly in our shops. These collections are designed by stylists. The brands that produce these collections aim only for a mass public and are in general not searching for new grammar for the language or a new point of view on/of fashion.
Although many modern fashion designers work in a “traditional” way - making clothes that are fancy and expensive, but still based on standard/traditional construction and design concepts - some designers have broken these “rules” over the years. These include some now-deceased designers such as Elsa Schiaparelli, who worked in the thirties, forties, and fifties; Japanese designers Yohji Yamamoto, Comme des Garcons, and Clarence Davis from the early eighties to the present; and designers from the mid-nineties onward. An example of a modern-day rule-breaker is Martin Margiela. These designers approach clothing, Fashion and lifestyle from new angles and explore also the boundaries of Fashion itself in order to create new concepts and views for fashion design. Their collections are not only restricted to garments (ready to wear as well as couture) and other fashion-related products, but also contain work in other media. The works of this breed of designers can also be placed in a certain Art movement.
Most fashion designers attend an Academy of fine arts. Fashion design courses are considered applied arts just like graphic design and interior design.
The types of fashion designer - stylist versus designer - are often confused. A stylist inspires his/her designs on existing things, trends and designers collections. A designer starts from scratch; he/she develops a unique concept and translates this into garment collections, other lifestyle related products or a statement in various other types of media. Some designers approach their work just as a fine arts painter or sculptor.
Inspiration for fashion designers comes from a wide range of things and cannot be pinpointed exactly. However, just like all artists, they tend to keep an eye on things going on world-wide to inspire themselves towards making their future clothes lines.
Most fashion designers are trained as pattern makers and modelers. A typical design team is made up of one or more: designer(s), pattern maker(s) /modeler(s), sample maker(s), buyer(s) and salesman (men). For presentations and catwalk shows the help of hair dressers, make-up artists, photographers, modeling agencies, the model and other support companies/professions is called upon.
As fashion became more and more a large business, designers also began to license products (for example, perfume and bags).
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercise
Exercise 3. Find in the text English equivalents for the Russian words:
Russian words English equivalents Russian words English equivalents
дома высокой моды знаменитости дизайн одежды угождать молодому потребителю королевский двор источник вдохновения непредвиденный успех поднять до уровня высокой моды женская мода коллекция предметов женского туалета образ жизни показывать коллекции показы мод прикладные искусства лицензионная продукция модельные агентства
Exercise 4. Use one of the words given in the box to fill in each gap:
perfume Haute rule-breaker Art Nouveau items mass public dominance maison ready-to-wear fine arts
1. Before the former draper set up his _____ couture (fashion house) in Paris, clothing design and creation was handled by largely anonymous seamstresses,
2. Worth’s former apprentice Paul Poiret opened his own fashion house in 1904, melding the styles of _____ and aesthetic dress with Paris fashion.
3. Both made-to-measure salons and ______ departments featured the latest Paris trends, adapted to the stores’ assumptions about the lifestyles and pocket books of American customers.
4. The rise of British fashion in the mid-sixties and designers such as Mary Quant and Betsey Johnson signaled the end of French______.
5. To qualify as an official “haute couture” house, a designer or company must belong to the Syndical Chamber for _____ Couture.
6. The brands that produce these collections aim only for a _____ and are in general not searching for new grammar for the language.
7. An example of a modern-day _______ is Martin Margiela.
8. These _____ are not so much created for sales but just to make a statement.
9. Some designers approach their work just as a _______ painter or sculptor.
10. As fashion became more and more a large business, designers also began to license products (for example, _____ and bags).
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Exercise 5. Match the words (1-10) with their synonyms (a-j):
1 fashion a originate
2 fashion house b look for
3 descend c client
4 customer d maison couture
5 outfits e include
6 purchase f trend
7 couturiers g buy
8 contain h garment
9 search ihigh-fashion designer

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Exercise 6. Put each prepositional phrase (a – h) in its correct space in the sentences (1 – 8):
a. a.
in the process of (in the middle of) e. in the event of (if there is)
b
b. under the guidance of (with the help and advice of) f. in accordance with (following)
c. c.
in addition to (as well as) g. in view of (because of)
d. d.
in terms of (from the point of view of) h. h. in payment for (to pay for)
1. All our sports activities are organized __________ a fully qualified instructor.
2. __________ rain, the party will be held in the conservatory.
3. ___________ your instructions, we have rearranged the meeting for laterin the schedule.
4. ____________ language skills, a resort representative must have good interpersonal (межличностные) skills.
5. ___________ the current economic situation, we can expect fewer visitors this year.
6. The hotel has had some bad reviews but _________ sales, it has been very popular.
7. We are _________ negotiating a new contract with our tour operator.
8. I enclose a cheque _________ our accommodation.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Questions for revision
Exercise 1. Find evidence in the text to support the following statements. Write a few sentences about it.
1. Fashion design is the applied art dedicated to the design of clothing and lifestyle accessories.
2. Frederick Worth was able to dictate to his customers what they should wear, instead of following their lead.
3. Throughout the 1920s and ‘80s, all high fashion originated in Paris.
4. The rise of British fashion in the mid-sixties signaled the end of French dominance.
5. Modern fashion design is roughly divided into two categories, haute couture, and ready-to-wear.
6. Confection collections aim for a mass public.
7. Many modern fashion designers have broken standard rules.
8. The types of fashion designers are often confused.
9. Fashion is becoming more and more a large business
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
TEXT 3. Designing for Business.
Exercise 1. Practice the pronunciation of the words from the text. Write the transcriptions of the words using a dictionary.
word transcription word transcription word transcription
Dictaphone primitive appropriate miniaturization photocopier hiatus cylinder electrification mysterious technologist alphabet manual duplicator mechanics thoroughly Exercise 2. Read and translate the text using a dictionary.
The design of office equipment is now quite closely related to the design of the electronic equipment used in the home. In many cases they all belong to the same technological family. The office Dictaphone, for example, has undergone the same process of first tidying up, and then miniaturization, as the radio. And one exists to record sound, the other to transmit it. The eponymous Dictaphone Type A, current in 1934 exposes virtually all its works to the public gaze, including the spare cylinders stored beneath the actual mechanics. When it was redesigned the designer did nothing to the way in which it functioned, but a good deal to improve the way it looked. It remained, however, a fairly bulky item of furniture.
What really changed the nature of dictating machines was the coming of the battery-powered recorder. The smallest of these were enough to be slipped in a pocket, and certainly into a briefcase, and did not require an external microphone. The busy executive could take one with him anywhere. Essentially the process whereby the Dictaphone evolved was one in which the designer followed rather than led. He tried to find appropriate forms for the possibilities which technologists made available.
The first rotary duplicator was introduced in 1903, and it was manually operated. It has the technical simplicity, directness and functional logic of the best early typewriters. Like them, it kept the working parts exposed so that they were easy to service.
These duplicators look remarkably primitive when compared to the photo-copiers which are now extensively employed. The duplicator with its wax stencil was something whose workings the operator could understand. The photocopying machine remains mysterious, and becomes steadily more so as it becomes ever more sophisticated.
An even stranger fate is in the process of overtaking the typewriter. The Underwood No. 1 typewriter of 1897 was a sturdy basic machine designed to stand up to a lot of hard use. This and similar models set a standard which lasted for half a century, and were subject only to the kind of cleaning-up process which overtook design in the 30s. The first radical change was the electrification of the typewriter. It was very little different from a manual model from the user's point of view. There was another hiatus before the electric typewriter was followed in turn by machines which were not only electric but electronic. These models did away the conventional array of keys, which was replaced by a golf-ball unit carrying the complete alphabet and any other necessary symbols. The final stage of the typewriter's evolution is the word processor. Here a use of computer technology enables the operator to record and store a text, and to recall and correct any part of it at will. Word processors are already undergoing the ritual process of miniaturization. Computer technology now enables machines to undertake tasks which would have been considered impossible only a short time ago. Some of their functions are so complex that it still seems astonishing that they can be carried out mechanically.
Perhaps it is a reflection of the astonishment felt by the designers them-selves that some computer designs carry inexpressiveness to a deliberate extreme. The box with its discreetly ranged set of keys yields its secret only to the thoroughly instructed and initiated. In fact, given the nature of microchips and of computer circuitry in general, it is in any case very difficult for the de-signer to seek for an expressive form. Nevertheless, it must also be recognized that the industrial designer's role in creating such things has in fact altered to a remarkably small extent though the actual technology may now be much more advanced.
To accomplish his task successfully he has to think of two things - ergonomics in the broad sense (that is, not only the way in which human bodies are constructed but about things such as reaction time); and what the object itself is supposed to accomplish. His aim is to harness the user to the used in the smoothest, simplest and most painless way. This means taking into account mental states as well as physical facts. Office machines, like machines in the home or even in the factory, need less and less physical effort on the part of the user. But a machine will be tiring, or annoying to use if it is not possible to grasp quickly and easily a basic principle of use. Too many designs for office equipment fail because the equipment is efficient once you have mastered it, but impossible to fathom if you are unfamiliar with the way it operates. An important part of modern design work is, therefore, to discover ways of seeing to it that the object educates the user in terms of its own use. This in turn means that the designer is often the traditionalist as well as the innovator in a team which yokes the designer on the one side to the technologist or engineer on the other. The engineer is anxious to create ab initio; the designer, perhaps surprisingly, must ask himself what is established in this particular field, and how people use it. It is much easier to teach someone to use a new machine if they can make a connection with a machine they already know how to use.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercise
Exercise 3. Find English equivalents for the Russian words in the text:
Russian words English equivalents Russian words English equivalents
офисное оборудование конечная ступень эволюции громоздкий предмет мебели компьютерная технология подходящая форма детально инструктировать управляемый вручную физическое усилие техническая простота основной принцип легкий в обслуживании принимать в расчет широко применяемый радикальная перемена
Exercise 4. 2.Look through the text one more time and find the adjectives to each of the following nouns:
Noun Adjectives
1 family2 machine 3 equipment4 form5 state6 simplicity7 process8 effort9 principle10 technology11 microphoneExercise 5. Read the text and open the brackets using the appropriate tense form
Television (1) (not to be) with us all that long, but we already (2) (begin) to forget what the world (3) (to be) like without it. Before we (4) (to admit) the one-eyed monster into our homes, we never (5) (to find) it difficult to occupy our spare time. We (6) (to use) to enjoy civilized pleasures. Now the monster (7) (to demand) and (8) (to obtain) absolute silence and attention. If any member of the family (9) (to dare) to open his mouth during a programme, he quickly (10) (to silence).Whole generations (11) (to grow up) addicted to telly. Every day television (12) (to consume) vast quantities of creative work. Television (13) (to encourage) passive enjoyment.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Questions for revision
Exercise 1. Write an essay using the following quotations:
1. Science is the most important, the most magnificent and the most necessary element of life. (A. Chekhov)
2. I value experiment higher than a thousand opinions born of the imagination. (M. Lomonosov)
3. The job of science is to serve people. (L. Tolstoy).
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
UNIT 3. Направления дизайна. Экологический дизайн (Design directions. Ecological design).
TEXT 1. Green Design.
Exercise 1. Practice the pronunciation of the words from the text. Write the transcriptions of the words using a dictionary.
word transcription word transcription word transcription
Eco-design materials structure energy recycle artificial efficiency radius organic harmony minimize bamboo resources transportation option Exercise 2. Read and translate the text using a dictionary.
Green design is the catchall term for a growing industry trend within the fields of architecture, construction, and interior design. Also referred to as “sustainable design” or “eco-design”, the broad principles of green design are fairly simple: choose energy efficiency wherever possible; work in harmony with the natural features and resources surrounding the project site; and use materials that are sustainably grown or recycled rather than new materials from non-renewable resources.
Building materials may be sought within a 500-mile radius of the building site to minimize the use of fuel for transportation. The building itself may be oriented a particular direction to take advantage of naturally occurring features such as wind direction and angle of the sun. When possible, building materials may be gleaned from the site itself; for example, if a new structure is being constructed in a wooded area, wood from the trees which were cut to make room for the building would be re-used as part of the building itself. Taking advantage of available natural light reduces dependence on artificial (energy-using) light sources. Well-insulated windows, doors, and walls help to reduce energy loss, thereby reducing energy usage.
Low-impact building materials are used wherever feasible: for example, insulation may be made from low VOC (volatile organic compound)-emitting materials such as recycled denim, rather than the fiberglass insulation which is dangerous to breathe. To discourage insect damage, the insulation may be treated with boric acid. Organic or milk-based paints may be used.
Architectural salvage and reclaimed materials are used when appropriate as well. When older buildings are demolished, frequently any good wood is reclaimed, renewed, and sold as flooring. Many other parts are reused as well, such as doors, windows, mantels, and hardware, thus reducing the consumption of new goods. When new materials are employed, green designers look for materials that are rapidly replenished, such as bamboo, which can be harvested for commercial use after only 6 years of growth, or cork oak, in which only the outer bark is removed for use, thus preserving the tree.
Good green design also reduces waste, of both energy and material. During construction phase, the goal is to reduce the amount of material going to landfills. Astutely designed buildings also help reduce the amount of waste generated by the occupants as well, by providing onsite solutions such as compost bins to reduce matter going to landfills.
To reduce the impact on wells for watering treatment plants, several options exist. “Greywater”, wastewater from sources such as dishwashing or washing machines, can be used to flush toilets, water lawns, and wash cars. Rainwater collectors are used for similar purposes, and some homes use specially designed rainwater collectors to gather rainwater for all water use, including drinking water.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercise
Exercise 3. Find in the text English equivalents for the Russian words:
Russian words English equivalents Russian words English equivalents
эко-дизайн направление ветра дизайн интерьера сократить потерю энергии строительная площадка сносить старые здания воспользоваться преимуществом выращивать для коммерческой цели рубить деревья спустить воду в туалете поливать лужайки собирать дождевую воду быстро испаряющийся материал изоляционный материал тщательно подбирать стекловолокно
Exercise 4. Decide whether the following statements are True (T) or False (F) according to the text:
1. Green design is the term for a growing industry trend within the fields of constructions, architecture, and painting.
2. The principles of green design are very complicated.
3. Taking advantage of available natural light reduces dependence on artificial light sources.
4. When new materials are employed, green designers look for materials that are slowly replenished.
5. During construction phase green designers increase waste, of both energy and material.
6. Rainwater collectors are designer to gather rainwater for all water use.
1 2 3 4 5 6
Exercise 5. Put the words in the following sentences in right order.
1.reduces/ green/ of/ and/ energy/ material/ good/ design/ waste;
____________________________________________________________________________
2.rainwater/ some/ use/ homes/ designed/ collectors;
____________________________________________________________________________
3.VOC-emitting/ insulation/ may/ made/ be/ from/ materials;
____________________________________________________________________________
4.doors/ walls/ well-insulated/ help/ windows/ loss/ to reduce/ energy;
____________________________________________________________________________
5.may/ organic/ be /milk-based/ or/ used/ paints;
____________________________________________________________________________
6.oak/ in/ cork/ the/ only/ outer/ is removed/ bark/ use/ for;
____________________________________________________________________________
7.toilets/ wastewater/ dishwashing/ machines/ flush/ be/ can/ used/ from/ washing/ to/ or;
____________________________________________________________________________
8.fiberglass/ dangerous/ insulation/ breathe/ to/ is;
____________________________________________________________________________
9.building/ itself/ wood/ the/ trees/ wood/ from/ can/ re-used/ be/ as/ parts/ of;
____________________________________________________________________________
10.growth/bamboo/harvested/can/commercial/after 6/only/be/for/use/years/ of.
____________________________________________________________________________
Exercise 6. Complete the blanks with the correct form of the word in brackets.
1. During construction phase, the goal is to ___ the amount of material going to landfills. (reduction)
2. Fiberglass is ___ to breathe. (danger)
3. To discourage insect damage, the insulation may be ___ with boric acid.
(treatment)
4. Green design is the catchall term for a ___ industry trend. (growth)
5. A broad principles of green design is to ___ energy efficiency wherever possible. (choice)
6. Many other parts of older buildings are reused to reduce the ___ of new goods. (consume)
7. When new materials are ___ green designers look for materials that are rapidly replenished. (employ)
8. Taking advantage of available natural light reduces ___ on artificial light sources. (depend)
9. Well-insulated doors reduce energy ___ (loss)
10. The building may be ___ to take advantage of wind direction and angle of the sun. (orientation)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Questions for revision
Exercise 1. Write a short summery of the text describing the following:
Principles of green design
Use of building materials
Architectural salvage
Reduction of waste
Rainwater collectors and water use
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
UNIT 4. Направления дизайна. Информационный дизайн (Design directions. Information design).
TEXT 1. Computer Design.
Exercise 1. Practice the pronunciation of the words from the text. Write the transcriptions of the words using a dictionary.
word transcription word transcription word transcription
substance interactivity cinematic digital radiate typographic method symbol visual technique theme anonymous technology cinematic elegance Exercise 2. Read and translate the text using a dictionary.
Much of the freedom that today’s designers enjoy is the result of the computer, which enables them to explore multiple approaches quickly and easily. With advanced graphics programs, type can be manipulated almost as a plastic substance - stretched, molded, turned in space, enlarged, reduced, colored and recolored. Images too can be enlarged, reduced, cropped, placed, and moved. A design can be completely worked out on the computer and transmitted in digital form to the printer. More often, the computer is used as simply another tool, although a powerful one, in a design process that also includes traditional studio methods and darkroom techniques.
With the dramatic expansion of the World Wide Web and the increasing popularity of CD-ROM technology, the computer has also become an exciting new place for design. Design for the Web draws on such traditional models as posters, magazine layout, and advertising. To these it adds the potential for motion and interactivity - reactions to choices made by a visitor to the site.
Light radiates from a computer screen as it does from a television, allowing a deeper and more luminous sense of space than traditional print media. Brothers and design partners - Christopher and Matthew Pacetti exploit this sense of space beautifully in their elegant design for a website for Polygram records. The layered background, whose repeating curves imply the motion of a spinning CD, subtly includes the word PolyGram, which also appears in violet to the left. The saturated, jewel-like colors radiate like stained glass. Against this layered ground, the navigation choices are clearly listed in while type with corresponding symbols, which also carry through to later pages.
An influential voice in the forefront of graphic design by and for the computer is John Maeda, head of the Media Laboratory at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. As the director of the Aesthetics and Computation Group there, Maeda works to bridge the gap between engineers and artists. He believes that artists interested in using the computer must master the language of the computer itself, which is programming. To rely on off- the-shelf design software, he points out, is to accept the limits of someone else’s imagination. To help artists understand the basics of computer design, Maeda published “Design by Numbers”, a book that introduces a simple programming language he developed. The book, Maeda says, is “an attempt to demystify the technology behind computer art, to show how simple it is, and that people can do it”. 
Maeda’s own work includes an interactive online calendar created for Shiseido, a Japanese cosmetics company. The calendar divides the year into six, two-month segments, with each segment programmed for a specific design theme. The July/August segment, for example, allows the user’s mouse to coax the numbers of the days into animated fireworks displays. For September/October, users can trigger shimmering patterns in blue, recalling the heat of summer and ocean waves.
Many websites take the form of succeeding “pages”. This way of presenting information is deeply rooted in our way of thinking, for we have been storing information on pages in books for almost 2,000 years. Yet the computer also permits a more fluid, cinematic sense of space whose graphic possibilities are only beginning to be explored. David Small’s experimental “Shakespeare Project” may give us an idea of developments to come. A member of Maeda’s Aesthetics and Computation Group, Small focuses on typographic displays that move away from the idea of a flat page toward three-dimensional “information environments”. Here, the text of a play by Shakespeare is set in a single long column. Annotations, traditionally positioned as footnotes at the bottom of a page, are set at the same level as the lines they relate to, but at a 90- degree angle. Small developed a variety of intuitive interface devices that allow users to navigate the space freely, positioning themselves anywhere in the text, moving smoothly between detailed views and overviews, angling the columns to read now the text, now the annotations.
Although they are working with the most advanced technology of the day, designers such as Small and Maeda are actually quite conservative, for their work embraces the principles of visual elegance and communicative clarity that have been at the core of graphic design since anonymous scribes first developed writing.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercise
Exercise 3. Find in the text English equivalents for the Russian words:
Russian words English equivalents Russian words English equivalents
графические программы ощущение пространства увеличить изображение витраж сократить изображение совершенствовать компьютерный язык передавать в цифровом изображении хранить информацию разрастание «всемирной паутины» трехмерное изображение CD-ROM-технологии угол в 90° посетитель веб-сайтов компьютерный экран
Exercise 4. Use one of the nouns given in the box to fill in each gap:
powerful animated exciting developed traditional divides radiates rooted influential programming
1. An _____ voice in the forefront of graphic design by and for the computer is John Maeda.
2. Design for the Web draws on such ______ models as posters, magazine layout, and advertising.
3. More often, the computer is used as simply another tool, although a _____ one, in a design process that also includes traditional studio methods and darkroom techniques.
4. Maeda published “Design by Numbers”, a book that introduces a simple ______ language he developed.
5. This way of presenting information is deeply _____ in our way of thinking.
6. The calendar ____ the year into six, two-month segments.
7. The July/August segment, for example, allows the user’s mouse to coax the numbers of the days into ____ fireworks displays.
8. Small _____ a variety of intuitive interface devices.
9. Light _______ from a computer screen, allowing a deeper and more luminous sense of space than traditional print media.
10. With the dramatic expansion of the World Wide Web and the increasing popularity of CD-ROM technology, the computer has also become an ________ new place for design.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Exercise 5. Match the verbs (1-10) with the nouns (a - j) to make word combinations:
1 to enable a approaches
2 to explore b the gap
3 to introduce c the technology
4 to demystify d information
5 to store e the space
6 to include f the principles
7 to navigate g programming language
8 to embrace h traditional studio methods
9 to bridge ithe potential
10 to add j sense of space
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Exercise 6. Put a preposition into each gap:
1. A design can be completely worked out (1) _____ the computer.
2. The computer has also become an exciting new place (2) _____ design.
3. To rely (3) ____ off-the-shelf design software, is to accept the limits of someone else’s imagination.
4. We have been storing information (4) _____ pages in books for almost 2,000 years.
5. Small focuses (5) ____ typographic displays that move (6) ___ from the idea of a flat page (7) ___ three-dimensional “information environments”.
6. Annotations, traditionally positioned as footnotes (8) ____ the bottom of a page, are set (9) ____ the same level as the lines they relate (10) ___, but (11) ___ a 90-degree angle.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Questions for revision
Exercise 1. Write a short summery of the text describing the following:
1. Much of the freedom that today’s designers enjoy is the result of the computer.
2. Maeda works to bridge the gap between engineers and artists.
3. Small developed a variety of intuitive interface devices that allow users to navigate the space freely.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
TEXT 2. Designing to Communicate.
Exercise 1. Practice the pronunciation of the words from the text. Write the transcriptions of the words using a dictionary.
word transcription word transcription word transcription
contemporary major through complexity mechanism miniaturize feature successful youthfully pioneer subsidiary psychological engineering distinguished viewing Exercise 2. Read and translate the text using a dictionary.
Outlets for communications systems provide the contemporary designer with a great deal of his work. It is so often forgotten that a telephone, or a radio, or a television set are meaningless objects in themselves and meaningful only if we think of them in terms of organizational and technological complexities.
Of the three objects, the telephone has the longest history. It also bridges the gap between objects that have to accommodate themselves to the shape of the human body, and those where ergonomic considerations are only secondary. Early telephone designers thought of speaking and listening as two quite separate activities, and designed accordingly. In addition, automatic exchanges were not yet in use, and they did not have to think of ways to accommodate an additional feature, the dial.
A revolution in telephone design took place in the early 30s, and was pioneered in Scandinavia. The engineers decided to use Bakelite, as plastic made it easy to achieve complex curves which were harder to make in metal, but the actual design was the work of a young artist with no engineering background. Jean Heiberg had recently returned from Paris to become Professor at the National Academy of Fine Art in Oslo. The design he came up with had architectural overtones, but the total concept was so successful in gaining acceptance from the public that it was exported all over the world, and in Britain various versions of it have continued in current use until the present day.
Telephones brought a number of subsidiary design problems. The most complex of these were connected with the public, coin-operated phone. There was first of all the need to devise a coin box mechanism sturdy enough to resist thieves and vandals and simple and reliable in operation. There was also the question of independent housing for public telephones, when these were not to be installed in buildings that already had a major role of their own. In Britain, telephone kiosks evolved from the early 20s towards the 1935 design which until recently remained standard.
The radio-set gives the consumer a way of linking himself to a different kind of communication system. During the pioneering days of radio in the early 20s, listeners used headphones linked to crystal sets. Listening to the radio was a solitary experience, and sets themselves looked like laboratory equipment.
The invention which brought the industrial designer into the picture was the valve-receiver which could be used to power a loudspeaker. This turned listening into a social act - indeed, for a long time people always faced towards the set when they listened, as if it were another person in the room, talking to them. In the late 20s, a radio had come to be regarded as a standard item of home furnishing. In the 30s the British firm of Ekco began to use distinguished modern architects to design cabinets. Serge Chermayeff did a notably simple design in plywood in 1933, and this was followed the next year by Wells Coates's revolutionary design in Bakelite.
The real transformation of radio design came about, not through the efforts of eminent industrial designers, but through technological advances that in turn brought a fresh wave of changes not only in how radio-sets looked, but in how they were used and in purchaser's attitudes towards them. The invention of the transistor made it possible to miniaturize the set to an extent that the designers of the 30s would have found unimaginable. In August 1955, the Japanese firm of Sony introduced the world's first mass-produced all-transistor radio - the TR-55. The innovation swept the world market. The German firm of Braun, for example, produced two notable designs that combined a radio and a record-player in a single unit. A battery-operated pocket-size version was designed in 1959 - the two parts coupled together for carrying, but could be separated in use. This was the predecessor of the combined cassette player and radio designed to be hooked to the belt and listened to through lightweight a headphone that has become an emblem of a free, youthfully independent lifestyle in the short period since it was first introduced. Another notable Braun design dates from 1962, and also combines a radio and a record-player.
During the past 20 years the design of television sets has followed the same general physical and psychological pattern as that of radios. The first all-transistor television set was introduced by Sony in 1959 and started the transformation of television from something used for communal viewing into an object of solitary contemplation. Combining a radio and a television set in the same housing gave the way to another contemporary trend - that of bringing together two or more functions in the same electronic device.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercise
Exercise 3. Find in the text English equivalents for the Russian words:
Russian words English equivalents Russian words English equivalents
коммуникационные системы детекторный приемник бесполезный предметлабораторное оборудование организационная и технологическая комплексность технологический прогресс “навести мосты” предшественник чего-либо эргономические соображения независимый образ жизни дополнительный признак физическая и психологическая комбинация архитектурный оттенок электронное оборудование получить признание Exercise 4. Put the words in the right order to make up a sentence.
1.telephone/ thought/ early/ quite/ separate/ listening/ speaking/ and/ of/ as/ two/ designers/ activities.
____________________________________________________________________________
2.brought/ of/ a/ number/ design/ problems/ telephones/ subsidiary.
_____________________________________________________________________________
3.the/ the/ a/ a/ radio-set/ communication/ kind/ consumer/ way/ system/ gives/ linking/ himself/ different/ to/ of/ of.
____________________________________________________________________________
4.be/ in/ 20s/ item/ radio/ come/ regarded/ as/ a/ the/ to/ a/ standard/ of/ had/ home/ late/ furnishing.
_____________________________________________________________________________
5.possible/ the/ miniaturize/of/the/made/it/to/ transistor/ the/ set/ invention.
___________________________________________________________________________
6.the/ radio/ firm/ of/ produced/ notable/ that/ combined/ a/ two/ a/ record- player/ Braun/ in/ a/ single/ German/ unit/ designs/ and.
_____________________________________________________________________________
7.television/ introduced/ the/ all-transistor/ set/ Sony/ was/ in/ 1959/ by/ first.
____________________________________________________________________________
8.the/ pioneering/ of/ during/ listeners/ used/ crystal/ radio/ headphones/ to/ days/ sets/ linked.
__________________________________________________________________________
9.there/ the/ to/ a/ coin box/ to/ vandals/ resist/ devise/ was/ mechanism/ thieves/ and/ need.
____________________________________________________________________________
10.radio/ a/ listening/ the/ was/ experience/ solitary/ to.
_____________________________________________________________________________
Exercise 5. Match the meanings of these terms with their definitions:
1 telephone a A person who studies, plans and builds machines, ships, roads, bridges and etc.
2 dial b Receivers fitting on to the head.
3 engineer c The system of broadcasting music, news, speeches, etc.
4 radio d An instrument for transmitting the sound of the voice by electricity.
5 headphones e A symbol or representation.
6 emblem f The process by which scenes can be transmitted radio and reproduced on receiving instruments
7 television g The part of an automatic telephone used when calling people.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Exercise 6. Write questions for these answers.
1. Outlets for communications systems provide the contemporary designer with a great deal of his work. (What... ?)
_________________________________________________________________________
2. Early telephone designers thought of speaking and listening as two quite separate activities. (Who.?)
_________________________________________________________________________
3. A revolution in telephone design took place in the early 30s, and was pioneered in Scandinavia. (When.?)
__________________________________________________________________________
4. The real transformation of radio design came about, not through the efforts of eminent industrial designers, but through technological advances that in turn brought a fresh wave of changes. (How.?)
_____________________________________________________________________
5. A battery-operated pocket-size version was designed in 1959. (Alternative)
_________________________________________________________________________
6. Serge Chermayeff did a notably simple design in plywood in 1933. (General)
____________________________________________________________________________
Questions for revision
Exercise 1. Write a short summery of the text describing the following:
1. The most important machines in your life.
2. Put inventions in order. Which do you think is the most important? Which has changed the world the most?
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Приложение 1
Языковой комментарий.
UNIT 1. Исторические и современные тенденции в развитии дизайна. (Historical and Modern Trends in the Development of Design).
TEXT 1. Industrial Design in Pre-Industrial Societies.
1 appreciate ценить2 implement воплощать в жизнь3 artisan ремесленник4 break out прорыв5 concept концепция6 contemporary современный7 contribution вклад8 decoration украшение9 evidence доказательства10 evolve эволюционировать11 exuberance изобилие12 fertilize удобрять13 flint (flint implements) кремень (кремневые орудия)
14 foreshadow предвещать15 identical идентичный16 ingenuity изобретательность17 mahogany красное дерево18 medieval средневековый19 mold плесень20 obsolete устаревший21 outfit снаряжение22 patron покровитель23 pottery керамика24 pounder пестик25 precious драгоценный26 precision точность27 principle принцип28 proto-industrial прото-промышленный29 reveal выявить
30 scraper скребок
31 sophisticated утонченный
32 standardization стандартизация
33 supply поставка
34 surpass превосходить
35 tile кафельная плитка
36 typify олицетворять
37 uniformity единообразие
38 verify проверить
39 ware изделия
40 weaponry оружие
41 restrain сдерживать
42 flaking шелушение
43 mold пресс-форма
TEXT 2. The First Industrial Designer.
1 anticipateпредвидеть
2 apparentlyпо всей видимости
3 approachподход
4 archiveархив
5 artisticхудожественный
6 attemptпопытка7 blossomцвести
8 brieflyкратко
9 ceramicsкерамика
10 chieflyглавным образом
11 conventionalizeизображать условно (стилизовать)
12 deliberateсознательный (преднамеренный)
13 domesticвнутренний
14 elaborateтщательно разработанный
15 embraceохватывать
16 ergonomicэргономический
17 eventuallyв конечном счете
18 extensiveобширный
19 freelanceвнештатно
20 geometricгеометрический
21 instructинструктировать
22 invariablyнеизменно
23 itemпункт
24 mainstreamосновное направление
25 modifyмодифицировать
26 naturalisticнатуралистический
27 notableпримечательный
28 orientalвосточный
29 ornamentорнамент
30 partnershipпартнерство
31 prominentизвестный
32 reluctantсопротивляющийся
33 requirementтребование
34 silversmithсеребряных дел мастер
35 skillfullyумело
36 surviveвыживать
37 techniqueтехника
38 utilitarianismутилитаризм (практицизм)
39 ventureрискованное предприятие
40 visuallyвизуально
41 warehouseсклад
42 watercolourакварель
43 wholesaleоптовый
44 workshopмастерская
TEXT 3. The Revolution in the Fine Art
1 achievement достижение
2 acquire приобретать
3 actually на самом деле
4 aesthetic эстетический
5 affect влиять
6 artistic художественный
7 banality банальность
8 barbarous варварский
9 barelyедва
10 canvasхолст
11 collageколлаж
12 completelyполностью
13 endowодарять
14 expressionвыражение
15 featureчерта
16 focusсредоточие
17 imageобраз
18 imitateподражать
19 impactвлияние
20 impetusимпульс (толчок)
21 impose налагать
22 inventionизобретение
23 juxtapositionсопоставление (соседство)
24 motifлейтмотив (основная тема)
25 ornamentорнамент
26 painterlyживописная
27 visibilityвидимость
28 permanentlyпостоянно
29 pragmaticпрактический
30 pursueпреследовать
31 redesignпереконструировать
32 renderпередавать
33 significanceзначение
34 spectacularзахватывающий
35 still-lifeнатюрморт
36 subject matterпредмет
37 subtleнеуловимый
38 trivialобыденный
39 unalteredнеизмененный
TEXT 4. The Triumph of Modern Design 1900-1925.
1 advance продвижение
2 accentuate акцентировать
3 access доступ
4 alliance объединение (альянс)
5 attempt попытка
6 contemporaneous одновременный
7 demise кончина
8 derive извлекать (выводить)
9 distinctотчетливый
10 elaborateискусно сделанный
11 establishсоздавать
12 exceptionalнеобыкновенный 13 exuberanceизбыток
14 evokeвызывать чувства
15 hastenспешить
16 implementосуществлять
17 innovativeинновационный
18 inspireвдохновлять
19 luxuryроскошь20 pasticheстилизация
21 perceive воспринимать22 postponeоткладывать23 prevalentраспространенный
24 rejectотклонять
25 renderизображать
26 restrainсдерживать
27 sceneкартина
28 shunизбегать
29 sophisticatedутонченный
30 superfluousизлишний
31 vigorousэнергичный
TEXT 5. Design from 1925 to 1950.
1 achieveдостигать
2 aerodynamicаэродинамический
3 aestheticallyэстетически
4 aluminumалюминий
5 apogeeапогей
6 cardboardкартон
7 chromeхром
8 conspicuouslyвидимо
9 copperмедь
10 elaborationразработка
11 enhanceусилить
12 enticeпереманивать 13 exigencyкрайность
14 extravaganceрасточительность
15 judiciousрассудительный
16 implicationпричастность
17 interiorинтерьер
18 irrelevantне имеет значения
19 one-of-a-kindединственный в своем роде
20 ornamentорнамент
21 pavilionпавильон
22 positутверждать
23 plywoodфанера
24 prominenceизвестность
25 prototypeпрототип
26 puristпурист
27 seamlessбесшовный
28 splintшина
29 steelсталь
30 teachingобучение
31 turmoilсмятение
32 typifyолицетворять
33 uniquelyоднозначно
34 utilityполезность
35 utopianутопическое
36 waneослабевать
TEXT 6. Design from 1950 to Present.
1 abandonотказаться от
2 aridityзасушливость
3 consumerismзащита потребителей
4 conventionalобычный
5 currentтекущий
6 denounceосуждать
7 embraceохватывать
8 enormousогромный
9 evokeвызывать
10 fiberglassстекловолокно
11 jetструйный
12 lucrativeприбыльный
13 pared-down урезанный
14 refinementутонченность
15 reinterpretпереинтерпретировать16 reviveоживлять
17 spurшпора
18 surgeволна (быстрый рост)
19 tour-de-force проявление силы
20 vernacularобщеупотребительный
21 virtuosityвиртуозность
22 unbridleраспрягать
UNIT 2. Направления дизайна. Потребительский дизайн (Design directions. Consumer design).
TEXT 1. Furniture Design.
1 availableдоступный
2 bendизгиб
3 conduitтрубопровод
4 craftsmanshipмастерство
5 umbersomeгромоздкий
6 damnосуждать
7 edgeкрай
8 embraceохватывать
9 emergeпоявляться
10 ignore пренебрегать11 impetusстимул
12 layerслой
13 mouldплесень
14 multiply умножать
15 patternшаблон
16 planeплоскость
17 railперила
18 remainоставаться
19 revitalize оживлять
20 sheetлист
21 switchпереключатель
22 timberлесоматериалы
23 traverseперемещение
24 upholsteryобивочный материал
25 veneerшпон
26 tubular steelтрубчатая сталь
TEXT 2. Fashion Design.
1 angleточка зрения
2 anonymousанонимный
3 apply применять4 apprenticeученик5 assumptionпредположение6 attach прикреплять7 cater поставлять8 catwalk дефиле9 confection кондитерские изделия10 dedicate посвятить11 demise смерть12 descend спускаться13 draper драпировщик (торговец мануфактурой)
14 evolveразвиваться15 handle рукоятка16 meld сливаться17 originate возникать18 pinpoint определить19 primacy первенство20 purchase покупка21 raise повышать22 retailer розничный торговец23 rise подъем24 royal королевский25 seamstress швея26 unprecedentedбеспрецедентныйTEXT 3. Designing for Business.
1 ab initioнеэмпирические
2 alter изменять3 array множество, массив
4 astonish изумлять5 beneath ниже6 briefcaseпортфель7 bulky громоздкий8 circuitry схема9 deliberate преднамеренный10 duplicator копировальный аппарат11 efficient эффективный12 eponymous одноименный13 evolveразвиваться14 expose разоблачать
15 fathom вникать16 gaze посмотреть17 grasp схватывание18 harness упряжь19 hiatus пропуск20 manual руководство21 rotary вращательный22 smooth гладкий; плавный23 stencilтрафарет24 tidy аккуратный25 typewriter печатная машинка26 yield уступать
27 yoke хомутUNIT 3. Направления дизайна. Экологический дизайн (Design directions. Ecological design).
TEXT 1. Green Design.
1 bark кора
2 boric acid борная кислота3 compost bins мусорные ведра компоста4 cork oak пробковый дуб5 damage наносить ущерб6 demolish сносить7 denim джинсовая ткань8 dependence зависимость9 emit излучать10 feasible выполнимый11 fiberglass стекловолокно12 flooring напольное покрытие13 flush промывать14 glean тщательно подбирать
15 hardware аппаратные средства16 harvest уборка урожая17 insect насекомое18 insulation изоляция19 mantelsкаминная полка
20 reduce уменьшить21 salvage спасение22 VOC (volatile-organic compound) ЛОС (летучие органические соединения)
UNIT 4. Направления дизайна. Информационный дизайн (Design directions. Information design).
TEXT 1. Computer Design.
1 angle точка зрения2 annotation аннотация3 background задний план4 clarity ясность5 coax уговаривать6 core ядро7 crop урожай8 curve кривая9 degree степень10 demystify демистифицировать11 display дисплей12 embrace охватывать13 enable включить14 enlarge увеличить15 explore исследовать16 flat квартира17 fluid жидкость18 footnotes сноска19 gap разрыв20 heat высокая температура21 imply подразумевать22 include включают23 intuitive интуитивный24 luminous светящийся25 master мастер26 mold плесень27 position должность28 reduce уменьшить29 relate иметь отношение30 rely полагаться31 root корень32 saturated насыщенный33 screen экран34 shimmer мерцать35 software программного обеспечения36 spin вращение37 stained glass витражное стекло38 store магазин39 succeed добиться успеха40 transmit передавать41 trigger вызывать42 wave волнаTEXT 2. Designing to Communicate.
1 acceptance принятие2 accommodate вмещать
3 advance продвижение
4 bakeliteбакелит5 cabinet кабинет6 communal коммунальный7 complexity сложность8 contemplation созерцание9 device устройство10 dial набирать номер11 emblem герб12 eminent выдающийся13 ergonomic эргономический14 headphone наушники15 hook крюк16 kiosk киоск17 outlet выход18 overtone обертон19 pattern шаблон20 physical физическая21 plywood фанера22 predecessor предшественник23 psychological психологический24 purchaser покупатель25 solitary уединенный
26 subsidiary дочернее предприятие27 thief вор28 valve-receiver клапан-приемник29 vandal вандал

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