Рабочая тетрадь для практических работ по дисциплине «Иностранный язык(английский)» в разделе «Профессионально-направленный модуль» для специальности 54.02.05 Живопись (по видам)


РАБОЧАЯ
ТЕТРАДЬ
ДЛЯ ПРАКТИЧЕСКИХ РАБОТ ПО ДИСЦИПЛИНЕ
«ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК (АНГЛИЙСКИЙ)» В РАЗДЕЛЕ
«ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНО-НАПРАВЛЕННЫЙ МОДУЛЬ»
ДЛЯ СПЕЦИАЛЬНОСТИ 54.02.05 ЖИВОПИСЬ (ПО
ВИДАМ)
Коровкина Татьяна Владимировна 5357167center00

Содержание
Введение.
Методические указания по изучению дисциплины. 2
3
UNIT 1. Исторические и современные тенденции в развитии живописи. (Historical and Modern Trends in the Development of Painting). TEXT 1. The History of Art.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercises. 5
TEXT 2. English Painting.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercises. 10
TEXT 3. Pablo Picasso.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercises. 15
TEXT 4. Landscape Painting. Landscape Painting of Constable.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercises. 19
UNIT 2. Живопись: формы, техники и содержание. (Painting: forms, techniques and content) TEXT 1. Easel Painting.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercises. 23
TEXT 2. The Magic of Watercolors.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercises. 28
TEXT 3. Digital painting.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercises. 34
TEXT 4. Graffiti.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercises. 39
UNIT 3. Как оценивать живопись. (How to Appreciate Painting) TEXT 1. Studying Art.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercises 43
TEXT 2. How to Talk to an Artist.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercises 47
ПРИЛОЖЕНИЕ 1 (Appendix 1) 53
Языковой комментарий Введение
Рабочая тетрадь предназначена для практических работ по дисциплине «Иностранный язык» в разделе «Профессионально-направленный модуль» для специальности 54.02.05 Живопись (по видам). Основное назначение рабочей тетради – закрепить и активизировать языковой и речевой материал раздела «Профессионально-направленный модуль», автоматизировать лексико-грамматические навыки при работе с профессионально-ориентированными текстами. Тексты сопровождаются методически грамотно построенным комплексом упражнений, помогающим обучаемым совершенствовать навыки и умения самостоятельной работы с текстом. Лексико-грамматические упражнения нацелены на быстрое и качественное запоминание профессиональных терминов, используемых по специальности «Живопись», повторение и практическое применение грамматических правил на базе профессионально-ориентированных текстов.
Рабочая тетрадь состоит из четырех разделов (Units) и одного приложения (Appendix 1). Материал каждого раздела (Unit) предусматривает последовательное, поэтапное изучение определенной темы, связанной с тенденциями развития живописи и с будущей профессиональной деятельностью обучающихся и принципов, применяемых в практике живописи. В основу каждого урока положен принцип развития речевой деятельности: чтения и устной речи. Специальные фонетические и морфологические упражнения способствуют лучшему усвоению звукового ряда английского языка. Приложение (Appendix 1) включают словарь профессиональных терминов и глоссарий.
Широкий спектр разнообразных практических заданий, организующих самостоятельную работу, требует от обучающихся творческого отношения при их выполнении (наличие заданий повышенной трудности), позволяет реализовать личностно-ориентированный подход при работе с обучающимися в разным уровнем подготовки и с разными интересами. Задания моделируют ситуации или используют реальные ситуации в целях анализа данного случая, поиска альтернативных решений и принятия оптимального решения проблем.
В тетрадь включены задания, готовящие обучающихся к объективному контролю и самоконтролю в процессе изучения английского языка.
Рабочая тетрадь соответствует уровню подготовки студентов по дисциплине «Иностранный язык (английский)» в разделе «Профессионально-направленный модуль» для специальности 54.02.05 Живопись (по отраслям).
Методические указания по изучению дисциплины.
В соответствии с ФГОС по дисциплине Иностранный язык (английский) для специальности 54.02.05 Живопись (по отраслям) студент должен:
УМЕТЬ: общаться (устно и письменно) на иностранном языке на профессиональные и повседневные темы; переводить (со словарем) иностранные тексты профессиональной направленности; самостоятельно совершенствовать устную и письменную речь, пополнять словарный запас;
ЗНАТЬ: лексический (1200 - 1400 лексических единиц) и грамматический минимум, необходимый для чтения и перевода (со словарем) иностранных текстов профессиональной направленности.
Структура практических занятий UNIT 1 – UNIT 4 включает в себя:
Texts. Тексты из оригинальных источников, раскрывающие фундаментальные понятия изобразительного искусства и рассказывающие об основных направлениях в искусстве живописи.
Exercises. Предтекстовые задания, облегчающие понимание текста; задания на проверку понимания содержания, задания на развитие и совершенствование грамматических умений и навыков, а также задания, стимулирующие развитие навыков на базе проблематики и словаря прочитанных текстов. Благодаря используемой системе упражнений данное пособие позволяет обучить студентов комплексу умений и навыков анализа смыслового содержания и логико-коммуникативной организации текста, необходимых как для полноты понимания читаемого, так и для его адекватного использования в речевой деятельности. Упражнения, направленные на обучение пониманию специальных материалов и использованию их в практической деятельности, прорабатывают основные проблемные области грамматики и словообразования.
В конце каждого раздела имеются вопросы, которые могут использоваться либо для выполнения домашних заданий, либо выступать в качестве тем для обсуждения во время занятий (Questions for revision).
Если обучающийся в своей работе сталкивается с термином, требующим перевода или толкования, и не обнаруживает его в настоящем рабочей тетради, огромное количество профессиональных переводчиков, работающих на сайте www.proz.com, помогут решить любые языковые проблемы.
Приложение 1. (Appendix 1). Содержит языковой комментарий (Глоссарий), представляющий собой словарь с наиболее частотной лексикой и выражениями, встречающимися в сфере изобразительного искусства. Содержит лингвистический комментарий, объясняющий смысл основных профессиональных терминов.
UNIT 1. Исторические и современные тенденции в развитии живописи. (Historical and Modern Trends in the Development of Painting).
TEXT 1. The History of Art.
Exercise 1. Practice the pronunciation of the words from the text. Write the transcriptions of the words using a dictionary.
word transcription word transcription word transcription
prehistoric civilizations idealize preliterate survive corporeality continuing distinguish experimentation utilitarian characteristic through obvious biblical variously Exercise 2. Read and translate the text using a dictionary.
In the history of art, prehistoric art is all art produced in preliterate, prehistorical cultures beginning somewhere in very late geological history, and generally continuing until that culture either develops writing or other methods of record-keeping, or it makes significant contact with another culture that has.
The very earliest human artifacts showing evidence of workmanship with an artistic purpose are a subject of some debate; it is clear that such workmanship existed by 40,000 years ago in the Upper Palaeolithic era. From the Upper Palaeolithic through the Mesolithic, cave paintings and portable art like figurines and beads predominated, with decorative figured workings also seen on some utilitarian objects. One of the most famous examples, the so-called Venus of Willendorf (which is now being called “Woman from Willendorf” in contemporary art history texts) is a sculpture from the Paleolithic era, which depicts a woman with exaggerated female attributes. This sculpture, carved from stone, is remarkable in its roundness instead of a flat or low-relief depiction. In the Neolithic evidence of early pottery appeared, as did sculpture and the construction of megaliths. Early rock art also first appeared in the Neolithic. The advent of metalworking in the Bronze Age brought another increase in mediums used for art, an increase in stylistic diversity, and the creation of objects that did not have any obvious function other than art. It also saw the development in some areas of artisans, a class of people specializing in the production of art, as well as early writing systems. By the Iron Age, civilizations with writing had arisen from Ancient Egypt to Ancient China. Ancient art began when ancient civilizations developed a form of written language. The great traditions in art have a foundation in the art of one of the six great ancient civilizations: Ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece, Rome, India, or China. Each of these centers of early civilization developed a unique and characteristic style in their art. Because of their size and duration these civilizations and their art works have survived and transmitted to other cultures and later times. They have also provided us with the first records of how artists worked. Ancient Roman art depicted gods as idealized humans, shown with characteristic distinguishing features.
In Byzantine and Gothic art of the Middle Ages, the dominance of the church insisted on the expression of biblical truths. There was no need to depict the reality of the material world, in which man was born in a “state of sin”, especially through the extensive use of gold in paintings, which also presented figures in idealized, patterned (i. e. “flat”) forms.
The Renaissance is the return to valuation of the material world, and this paradigm shift is reflected in art forms, which show the corporeality of the human body, and the three dimensional reality of landscape.
Modern art is a term that refers to artistic works produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes the style and philosophy of the art produced during that era. The term is usually associated with art in which the traditions of the past have been thrown aside in a spirit of experimentation. Modern artists experimented with new ways of seeing, and with fresh ideas about the nature of materials and functions of art. A tendency toward abstraction is characteristic of much modern art. More recent artistic production is often called Contemporary art or Postmodern art.
Contemporary art can be defined variously as art produced at this present point in time or art produced since World War II. The definition of the word contemporary would support the first view, but museums of contemporary art commonly define their collections as consisting of art produced since World War II.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercise
Exercise 3. Find in the text English equivalents for the Russian words:
Russian words English equivalents Russian words English equivalents
доисторические культуры наскальное искусство геологическая история стилистическое разнообразие пещерные рисунки ранние системы письма портативное искусство характерные отличительные черты утилитарные (полезные) предметы выражение библейской правды преувеличенные женские признаки широкое использование вырезанный из камня три пространственных измерения низкорельефные изображения
Exercise 4. Answer the questions:
1. What is prehistoric art?
_______________________________________________________________________
2. When did artifacts showing evidence of workmanship appear?
___________________________________________________________________________
3. What is “Woman from Willendorf’?
_____________________________________________________________________________
4. What are artisans?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
5. When did Ancient art begin?
_______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
6. What are six great ancient civilizations?
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
7. How did Ancient Roman art depict gods?
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
8. What are the features of Byzantine and Gothic art?
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
9. What did modern artists experiment with?
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
10. How contemporary art can be defined?
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Exercise 5. Match the description of historical era with its name:
1 the Palaeolithic era a the dominance of the church insisted on the expression of biblical truths
2 the Neolithic era b showed the corporeality of the human body, and the three dimensional reality of landscape
3 the Middle Ages c predominated cave paintings and portable art like figurines and beads, decorative figured workings on some utilitarian objects
4 the Renaissance d the evidence of early pottery appeared
5 Modem art e the traditions of the past have been thrown aside in a spirit of experimentation
1 2 3 4 5
Exercise 6. Use one of the prepositions given in the box to fill the gaps:
at from in (2) of on to (2) toward with (2)
This sculpture, carved (1) ______ stone, is remarkable in its roundness instead of a flat or low-relief depiction.
Early rock art also first appeared (2) ___ the Neolithic.
The Bronze Age brought an increase (3) ___ stylistic diversity.
Because (4) ___ their size and duration these civilizations and their art works have survived and transmitted (5) _____ other cultures and later times.
Ancient Roman art depicted gods as idealized humans, shown (6) ____ characteristic distinguishing features.
In Byzantine and Gothic art of the Middle Ages, the dominance of the church insisted (7) ___ the expression of biblical truths.
Modern art is a term that refers (8) ___ artistic works produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s
The term is usually associated (9) ___ art in which the traditions of the past have been thrown aside in a spirit of experimentation.
A tendency (10) ___ abstraction is characteristic of much modern art.
Contemporary art can be defined variously as art produced (11) ___ this present point in time or art produced since World War II.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Exercise 7. Use the right form of the verbs.
Listen to him, please. He (1) (speaks, is speaking) Chinese.
She often (2) (speaks, is speaking) French when she (3) (travels, is travelling) in France.
Mary is in the office now. She is very busy. She (4) (works, is working) on the computer.
What foreign languages (5) (does your friend learn, is your friend learning) now?
What (6) (do you read, are you reading) now?
The family (7) (owns, is owning) a big house in the country.
Most of the students (8) (were listening , listened) to the teacher but Mary (9) (was reading, read) a history book. She (10) (hated, was hating) maths.
These people never (11) (owned, were owning) a house. They always (12) (lived, were living) in apartments.
Everyone (13) (was reading, read) quietly when the door (14) (was opening, opened) and a policeman came in.
1 8 2 9 3 10 4 11 5 12 6 13 7 14 Questions for revision
Exercise 1. Translate the poem into Russian or write your own:
Art can find the lostArt can find the lost.
The lost can find the way by seeing, doing, being art.
We can get lost in the seeing, the doing, the being... to forget.
We can find our way by seeing, doing, being.
Art can show the way.
Art explores the void, the darkness, the chaos.
Art heals the pain by turning into an image.
The image can be beautiful or ugly.
Art can make us angry.
It makes us ask if it is for us or against us.
It questions us by asking who the public is.
It helps us to understand where we stand.
Art tells us who we are or who we will be.
Laura Lengyel, painter, performance artist
Exercise 2. Find extra information about different historical eras and periods in art development.
TEXT 2. English Painting.
Exercise 1. Practice the pronunciation of the words from the text. Write the transcriptions of the words using a dictionary.
word transcription word transcription word transcription
genre allusion amateurs portrait passage flourishing vivid ceremonial utilitarianism character idealization source success experience furniture Exercise 2. Read and translate the text using a dictionary.
Painting in England in the 17th-19th centuries is represented by a number of great artists and during that period it was greatly influenced by foreign painters. The Flemish painter Van Dyck was really the father of English portrait school. The English king personally invited Van Dyck to London and during his first year in England the painter spent most of his time painting the King and the Queen. Yan Dyck created the impressive, formal type of portrait and such masters as Reynolds, Gainsborough, Lawrence and Raeburn owed much to their study of his works. He created a genre of aristocratic and intellectual portrait which influenced much the development of English painting. Van Dyck created the type of portrait which helped him to convey the sitter’s individual psychology.
The sitter’s individuality is vividly expressed in the “Family Portrait”. One can easily follow the gentle and even character of the young woman and the outstanding searching, restless personality of her husband. The artist managed to create the impression of spiritual relationship in spite of the difference of characters. The color scheme of this canvas is very beautiful. The prevailing tones are red, golden and brown.
During the 18th century the truly national school of painting was created, William Hogarth was the first great English painter who raised British pictorial art to a high level of importance. Hogarth (1697-1764) wasn’t a success as a portrait painter. But his pictures of social life which he called “modern moral subjects” brought him fame and position. Among his favorite works are six pictures united under the title “Marriage a la Mode”. This famous series is really a novel in paint telling the story of the marriage of an earl’s son and city merchant’s daughter, a marriage made for reasons of vanity and money. Despite the satirical, often amusing details, the painter’s purpose is serious. He expects his pictures to be read and they are perhaps full of allusions. At the same time Hogarth remained an artist and passages especially in “Shortly after the Marriage” show how attractively he could paint. The free handing of the “Shrimp Girl” is combined with cockney vivacity. The girl is brushed onto the canvas in a vigorous impressive style. As a painter Hogarth was harmonious in his coloring, very capable and direct in his theme and composition. He painted many pictures. He is well known as a humorist and satirist on canvas.
In the second half of the 18th century narrative and satirical themes lost their leading role in the English art. The ruling classes tried to show in art a confirmation and glorification of their social position. The most popular form of painting became ceremonial portraits of representatives of the ruling class. Sir Joshua Reynolds was the most outstanding portraitist of the period. In December 1768 the Royal Academy was found and Reynolds became its first president. He created a whole gallery of portraits of the most famous of his contemporaries. He usually painted his characters in heroic style and showed them as the best people of the nation. As a result his paintings are not free of a certain idealization of the characters. Reynolds was greatly influenced as a painter by the old masters. This influence can be seen in his “Cupid Untying the Zone of Venus”. The picture is close to Titian’s style in the use of color, but it is typical of the 18th century English school of its approach to subject- matter. He often included real personages in his mythological works (Venus-Lady Hamilton). Reynolds did not want British art to be provincial and isolated. It was he who insisted that artists should be brought up in line with European art and that they should develop the Grand style of painting. As a president of the Royal Academy Reynolds delivered lectures. These lectures were regarded as the most sensible exposition of the Academic view that by well-directed work it was possible to learn the rules of art and use discoveries and ideas of the old masters to create a new style of one’s own. He recommended that a would-be painter should put his faith in old masters from whom he should be ready to borrow. He advised that in portraits the grace should consist more in taking the general air than in exact rendering of every feature. He suggested that the proportions of a sitter’s figure should be altered in accordance with a fixed ideal.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercise
Exercise 3. Find English equivalents for the Russian words in the text:
Russian words English equivalents Russian words English equivalents
иностранные художники английская оживленность портретная школа стремительный стиль влиять на развитие ведущая роль аристократический портрет церемониальный портрет передавать индивидуальную психологию героический стиль различия характеров мифологические работы преобладающий тон чувственная экспозиция занимательные детали в соответствие с установленным идеалом
Exercise 4. Use a word given in the box to fill in each gap:
color pictorial canvas Royal psychology personages satirical ideal portrait golden
The Flemish painter Van Dyck was really the father of English ______ school.
Van Dyck created the type of portrait, which helped him to convey the sitter’s individual ____.
The color scheme of this canvas is very beautiful: the prevailing tones are red, _____ and brown.
William Hogarth was the first great English painter who raised British _____ art to a high level of importance.
Despite the _____, often amusing details, the painter’s purpose is serious.
The girl is brushed onto the ____ in a vigorous impressive style.
In December 1768 the ____ Academy was found and Reynolds became its first president.
The picture is close to Titian’s style in the use of _____, but it is typical of the 18th century English school of its approach to subject- matter.
He often included real _____ in his mythological works (Venus-Lady Hamilton).
He suggested that the proportions of a sitter’s figure should be altered in accordance with a fixed _______.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Exercise 5. Match the notions with their definitions:
1 Fresco a A picture representing a tract of country with the various objects it contains.
2 still life b A painting or other artistic representation of the sea.
3 portrait c A painting, picture or representation of a person, especially of a face generally drawn from life.
4 sitter d A person who is having his portrait painted
5 seascape e A painting of such unanimated subjects as fruit, flowers and other decorative things.
6 landscape f A picture on a wall or ceiling where a plat is still wet or damp.
1 2 3 4 5 6
Exercise 6. Translate the following dialogue into English.
1.Я знаю, что у вас есть репродукции картин английских художников. Не могли бы вы показать их мне?
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
2.С удовольствием. У меня с собой репродукции картин Тернера и Гейсборо.
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
3.Мне хотелось бы взглянуть на портреты г-жи Сиддонс и «голубого» мальчика.
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
4.Вот портрет г-жи Сиддонс.
___________________________________________________________________________
5.Замечательно. Какой изящный портрет. Голубые тона великолепны.
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
6.А это портрет «голубого» мальчика.
_____________________________________________________________________________
7.Великолепный портрет.
________________________________________________________________________________
8.Да, это лучшие портреты Гейсборо, я бы сказал, его шедевры.
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Exercise 7. Translate the sentences into Russian. Pay attention to the Comparative pattern “the more... the better” (“чем (больше)... тем (лучше)”)
The higher the price of the goods, the fewer people are ready to buy them.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
The more money I get, the more things I can buy.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
The bigger the house is, the more money it will cost.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
The longer the text, the longer it takes me to translate it.
______________________________________________________________________
The more work he has, the happier he is.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
The older you get, the more difficult it becomes to find a job.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
The longer the journey is, the more expensive the ticket is.
______________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
Questions for revision
Exercise 1. Describe a portrait painting according to the following plan
1.THE GENERAL EFFECT: the title and the name of the artist; the period or trend represented; does it appear natural and spontaneous or contrived and artificial?
2.THE CONTENTS OF THE PICTURE: place, time and setting; the accessories, the dress and environment; any attempt to render the emotions of the model; what does the artist accentuate in his subject?
3.THE COMPOSITION AND COLOUTING: How is the sitter represented? Against what background? Any prevailing format? Is the picture bold or rigid? Do the hands (head, body) look natural and informal? How do the eyes gaze? What tints predominate in the color scheme? Do the colors blend imperceptible?
4.INTERPRETATION AND EVALUATION: Does it exemplify a high degree of artistic skill? What feelings or ideas does it evoke in the viewer?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Exercise 2. Describe different pictures in words. Use the following words and word
combinations
1) to evoke, intense, to capture the sitter’s vitality, to paint from life, special insight into the psychology, spontaneity;
2) conception, brilliant, poetic in tone and atmosphere, to anticipate, investigation of color, range of colors;
3) vivid, life-like, supreme mastery of technique, to achieve lightness of tone, high artistic quality, to be impressed by, to retain freshness;
4) pure, vivid, to look natural, intensity, to emphasize;
5) appeal, brilliance, primary colors, to convey, to produce impression, to affect, to render;
6) soft, delicate colors, elegant gesture, spiritual face, the impression of, air-ness and lightness;
7) to combine form and color, spirituality, harmonious unity, romantic, poetic in tone and atmosphere, to ignore the rules;
8) emotion, natural and characteristic pose, to convey, finished technique, to produce impression, to penetrate.

TEXT 3. Pablo Picasso.
Exercise 1. Practice the pronunciation of the words from the text. Write the transcriptions of the words using a dictionary.
word transcription word transcription word transcription
century characteristic perspective entrance underline exhibit recognize circus repeatedly extraordinary permanently transfer palette simultaneously disallow Exercise 2. Read and translate the text using a dictionary.
No other artist is more associated with the term Modern Art than Pablo Picasso. He created thousands of paintings, prints, sculptures and ceramics during a time span of about 75 years. For many Picasso is the greatest art genius of the twentieth century. For others he is a gifted charlatan. Undisputed is the fact that he influenced and dominated the art of the twentieth century like no other modern artist.
Pablo Picasso was born on October 25, 1881 in Malaga, Spain, as the son of an art and drawing teacher. He was a brilliant student. He passed the entrance exam for the Barcelona School of Fine Arts at the age of 14 in just one day and was allowed to skip the first two classes. According to one of many legends about the artist's life, his father, recognizing the extraordinary talent of his son, gave him his brushes and palette and vowed to paint never again in his life.
Blue and Rose Period: During his lifetime, the artist went through different periods of characteristic painting styles. The Blue Period of Picasso lasted from about 1900 to 1904. It is characterized by the use of different shades of blue underlining the melancholic style of his subjects - people from the grim side of life with thin, half-starved bodies. During Picasso’s Rose Period from about 1905 to 1906, his style moved away from the Blue Period to a friendly pink tone with subjects taken from the world of the circus.
Cubism: After several travels to Paris, the artist moved permanently to the “capital of arts” in 1904. Inspired by the works of Paul Cezanne, he developed the Cubist style. In Cubism, subjects are reduced to basic geometrical shapes. In a later version of Cubism, called synthetic cubism, several views of an object or a person are shown simultaneously from a different perspective in one picture.
Picasso and Guernica: In 1937 the artist created his landmark painting Guernica, a protest against the barbaric air raid against a Basque village during the Spanish Civil War. Picasso's Guernica is a huge mural on canvas in black, white and grey which was created for the Spanish Pavilion of the Paris World's Fair in 1937. In Guernica, Picasso used symbolic forms - that are repeatedly found in his works following Guernica - like a dying horse or a weeping woman.
Guernica was exhibited at the museum of Modern Art in New York until 1981. It was transferred to the Prado Museum in Madrid/Spain in 1981 and was later moved to the Queen Sofia Center of Art, Madrid in 1992. Picasso had disallowed the return of Guernica to Spain until the end of the rule of Fascism by General Franco.
Picasso changed his companions at least as often as his painting styles. The relationships with women influenced his mood and even his art styles. The shift from the “blue” to the “rose period” was probably a result of meeting Fernanda Olivier, his first companion. The artist made numerous portraits of his wives and companions and of his children.
Pablo Picasso and Women: During his early years in Paris, he lived with Fernanda Olivier for seven years. During World War I, from 1914 to 1918, Picasso worked in Rome where he met his first wife, Olga Koklova, a Russian ballet dancer. In 1927 he met Marie Therese Walther, a seventeen year old girl and began a relationship with her. In 1936 another woman, Dora Maar, a photographer, stepped into his life. In 1943 he encountered a young female painter, Francoise Gilot. In 1947 she gave birth to Claude, and in 1949 to Paloma, Picasso's third and fourth child. The artist’s last companion was Jacqueline Roque. He met her in 1953 and married her in 1961.
In 1965 Pablo Picasso had to undergo a prostrate operation. After a period of rest, he concentrated on drawings and a series of 347 etchings. In spite of his health problems, he created a number of paintings during his last years. On April 8, 1973 he died at the age of 91. “I think about Death all the time. She is the only woman who never leaves me”.
Picasso as a Printmaker: Picasso was not only a very prolific printmaker, but also a very diverse one in the use of a great variety of different techniques. He created lithographs, etchings, dry points, lino cuts, woodcuts and aquatints. Always on the search for something new, he experimented a lot with these techniques. Some of Picasso's graphic works are combinations of several techniques.
Picasso created his first prints in 1905 - a series of 15 dry points and etchings, Les Saltimbanques, published by the art dealer Vollard in 1913. More graphic works were produced in the early 1930's. But it was in the years after World War II that most of Picasso's prints were created.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercise
Exercise 3. Find in the text English equivalents for the Russian words:
Russian words English equivalents Russian words English equivalents
ассоциироваться с мир цирка временной промежуток геометрические формы одаренный шарлатан синтетический кубизм сдать вступительный экзамен роспись на холсте экстраординарный талант символические формы запретить возвращение плачущая женщина переносить утомительную операцию преуспевающий художник-гравер
Exercise 4. Use the verbs in brackets in an appropriate tense (active or passive).
1. Pablo Picasso ___ (to born) on October 25, 1881 in Malaga, Spain.
2. He ____ (to create) thousands of paintings, prints, sculptures and ceramics during a time span of about 75 years.
3. He ____ (to pass) the entrance exam for the Barcelona School of Fine Arts at the age of 14.
4. The Blue Period ___ (to characterize) by the use of different shades of blue.
5. After several travels to Paris, the artist ___ (to move) permanently to the “capital of arts” in 1904.
6. In Cubism, subjects ___ (to reduce) to basic geometrical shapes.
7. In Guernica, Picasso used symbolic forms – that ____ (to find) repeatedly in his works following Guernica.
8. The artist ___ (to make) numerous portraits of his wives and companions and of his children.
9. In spite of his health problems, he ___ (to create) a number of paintings during his last years.
10. More graphic works ___ ( to produce) in the early 1930's.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Exercise 5. 1.Read additional information about Pablo Picasso and put questions of
any types to the following sentences:
1.Pablo Picasso’s birth was difficult and to help him breathe cigar smoke was blown into his nose.
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2.Picasso showed his truly exceptional talent from a very young age. His first word was “pencil” and he learned to draw before he could talk.
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3.He hated school and often refused to go unless his parents allowed him to take one of his father’s pet pigeons with him.
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4.One evening his father was painting a picture of his pigeons when he had to leave the room. He returned to find that Pablo had completed the picture, and it was so amazingly beautiful and lifelike that he gave his son his own palette and brushes.
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5.He was always breaking the rules of artistic tradition and shocked the public with his strange and powerful pictures.
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6.Once, the French Minister of Culture visited Picasso and the artist accidentally split some paint on the Minister’s trousers. Picasso apologized and wanted to pay for them to be cleaned, but the Minister said, “Non! Please, Monsieur Picasso, just sign my trousers!”
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Exercise 6. Answer the following questions about Picasso’ life.
Where was he born?
When was he born?
What do you learn about his childhood?
Which people played a part in his career?
What do you think were the most important events in his life?
What do you learn of his works?
When did he die?
How do the following numbers or dates refer to Pablo Picasso?
75 1913 April 8, 1973 1927 October 25, 1881 347 From 1914 to 1918 14
1992
Questions for revision
Exercise 1. Choose one of Pablo Picasso's works and write about it (10 sentences).
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
TEXT 4. Landscape Painting. Landscape Painting of Constable.
Exercise 1. Practice the pronunciation of the words from the text. Write the transcriptions of the words using a dictionary.
word transcription word transcription word transcription
century maturity dilettantish appreciate humble stylistic fundamental achieve exaggerations immediately throughout analytical preceding picturesque indulgence Exercise 2. Read and translate the text using a dictionary.
Nineteenth century art cannot be fully understood or appreciated unless account is taken of certain fundamental artists, Constable among them.
English landscape painting of the period immediately preceding Constable was not the best basis for the development of his art. The artistic background against which Constable’s art came to maturity was that of eighteenth-century England: influenced by Italian, Flemish and Dutch traditions and modelling itself on Salvator Rosa for dramatic landscape, Claude for an idyllic view of nature, Poussin for a classical and ‘sublime’ view, and to a certain extent also on the Italian scenic paintings of Canaletto.
In his approach to natural reality Constable was not so much concerned to achieve knowledge through nature as to discover and get to know nature itself, for what it is and what it can give and teach. This humble attitude caused him to make a close and analytical study of nature throughout his life.
It is undoubtedly from the concept of “picturesque” that landscape painting in general came into being, the picturesque acting as a projection on to nature of the idea of the beautiful. And as Constable was a master of landscape art, his is especially a picturesque form of painting; although in this picturesque art he never permits himself any indulgence in decorativeness or in arbitrary and dilettantish effects, and avoids the stylistic exaggerations to which such a concept of art might easily lead. His painting was of an extreme moral rigor, holding firmly to act, and entirely devoted to the study of truth and nature. One may therefore rightly say that it is in the art of Constable that the picturesque returns to its original sources, to Titian and Venetian scenic painting: in other words, it becomes pictorial.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercise
Exercise 3. Find in the text English equivalents for the Russian words:
Russian words English equivalents Russian words English equivalents
полностью понятно через всю жизнь фундаментальные художники без сомнения живопись живописное действие предшествующий снисходительность декоративности художественный фон оригинальные источники под влиянием смиренное отношение Exercise 4. Fill in the gaps with the words and word combinations from the box:
to make a good picture contemporary art pictures a drawing piece of paint paint modern painting by means of painting the painting his painting art student smears of pain
1. As you can see the various avant-garde movements of (1) ____ arouse out of confrontation with
impressionism.
2. I hate it, dull ugly (2)____.
3. He was drunk with color and did not know whether (3) ____ was good or bad.
4. He was convinced that it was no more easy (4) ______ than it was to find a diamond or a pearl.
5. With these words he turned to his own canvas, began to hum and apply (5) ___.
6. Strickland’s (6) _____ seen for the first time would find the mind more prepared for them, and yet his influence has so enormously affected.
7. I think (7) ____ you’re trying to say something, but am not sure that the best way of saying it is (8) ____.
8. When the (9) ___ came there was (10) ___ on the table that had a slight resemblance to the vase.
9. The old man proudly displayed the variegated (11) ___ on his silk dressing gown.
10. (12) ____ was hung in an inconspicuous place where it could not excite any noticeable comments.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Exercise 5. Match the two halves of the sentences
1 An artist should create beautiful things.. a for that reason the world shall never see my portrait of Dorian Grey
2 We live in an age when men treat art as if… b the abstract sense of beauty
3 We have lost… c but should put nothing of his own life into them
4 Someday I will show the world what it is; … d but rather a story to be told
5 Each fresh sitter was not just a physical fact to be recorded, … e that the final picture has the desired paint quality
6 Use sunicent paint to produce a full, normal paint coating so … f the two faces of the same historical situation
7 The best way to gain better understanding or greater enjoyment of art is … g to view many paintings
8 Picasso has realized that Cezanne and Van Gogh are … h it were meant to be a form of autobiography
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Exercise 6. Choose the right preposition from the box:
for (2) into in of (2) at out by
It was time (1) ____ painting, but I sank (2) ____ melancholy and decided to stop.
A large room was (3) ____ fact a studio where I worked (4) ___ more than four hoursa stretch.
(5) ____ a while I broke my general rule (8) ____ working because the picture was (9) ___ of balance.
The third painting was the last work accomplished (10) ___ the artist.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Questions for revision
Exercise 1. Answer the following questions:
How do you understand the word combination “fundamental artists”, and what are they expected to accomplish?
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Was it only Constable’s art that was influenced by Italian, Flemish and Dutch traditions?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Why may one rightly say that it is in the art of Constable that the «picturesque» returns to its original sources?
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UNIT 2. Живопись: формы, техники и содержание. (Painting: forms, techniques and content)
TEXT 1. Easel Painting.
Exercise 1. Practice the pronunciation of the words from the text. Write the transcriptions of the words using a dictionary.
word transcription word transcription word transcription
easel resinous approach universal jewel tempera milestone perfection transparent European distinguish obscure reign meticulously culmination Exercise 2. Read and translate the text using a dictionary.
The practice of easel painting in oil paint on canvas has been universal since the seventeenth century; it did not arise as a sudden invention but was the result of a long development. Scholars have traced this development in considerable detail through the various schools of art. There are several milestones or turning points in the history of European easel painting which can be noted briefly as follows: The early tempera paintings, notably those of Italy, were done on gesso grounds on wood panels. Working under the patronage of the Church or the reigning families, the artists reflected the artistic tastes of their times. The results achieved were exactly what the painter desired; the rather limited effects and the rather intractable materials were manipulated by developing superior skill and craftsmanship rather than by adopting more fluent or easily handled materials. Giotto is an outstanding example of the early Italian painters in this tradition; the works of Botticelli and Fra Angelico exemplify the high point of technical achievement in pure egg tempera.
A subtle change then followed; as small amounts of waxy, oily, or resinous materials began to be introduced into the tempera in various ways, paintings showed a definite degree of technical change. These were characterized by a somewhat more fluent command of brushwork and a trace of softening or blending of colors, but for the most part they retained the same dry, linear quality of the earlier type. The culmination of this later type of tempera painting may be seen in the work of the Venetian painters of the fifteenth century—such as Antonello, Domenico Veneziano, and Andrea del Castagno—who refined their tempera paintings throughout with oily or resinous transparent glazes. Also, in the Northern countries, following the innovations of the Van Eycks and others at Bruges, the works of van der Weyden, van der Goes, and Memling show the use of oil glazes over tempera and sometimes oil underpaintings carried on to the highest degree of jewel-like perfection.
The artist has two instruments which he uses to express his intentions in paint; they are line and color or tonal masses. In their importance to painting techniques neither one can be rated above the other, and when discussing them the same general terms are applied to each. Two completely different technical approaches may thus be distinguished. In the first, line predominates and the painters cited above always retained completely and meticulously their original draftsmanship. Underpainting was never entirely obscured by the final painting; its effect had a strong and direct influence on the finished work.
The next great change was the tendency to techniques in which the tonal masses could be made to contribute a greater influence toward the final effect so that they might be used to play a part equal to that of the linear draftsmanship, or if desired, to dominate the total effect. This change was made possible by the adoption of oily mediums as opposed to the aqueous tempera, which is more suited to the linear or «drier» kind of painting. Blending of tones and also a looser, more fluent stroking may be used if desired, and the final coats of paint can be made to contribute the major part of the total effect, whereas in the earlier method, the underpainting or drawing predominates.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercise
Exercise 3. Find in the text English equivalents for the Russian words:
Russian words English equivalents Russian words English equivalents
станковая живопись различные способы внезапное изобретение более свободные мазки поворотные моменты смолистые прозрачные глазури работая под руководством высочайший уровень легко обрабатываемый материал общие термины применяются чистая яичная темпера намерения в живописи (в картине) слабое изменение различные подходы в технике
Exercise 4. Fill in the gaps with words in the box:
authentic aura immorality caressing exhibit scenes oils color sense represented prehistoric immoral art sensitive engulfed superficial amoral
1. The painter who knows his own craft and nothing else will turn out to be a very (1) ___ artist.
2. Your sketches are clumsy, but they are (2) _____.
3. The warm (3) ____ of praise in which he had (4) _____ Vincent evaporated.
4. She is very (5) _____ to the changes in people’s attitude.
5. In all his life he had never heard a woman say one (6) ______ word.
6. (7) _____ is like religion.
7. “They call my books (8) _____”, said Zola, “for the same reason that they attribute (9) ____ to your paintings. Art is (10) ____; so is life.
8. That year he did not (11) ____ in the Salon.
9. Corot painted riverside (12) ____.
10. Paul Cezanne’s (13) _____ were on the opposite wall.
11. Titian had a marvelous (14) ____ of (15) _____.
12. The artist (16) _____ his wife as the Goddess of Spring.
13. (17) _____ art was almost exclusively religious.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
Exercise 5. Make these statements T (true) or F (false) according to the information in the text:
1. The early tempera paintings were done on gesso grounds on wood panels.
2. Artists progressed by developing superior skill and craftsmanship rather than by adopting more fluent or easily handled materials.
3. The works of Botticelli and Fra Angelico exemplify the high point of technical achievement in marine.
4. Antonello refined his tempera paintings throughout with oily or resinous transparent glazes.
5. In their importance to painting techniques line can be rated above color.
6. The practice of easel painting in oil paint on canvas was a sudden invention.
7. The tonal masses might be used to play a part equal to that of linear draftsmanship. This change was made possible by the adoption of oily mediums.
8. Working under the patronage of the Church or the reigning families, the artists reflected the artistic tastes of their times.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Exercise 5. Match these words (1 - 11) and (a - k) as they occur together in the text:
1 easel a ground
2 considerable b point
3 turning c detail
4 gesso d painting
5 resinous e materials
6 subtle f approach
7 fluent g mediums
8 tonal h draftsmanship
9 technical i change
10 linear j masses
11 oily k command
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Exercise 7. Choose the right article: a/ the:
1. You have (1) ___ great sense of humor.
2. It takes (2) ____ lifetime to appreciate (3) ____ masterpiece.
3. (4) ___ Tate Gallery bought three pictures by this painter.
4. (5) ___ men of (6) ___ genius see (7) ____ life in their own terms.
5. All art is artificial. It offers us (8) ___ images and not facts. (9) ___ bronze statue never breathes. (10) ___ painting of (11) ___ running figure never moves.
6. Imagine that you are in (12) ___ studio of (13) ___ sculptor. It’s (14) ___ spacious room with large windows looking into (15) ____ garden. On (16) ___ walls there are (17) ____ few sketches and drawings. In (18) ___ middle of (19) ___ room (20) ___ sculptor is standing on (21) ___ platform and cutting (22) ___ statue in life size.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
Questions for revision
Exercise 1. Answer these questions:
1. Find in the text some specific details of early Italian technique.
2. What changes occurred in the technique of 15th century painters?
3. Describe the technique of painting called tempera.
4. What does “glazes” mean? Can you explain what “blending of colors” is? What’s the opposite of “transparent”?
5. Describe about the development of the oil-painting technique, using painters of the Venetian school as an example.
6. Point out two different approaches to the line and color.
Exercise 2. Select a reproduction of a painting of any painter you like and describe it according to the following points:
The general data (the title and the name of the artist; period or trend represented etc.)
The genre and contents of the picture (place, time and setting).
The composition and drawing (foreground and background). Is composition symmetrical or not, (space and emphasis)?
Coloring. Light and shade effects (tone masses, brushstrokes).
Impression and judgment.
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TEXT 2. The Magic of Watercolors.
Exercise 1. Practice the pronunciation of the words from the text. Write the transcriptions of the words using a dictionary.
word transcription word transcription word transcription
charm Paleolithic autonomous mysterious manuscript procedure elegance Renaissance variation carbohydrate Baroque scheme technique illustration unique Exercise 2. Read and translate the text using a dictionary.
Watercolor is one of the most complex and mysterious art techniques. It seems at first glance that its secret is relatively simple - pigments very finely ground and dissolved in water form a translucent layer of paint color penetrable for sun beams which, reflecting from the white surface of paper, enhance the intensity of color. Interactions of hues, a softness of color transitions and an intensity of the clusters of colors, with the high profile of paper, its color and texture - all this imparts to the artistic language of watercolor paintings as unmatched charm and elegance. Works in watercolor hardly allow alterations and corrections in the course of their creation, and this technique requires from artists a special sensitivity, precision of eye and hand, and a consummate mastery of color and form. For an accomplished painter, watercolor affords the opportunity of endless diversity of effects, subtlest shading and decorative color contrasts.
The term watercolor refers to paints that use water soluble, complex carbohydrates as a binder. The history of the technique is complex and extremely old, dating perhaps to the cave paintings of Paleolithic Europe, and has been used for manuscript illumination since at least Egyptian times but especially in the European Middle Ages, its continuous history as an art medium begins in the Renaissance. The German artist Albrecht Dürer (1471¬1528) who painted several fine botanical, wildlife and landscape watercolors is generally considered among the earliest exponents of the medium. An important school of watercolor painting in Germany was led by Hans Bol (1534-1593) as part of the Dürer Renaissance. Despite this early start, watercolors were generally used by Baroque painters only for sketches, copies or cartoons. Among notable early practitioners of watercolor painting were Van Dyck (during his stay in England), Claude Lorrain, Giovanni Benedetto Castiglione, and many Dutch and Flemish artists. However, botanical and wildlife illustrations are perhaps the oldest and most important tradition in watercolor painting. Botanical artists have always been among the most exacting and accomplished watercolor painters, and even today watercolors - with their unique ability to summarize, clarify and idealize in full color - are used to illustrate scientific and museum publications. Wildlife illustration reached its peak in the 19th century and today many naturalist field guides are still illustrated with watercolor paintings.
Watercolor as a medium appeared in Russia in the 18th century - the technique was used for “illuminating” prints and architectural drafts. By the late 181 century watercolor already was an autonomous art with some distinct means of expression and artistic language.
Russia, like many other European countries, borrowed the watercolor technique from England. The English watercolor artists developed a special set of techniques termed “wet in wet”. Wet in wet includes any application of paint or water to an area of the painting that is already wet with either paint or water. In general, wet in wet is one of the most distinctive features of watercolor painting.
The essential idea is to wet the entire sheet of paper, laid flat, until the surface no longer wicks up water but lets it sit on the surface, then to plunge in with a large brush saturated with paint. This is normally done to define the large areas of the painting with irregularly defined color, which is then sharpened and refined with more controlled painting as the paper dries.
Wet in wet actually comprises a variety of specific painting effects, each produced through different procedures. Among the most common and characteristic are: backruns - water and wet paint have a strong tendency to migrate from wetter to drier surfaces of the painting. As the wetter area pushes into the dryer, it plows up pigment along its edge, leaving a lighter colored area behind it and a darker band of pigment along an irregular, serrated edge; paint diffusion - concentrated paint applied to a prewetted paper has a tendency to diffuse or expand into the pure water surrounding it, especially if the paint has been milled using a dispersant; pouring color - some artists pour large quantities of slightly diluted paint onto separate areas of the painting surface, then by using a brush, spray bottle of water and/or judicious tilting of the painting support, cause the wet areas to gently merge and mix. After the color has been mixed and allowed to set for a few minutes, the painting is tipped vertically to sheet off all excess moisture, leaving behind a paper stained with random, delicate color variations, which can be further shaped with a wet brush or added paint while the paper is still wet; dropping in color - in this technique a color area is first precisely defined with diluted paint or clear water, then more concentrated paint is dropped into it by touching the wet area with a brush charged with paint; salt texture - grains of coarse salt, sprinkled into moist paint, produce small, snowflake like imperfections in the color; clingfilm technique - the use of kitchen cling-film to create special effects in watercolor painting. A wash of watercolor is applied to paper and cling-film is laid over the wet pigment. The cling-film is then manipulated manually using fingers to form a series of ridges that resemble ripples in water or long grasses. Once the pigment is completely dry, the cling-film is removed and the texture is revealed in greater clarity.
Another type of watercolor, which came into its own a little while later, originated in Italy. In Italian watercolor, the artist applies a drybrush technique whereby one shade of color is applied over another gradually, after the preceding layer has dried, touch by touch, intensifying the shades of color from light to dark. Raw paint is picked up with a premoistened, small brush, then applied to the paper with small hatching or crisscrossing brushstrokes. The brush tip must be wetted but not overcharged with paint, and the paint must be just fluid enough to transfer to the paper with slight pressure and without dissolving the paint layer underneath. The goal is to build up or mix the paint colors with short precise touches that blend to avoid the appearance of pointillism. Often it is impossible to distinguish a good drybrush watercolor from a color photograph or oil painting, and many drybrush watercolors are varnished or lacquered after they are completed to enhance this resemblance. Italian watercolors are marked by their diversity of rich colors, plasticity, contrasts of light, brightness and intensity of color scheme.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercise
Exercise 3. Find in the text English equivalents for the Russian words:
Russian words English equivalents Russian words English equivalents
таинственная техника виртуозное владение цветом и формой на первый взгляд точное прикосновение полупрозрачный слой достичь своего пика глубина цвета специфический эффект взаимодействие оттенков зубчатая кромка переход цветов разбавленная краска точность глаза и руки изящная разнооттеночность прикосновение за прикосновением кончик кисти
Exercise 4. Fill in the gaps with the correct prepositions or postpositions:
1. All this imparts (1) ___ the artistic language of watercolor paintings as unmatched charm and elegance.
2. The term watercolor refers (2) __ paints that use water-soluble.
3. An important school of watercolor painting in Germany was led (3) ___ Hans Bol.
4. The essential idea is to wet the entire sheet of paper, laid flat, until the surface no longer wicks (4) __ water but lets it sit on the surface, then to plunge (5) __ with a large brush saturated with paint.
5. As the wetter area pushes into the dryer, it plows (6) __ pigment along its edge.
6. Concentrated paint applied (7) __ a prewetted paper has a tendency to diffuse or expand into the pure water surrounding it.
7. A color area is first precisely defined (8) ___ diluted paint or clear water, then more concentrated paint is dropped (9) ___ it by touching the wet area with a brush charged (10) __ paint.
8. Another type of watercolor, which came into its own a little while later, originated (11) __ Italy.
9. The goal is to build (12) __ or mix the paint colors with short precise touches that blend to avoid the appearance of pointillism.
10. Often it is impossible to distinguish a good drybrush watercolor (13) __ a color photograph.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Exercise 5. Use the appropriate degrees of comparison of adjectives given in brackets:
1. Watercolor is one of (1) (complex) and mysterious art techniques.
2. The German artist Albrecht Dürer painted several (2) (fine) botanical, wildlife and landscape watercolors. 
3. Botanical and wildlife illustrations are perhaps the (3) (old) and (4) (important) tradition in watercolor painting.
4. Botanical artists have always been among the (5) (exacting) and accomplished watercolor painters.
5. Wet in wet is one of the (6) (distinctive) features of watercolor painting.
6. Water and wet paint have a strong tendency to migrate from (7) (wet) to (8) (dry) surfaces of the painting.
7. More concentrated paint is dropped into it by touching the (9) (wet) area with a brush charged with paint.
8. Concentrated paint applied to a prewetted paper has a tendency to diffuse or expand into the (10) (pure) water surrounding.
9. Once the pigment is completely dry, the cling-film is removed and the texture is revealed in (11) (great) clarity.
10. Italian watercolors are marked by their diversity of (12) (rich) colors, plasticity, contrasts of light, brightness and intensity of color scheme.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Exercise 6. Give one word for:
1 a particular substance used for making paint or dye; a 2 a shade of color b 3 compare things with others in such a way that the differences are seen; c 4 red, blue, yellow, ... d 5 a thing made of hair or bristles, which are fastened in a flat piece of wood or bone or in a handle, used for cleaning, sweeping, painting, writing, etc.; e 6 a material in the form of thin sheets, made from the fiber of wood, straw, etc., and used for writing, printing, and drawing on, wrapping things in, covering walls; f 7 solid coloring matter which may be mixed with water, oil, etc. and spread over a surface with a brush; g 8 a degree of color; h 9 one who paints pictures i 10 a method used by an expert; k Questions for revision
Exercise 1. Answer the questions:
What kind of technique is called watercolor?
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Do works in watercolor allow alterations and corrections?
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What is the history of watercolor dating to?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What was an important school of watercolor painting in Germany led by?
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Who were notable early practitioners of watercolor painting?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What illustrations are the oldest and most important tradition in watercolor painting?
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
When did watercolor appear in Russia?
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What is an idea of wet in wet technique?
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What are the most common procedures in wet in wet technique?
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What is a drybrush technique?
___________________________________________________________________
Exercise 2. Draw a verbal picture of: winter forest or summer forest.
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TEXT 3. Digital Printing. Digital Painting.
Exercise 1. Practice the pronunciation of the words from the text. Write the transcriptions of the words using a dictionary.
word transcription word transcription word transcription
enthusiast technology enormous exhibit reproduce convenience admire digitize audience execute average manipulation facsimile campaign actually Exercise 2. Read and translate the text using a dictionary.
Digital Printing. Every day thousands of visitors stream past the glass pyramids designed by the Chinese-American architect I.M. Pei and into the most famous museum in the world, the Louvre in Paris. Inside this old palace, art enthusiasts can wonder at countless exhibits covering eight centuries of art. They respectfully admire the brush technique of Van Gogh, Renoir and Salvador Dali, the eclecticism of Andy Warhol, and the pop-art of Roy Lichtenstein. What they may not suspect is that some of the paintings they are looking at are actually well-executed fakes.
But these are fakes that the curators of the Louvre know all about. Those in charge of the museum are not members of a well-organized band of smugglers operating worldwide: they only want their exhibits to look their best. Paintings must be restored from time to time, but rather than leaving a blank spot on the gallery wall, they are “secretly” switched in the night for reproductions - facsimiles produced on digital presses.
All over the world, museums are having their Old Masters reproduced digitally. As a result of this new technology, the large format printing business is booming.
Digital printing is ideal for reproducing artwork, partly because it is so versatile: printing can be done on plastic, cloth or glass - whatever medium the artist originally chose. High quality prints of these paintings are scanned, digitized and then printed by inkjet or airbrush printers on real canvases. Of course, the copies do not correspond 100% to the originals. But since the paintings are displayed behind glass anyway, an average member of the public, viewing it from a normal distance, will not notice the difference.
Works of art may even be replaced permanently by digital reproduction, because the theft and damage insurance premiums for some are so huge that the museum can no longer afford to display the originals. In the case of such works, a small sign indicates that they are legally displayed forgeries.
Digital printing technology is suitable for more than such exotic applications, however, In fact, digital technology opens up a wide range of new landscapes, particularly for outdoor advertising. The process is also ideal for large scale advertising campaigns for department stores and museums. Large surfaces can only be processed with digital technology. Color inkjet printers can print more than 500 square feet per hour so they can produce a 2000 square-foot surface area in only four hours. This is an enormous increase over the performance of classic screen-printing techniques.
Digitally produced posters also last longer, without their color and brightness fading. Customers attach great importance to the ability of the printed plastic sheets, nets, and posters used for outdoor advertising to persist UV radiation.
The new digital printing methods can be employed for both outdoor and indoor projects. Why not produce a large, 100-foot by 45-foot picture as a huge map that people can walk on? Advertising pictures produced on cloth are used with success at various trade shows.
Digital Painting. He further argues about the convenience of digital painting: the hours spent preparing canvases, mixing paint, washing brushes, waiting for paint layers to dry, could be spent on the essential creative matters.
A painting, formerly unique and one of a kind, can now be reproduced by using digital print and then the digitized painting can be exhibited on a virtual web-gallery, opening up a broader audience and market for the artist. In his book ‘Painting and the Digital Adventure’ James Faure-Walker describes the immense possibilities of digital technology:
“This marvelous technology must change the way we think about painting. So much more becomes possible in the control of color, in the manipulation of forms, the incorporation of photos, and so on...
The question arises whether digital painting on canvas can be regarded as painting? Works by artists who employed non-traditional tools, materials and methods, are still addressed as ‘paintings’. If it is a painting when John Hoyland splashes the paint on a canvas, Peter Blake uses gloss house painting, Roy Lichtenstein uses dots and Andy Warhol uses stencils, then it can be argued that artwork ‘painted with pixels’ using digital print technology also can be considered a ‘painting’. The Museum of Modern Art would regard an inkjet print as a painting ‘in the same sense that a Warhol screen-print on canvas is considered a painting.
Unlike its physical counterpart the digital image can be corrected, duplicated, stored, remastered in a different color scheme, at a different scale, blended in with a photograph. Year by year the quality of printed output improves and the gap between ‘real’ color, that is to say brushed on pigment, and ‘virtual’ color (which is also pigment on watercolor paper or on canvas) narrows. So if the question was simply can this technology simulate and perhaps eventually replace ‘traditional’ paint media then the answer is a hesitant “yes.”
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercise
Exercise 3. Match the two halves of the sentences:
1 When “Olympia” was shown in the Salon, Zola said: ... a without a moral element.
2 Great art can’t exist ... b the layman can understand nothing of painting.
3 The world sees nature ... c the artist finds in the chaos of the world.
4 At that time Impressionism reigned in the Latin Quarter, but ... d I look forward to the day when Manet’s picture will hang in the Louvre.
5 I cannot agree with the painters who claim that... e through the eyes of the artist.
6 Art is a manifestation of emotion and ... f its victory over the older schools was still recent.
7 Beauty is something wonderful and strange that ... g emotion speaks a language that all may understand.
8 I have never seen a painting which ... h made so deep an impression upon me.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Exercise 4. Use one of the words given in the box to fill in each gap:
created touch form (2) mastery abstract form admirer masterpieces touches impression admiration
1. Strickland made no particular (1) _____ on the people who came in contact with him in Tahiti.
2. I was his first (2) ___ in the islands.
3. The picture was painted with great (3) ___.
4. Which strikes us first in Rubens’ painting is the beauty of the color, which is laid on with the lightest (4) _____ possible.
5. Hogarth’s sketch “Shrimp Girl” is distinguished by the harmony of (5) ____ and content.
6. He stood gazing in awkward (6) ____ at a sheep head by Mauve.
7. During the brief seven years before Raphael’s death an astonishing number of (7) ___ were (8) ___.
8. (9) ____ Expressionism is on of the trends in modern American painting.
9. Gainsborough painted with tiny (10) ___ of the brush.
10. In the work of Matisse we can see the preponderance of color over (11) ___.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Exercise 5. Decide whether the following statements are True (T) or False (F) according to the text:
1. The glass pyramids were designed by the Chinese-American architect I.M. Pei in the 19th century.
2. Some of the paintings visitors are looking at in the Louvre in Paris are actually well-executed fakes.
3. Those in charge of the museum are members of a well-organized band of smugglers operating worldwide.
4. Digital printing is used only for reproducing artwork.
5. Printing can be done on plastic, cloth or glass - whatever medium the artist originally chose.
6. Digitally produced posters also last longer, without their color and brightness fading.
7. The ability of the printed plastic sheets, nets, and posters used for outdoor advertising to persist UV radiation isn't very important for customers.
8. When digital reproductions are displayed, a small sign indicates that they are legally executed forgeries.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Exercise 6. Match the words (1 – 14) with the words (a – n) as they occur together in the text:
1 glass a quality
2 famous b technique
3 countless c smugglers
4 brush d museum
5 band of e exhibits
6 high f pyramids
7 average g premium
8 insurance h member
9 exotic i spot
10 outdoor j admire
11 plastic k campaign
12 respectfully l advertising
13 blank m application
14 advertising n sheets
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
Questions for revision
Exercise 1. Answer these questions:
What technology is used to produce reproductions?
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What other applications is large-format digital printing suitable for?
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What materials can digital printing be done on?
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What are the advantages of the new digital printing methods?
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Who designed glass pyramids in front of the Louvre in Paris?
_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Why did the museum need pyramids at all?
________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Enumerate the steps of canvas copying.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What qualities make it possible to use digital printing for out-door projects?
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What arguments in favor of this method can you find in the quotation taken from James Faure-Walker's book?
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Do you agree that this technique can be regarded as painting?
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Find answers in favor of and against the idea of James Faure-Walker.
_____________________________________________________________________
Exercise 2. Write a short summery of the text describing the following:
1. The immense possibilities of digital technology
2. The difference between digital printing and digital painting.
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

TEXT 4. Graffiti.
Exercise 1. Practice the pronunciation of the words from the text. Write the transcriptions of the words using a dictionary.
word transcription word transcription word transcription
phenomenon spontaneously refer neighborhood feature arabesque ancient prestigious further etch surface provide embellish signature simplify Exercise 2. Read and translate the text using a dictionary.
The use of spray-can paint became a popular phenomenon in 1969 when teenagers in the poorer neighborhoods of New York began spraying it on walls. The word graffiti comes from the Italian and means something "scratched" or "incised." Since ancient Roman times, the term had traditionally been used to designate the inscriptions and drawings etched on walls in public places. The first modern graffiti art was worked in a single color and contained only the sprayer's name and/or trademark. Such signatures were known as "hits" or "tags." Later they were supplemented by "pieces," or pictorial graffiti. The focus of interest was provided by a word, usually the sprayer's name, the background being formed by a less clearly defined space or surface with zigzag contours. These surfaces were embellished with further decorative motifs such as arabesques, stars, checkerboard patterns, etc., to which written messages or dedications might be added. This type of graffiti rapidly spread worldwide and became an integral part of youth culture.
Railroad stations, and especially trains, were a favorite focus of this activity. In New York, two subway trains achieved a kind of fame: the Freedom Train, consisting of eleven cars and created in 1976; and the Christmas Train, a ten-car piece of December 1977. When they pulled into the station, people spontaneously applauded—an event which did not prevent the sprayers from being arrested for vandalism. In the 1980s graffiti began to enter art museums, the works of three artists being featured in 1982 at the prestigious Documenta exhibition in Germany: Basquiat, Haring, and Quinones.
Having studied art, Haring turned his back on gallery and museum art at an early stage and adopted graffiti as what he referred to as a sign language for everyday communication. He developed a very personal touch and style, featuring his characteristic simplified contour figures set against a brightly colored background. These were frequently supplemented by written messages, such as appeal to avoid drugs.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercise
Exercise 3. Find in the text English equivalents for the Russian words:
Russian words English equivalents Russian words English equivalents
популярный феномен арестовали за вандализм более бедные районы ранняя ступень происходит от язык жестов для повседневного общения надписи и рисунки, выгравированные на стенах характерные черты иллюстрированное граффити яркий цветной фон дополнительные декоративные мотивы призыв отказаться от наркотиков письменные сообщения распространилась по всему миру
Exercise 4. Use one of the words given in the box to fill in each gap:
drugs focus vandalism worldwide back color graffiti decorative
1. The word ____ comes from the Italian and means something "scratched" or "incised."
2. The first modern graffiti art was worked in a single color and contained only the sprayer's name and/or trademark.
3. The surfaces with zigzag contours were embellished with further _____ motifs such as arabesques, stars, checkerboard patterns, etc.
4. This type of graffiti rapidly spread ___ and became an integral part of youth culture.
5. Railroad stations, and especially trains, were a favorite _____ of this activity.
6. People spontaneously applauded—an event which did not prevent the sprayers from being arrested for____.
7. Having studied art, Haring turned his ___ on gallery and museum art at an early stage and adopted graffiti as what he referred to as a sign language for everyday communication.
8. These were frequently supplemented by written messages, such as appeal to avoid___.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Exercise 5. Match the words (1-7) with the words (a – g) as they occur together in the text:
1 spray a phenomenon
2 railroad b motifs
3 subway c trains
4 simplified d contour
5 decorative e station
6 zigzag f figures
7 popular g can

1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Exercise 6. Decide whether the following statements are True (T) or False (F) according to the text:
1. The use of spray-can paint became a popular phenomenon among the most prosperous businesspersons.
2. The first modern graffiti art was worked in many bright colors.
3. Graffiti rapidly spread worldwide and became an integral part of youth culture.
4. Graffiti art was approved by Ministry of Education.
5. Some graffiti are exhibited in art museums.
6. Graffiti artists use tempera for their best “tags”.
7. Railroad stations, and especially trains, were a favorite focus of graffiti artist’s activity.
8. Since ancient Roman times, the term graffiti had traditionally been used as a signature on documents.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Exercise 7. Match the two halves of the sentences:
1 The picture is done entirely in tiny dots, a outside France and
and learn from each other.
2 He worked in his studio, completing section every day, b how meticulously Seurat prepared the painting.
3 In a letter Pissarro gave an economical description of the technique Seurat had c the indefatigable supporter of innovatory artists.
4 Fourteen surviving studies and some drawings show d was continually attracting new followers.
5 In late 1888, Gauguin and Gogh made their famous attempt to work together e after thorough study of the scientific theories.
6 Bernard’s work included a vigorous, concentrated portrait of Pere Tanguy, f like a fresco painter or mosaic artist.
7 Toulouse-Lautrec was a skillful draughts man to capture character, momentary mood of a person in facial expression, and body language and g including the strip.
8 By the late 1880's, Impressionism was firmly established, familiar even h through these that person’s social situation

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Questions for revision
Exercise 1. Put these sentences into the correct order and read the description of the installation:
a A drop of water emerges from a small brass tap.
b It is magnified by a video camera and projected on a large screen.
c The close-up image reveals that the viewer and part of the room where they stand are visible inside each forming drop.
d The drop swells and shudders as it reaches surface tension.
e It finally falls and creates a loud resonant sound as it lands on an amplified drum below.
f A new drop immediately begins forming.
g The cycle continues in infinite repetition.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Exercise 2. Here are two more descriptions. Choose one of them and write an essay trying to understand, what the artist tries to express by his installation.
1. The artist presented his "sound painting”. He connected hundreds of all-sized bells with 150 feet of chord and designed a mechanism which would at once trigger various bells when one bell was touched or affected by a person. The bells were stung all over the gallery, ringing randomly and chaotically throughout the night.
2. In the center of the room there is a red Volvo-equipped with a long block engine and propane fuel system — atop of a pentagram. The vehicle is under a giant net, gripped in the jaws of five giant aluminum heads of the Aztec goddess of birth, Tlazolteotl. This modified family-car glistens with hot flames and it is surrounded by the sounds of wind in the gallery.
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UNIT 3. Как оценивать живопись. (How to Appreciate Painting)
TEXT 1. Studying Art.
Exercise 1. Practice the pronunciation of the words from the text. Write the transcriptions of the words using a dictionary.
word transcription word transcription word transcription
appreciation foreground to intrigue achievement concrete to duplicate contemporary cypress insight equal version familiar awareness to bequeath journey Exercise 2. Read and translate the text using a dictionary.
We can take great pleasure in merely looking at art, just as we take pleasure in the view of a distant mountain range or watching the sun set over the ocean. But art, unlike nature, is a human creation. It is one of the many ways we express ourselves and attempt to communicate. A work of art is the product of human intelligence, and we can meet it with our own intelligence on equal footing.
The understanding of process - the how - often contributes quite a lot to our appreciation of art. If you understand why painting in watercolor may be different from painting in oil, why clay responds differently to the artist’s hands than does wood or glass, why a stone building has different structural needs than one made of poured concrete - you will have a richer appreciation of the artist’s expression.
Knowing the place of a work of art in history - what went before and came after - can also deepen your understanding. Artists learn to make art by studying the achievements of the past and observing the efforts of their contemporaries. They adapt ideas to serve their own needs and then bequeath those ideas to future generations of artists. The more you know about this living current of artistic energy, the more interesting each work of art will become. For example, Matisse assumed that his audience would know that Venus was the ancient Roman goddess of love. But he also hoped that they would be familiar with one Venus in particular, a famous Greek statue known as the “Venus de Milo”. Knowing the Greek work deepens our pleasure in Matisse’s version, for we see that in “carving” his Venus out of a sheet of white paper he evokes the way a long-ago sculptor carved her out of a block of white marble.
An artist may create a specific work for any of a thousand reasons. An awareness of the why may give some insight as well. Looking at Van Gogh’s “The Starry Night”, it might help you to know that Van Gogh was intrigued by the belief that people journeyed to a star after their death, and that there they continued their lives. The tree that rises so dramatically in the foreground of the painting is a cypress, which has often served as a symbol of both death and eternal life. This knowledge might help you to understand why Van Gogh felt so strongly about the night sky, and what his painting might have meant to him.
But no matter how much you study, Van Gogh’s painting will never mean for you exactly what it meant for him, nor should it. An artist’s work grows from a lifetime of experiences, thoughts, and emotions; no one else can duplicate them exactly. Great works of art hold many meanings. The greatest of them seem to speak anew to each generation and to each attentive observer. The most important thing is that some works of art come to mean something for you, that your own experiences, thoughts, and emotions find a place in them, for then you will have made them live.
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercise
Exercise 3. Find in the text English equivalents for the Russian words:
Russian words English equivalents Russian words English equivalents
творение человека белый мрамор понимание искусства передний план картины живопись масляными красками завещать идеи будущим поколениям живопись акварелью вечная жизнь равное основание внимательный наблюдатель углубить понимание говорить по-новому уложенный бетон
Exercise 4. Use one of the words given in the box to fill in each gap:
contemporaries understanding current appreciation intelligence emotions creation insight
1. Art, unlike nature, is a human ___.
2. A work of art is the product of human ____.
3. The understanding of the process - the how - often contributes quite a lot to our ___ of art.
4. Knowing the place of a work of art in history can also deepen your ____.
5. Artists learn to make art by studying the achievements of the past and observing the efforts of their ____.
6. The more you know about this living ___ of artistic energy, the more interesting each work of art will become.
7. An awareness of the why may give some ___ as well.
8. An artist’s work grows from a lifetime of experiences, thoughts, and ___.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Exercise 5. Fill in the gaps with the right preposition, if necessary.
1. We can take great pleasure (1) ___ merely looking (2) ___ art, just as we take pleasure (3) __ the view (4) ___ a distant mountain or watching the sunset over the ocean.
2. A work (5) ___ art is the product (6) ___ human intelligence, and we can meet it (7) ___ our own intelligence (8) ___ equal footing.
3. If you understand why painting (9) ___ watercolor may be different (10) __ painting (11) __ oil, why clay responds differently (12) ___ the artist’s hands than does wood or glass, why a stone building has different structural needs than one made (13) ___ poured concrete - you will have a richer appreciation (14) ___ the artist’s expression.
4. An artist’s work grows (15) ___ a lifetime of experiences, thoughts, and emotions; no one else can duplicate (16) __ them exactly.
5. The most important thing is that some works (17) ___ art come to mean something (18) ___ you, that your own experiences, thoughts, and emotions find a place (19) __ them, for then you will have made them live.
1 11 2 12 3 13 4 14 5 15 6 16 7 17 8 18 9 19 10 Exercise 6. Decide whether the following statements are True (T) or False (F) according to the text:
1.A work of art is the product of human intelligence.
2.The understanding of process - the how - often contributes quite a lot to our appreciation of art.
3.Artists learn to make art by observing the achievements of their contemporaries.
4.An artist may create a specific work for any of a thousand reasons.
5.Great works of art hold one meaning.
6.The most important thing is that some works of art come to mean something for you, that your own experiences, thoughts, and emotions find a place in them.
1 2 3 4 5 6
Questions for revision
Exercise 1. Write a short summery of the text describing the following:
1. The process of understanding the works of art.
___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
TEXT 2. How to Talk to an Artist.
Exercise 1. Practice the pronunciation of the words from the text. Write the transcriptions of the words using a dictionary.
word transcription word transcription word transcription
Genre subject discipline process commission miniaturize critique budget youthfully reputation installment psychological style adequate viewing Exercise 2. Read and translate the text using a dictionary.
Most artists are very interested in their visitors' responses, and are happy to listen and answer thoughtful questions, but some artists have difficulty explaining their own work, or feel vulnerable to criticism. And sometimes visitors are tactless because of a lack of experience in looking at art or talking about it. If a visitor seems patronizing, asks personal questions, or criticizes the work, communication between the artist and viewer can shut down. I hope the following suggestions will offer some perspective.
What you shouldn't say What the Artist is tempted to reply Why this can offend an artist What you should say
Wow! That painting is really good
or cool/interesting
/different … You don’t know anything about art and you don’t know what you mean by “good." Be more thoughtful. “Good” doesn’t describe what the art does for the viewer and is very subjective. 'Different' or 'interesting' seem like a coy way of saying 'I don't get it.' Instead, tell the artist what moves you, reminds you, interests you. . . Wow! The lines in that painting are really provocative. It makes me think of ...
What is it? Why should I tell you? Every work of art does not have to literally represent something. Sometimes the artist is trying to convey a sense of mystery, or show something indescribable. If you don't have experience with art critique or art terms, try to scribe what you see or feel, and then ask questions about what the artist intended to convey. That’s inspiring. I wonder does it represent a figure in the dark, or a shadow, or am I totally off the mark?
I have a friend who runs a crafts gallery. I’ll tell her about you. That’s great. I’ll tell my Great Grandmother about her. Artists do all kinds of art work, from installation and politically provocative art to video and performance to modern abstraction paintings, etc. There is no single kind of art and galleries usually focus on different types of work. Find out what the artists does, and who the gallery represents, before you attempt to help. What kind of art do you do? Would it fit under the genre of crafts, or do you do something totally different?
You should use brighter colors. You should lose weight
or. . .
You should dye your hair purple. Yours is a subjective opinion. Part of the beauty of art is being able to say something just as the creator wants to say it. Your work seems dark and intense. I would like to know more about your ideas and creative process.
or. . .
Nothing.
How can you charge that much for this piece? I could buy a car for that amount. I have a car in the back that I haven’t been able to fix because I spend 3 times as much money on my art as you would on a car. The cost of a piece may be based on a number of factors: the artists' reputation (and market worth of their work) the success of the piece, the difficulty of production and presentation, the years of training behind the creation of the piece, as well as time and materials costs. Artists spend an incredible amount of time and money on art. The costs may be invisible to you, but the artist may devote an entire life to their profession without the promise of a return. That’s really nice. I would buy it if I had the money.
I have a friend who wants a portrait of his cat. Can you do it? Sure. While I’m doing that, since you’re an engineer, can you fix my car? Not all artists do all kinds of art. Don't assume that every artist will do cat portraits. Pay attention to the style and subject of the artist's work, and commission them to do you see animal or other portraits among their work, the artist will probably not be interested, and the question will seem odd. Do you do animal portraits?
I would like a drawing for my boyfriend’s birthday. Can you give me a discount? Sure. I hear you manage a department store. Can you give me a discount? If the artist thought the work was worth less, the price would already be lower. If the work is worth the price, why would the artist lower it? I’d like to give my boy-friend a piece of art for his birthday. Do you have anything in this price range?
or. . .
I like this piece, but don't have the budget for it right now. Can you offer an installment plan?
We need a painting to match our couch. Can you do it? After I’m done painting the house next door. Pay attention to the style and subject of the artist's work, and commission them to do something similar. Do you know any interior decorators?
You should paint happier pictures. You should get rid of your husband. Yours is a subjective opinion. Part of the beauty of art is being able to say something just as the creator wants to say it. Your work seems dark and intense. I would like to know more about your ideas and creative process.
or. . .
Nothing.
You should have your own studio. (Bigger studio.) (Own gallery.) You should buy at least 10 pieces of my art every year. If the artist had the money, they would almost certainly have their own studio. Money is usually a painful subject for the artist. Rent is high, supplies, framing, promotions, etc. This is a nice studio.
How long did it take you to do that? My whole life
or. . .
Why does it matter how long it took? Contrary to what many people believe, artists are not born artists. Most spend countless hours training, perfecting their craft, researching, schooling, etc. Many artists labor for hours to get the perfect piece, others sketch thousands of drawings for one idea, and some may create an expressive image very quickly. The price of a work of art is generally not calculated by the hour. The question sounds as ludicrous as if you asked your doctor, “How long did it take you to come up with this diagnosis That’s a really intricate piece. It must have taken a lot of work
/thought/ discipline.
I have a cousin who’s an illustrator. You should talk to him. So? If you’re talking to a fine artist, it’s like telling a cat you know a dog. There is some overlap in training and experience, but these two professions have less to do with each other than you might think, particularly in their approach to self-expression. Do also you do any illustration?
How much rent do you pay for your studio? How much do you pay for insurance? The artist would like to assume that you are looking at their work, not their real estate. This is a nice studio
Vocabulary and Grammar Exercise
Exercise 3. Find in the text English equivalents for the Russian words:
Russian words English equivalents Russian words English equivalents
слушать и отвечать на вопросы ряд факторов нехватка опыта сложность производства задавать личные вопросы посвятить всю жизнь оскорблять художника совершенствовать свои умения представлять что-либо буквально нельзя подсчитать в часах чувство тайны выразительный образ политически провокационное искусство трудиться часами субъективное мнение имеют мало общего Exercise 4. Use one of the words given in the box to fill in each gap:
is trying is to assume is worth explaining are talking to say are not born painful
1. Some artists have difficulty ____ their own work, or feel vulnerable to criticism.
2. Sometimes the artist ____ to convey a sense of mystery.
3. There ____ no single kind of art and galleries usually focus on different types of work.
4. Part of the beauty of art is being able ___ something just as the creator wants to say it.
5. If the work ___ the price, why would the artist lower it?
6. Contrary to what many people believe, artists ___ artists.
7. If you ___ to a fine artist, it’s like telling a cat you know a dog.
8. The artist would like ___ that you are looking at their work, not their real estate.
9. Money is usually a ____ subject for the artist.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Exercise 5. Match the meanings of the terms (1 -10) with their definitions (a - k):
1 artist
a An essay or review in criticism of a work or literature, art, etc.
2 visitor b A person who visits.
3 critique c The state of being pleased or contented; the feeling that one’s desires are fulfilled.
4 mystery d A person who practices one of the fine arts, especially painting.
5 installation e The ability to do something.
6 gallery f A long, usually narrow room in which works of art are shown.
7 creator g Something that is installed, especially an apparatus set up ready for use.
8 portrait h A picture, painting or photograph of a person, a picture in words.
9 satisfaction i One who creates.
10 skill k Something strange or secret; a matter that is hidden or that cannot be understood or explain.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Exercise 6. Choose the right form of pronouns given in the brackets.
1. Most artists are very interested in (1) (they, their, them) visitors’ responses.
2. If (2) (I, you, we) don’t have experience with art critique or art terms, try to describe what (3) (I, you, we) see or feel.
3. (4) (Yours, your, you) is a subjective opinion.
4. Part of the beauty of art is being able to say (5) (something, nothing, anything) just as the creator wants to say it.
5. Artists often work in jobs that mean (6) (something, nothing, anything) to (7) (they, them, their) in order to keep an adequate cash flow.
6. Contrary to what (8) (much, many, little) people believe, artists are not born artists.
7. There is (9) (any, no, some) overlap in training and experience, but (10) (this, these, those) two professions have less to do with each other than you might think.
8. You shouldn’t be wasting (11) (your, his, her) time painting.
9. You don’t know (12) (something, anything, nothing) about art.
10. There is (13) (no, not, none) single kind of art and galleries usually focus on different types of work.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
Questions for revision
Exercise 1. Think of questions you would like to ask a famous artist. Write down at least five.
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Приложение 1
UNIT 1. Исторические и современные тенденции в развитии живописи. (Historical and Modern Trends in the Development of Painting).
TEXT 1. The History of Art.
1 abstraction абстракция
2 advent приход
3 ancient древний
4 artifact артефакт
5 artisan ремесленник
6 bead бисер
7 biblical библейский
8 carve жаждать
9 cave пещера
10 corporeality материальность
11 depict изображать
12 dimensional мерная
13 diversity разнообразие
14 dominance господство
15 exaggerate преувеличивать
16 figurine статуэтка
17 paradigm парадигма
18 portable портативный
19 pottery керамика
20 Prehistoric доисторический
21 Preliterate дописьменных
22 record-keeping ведение учета
23 unique уникальный
24 utilitarian утилитарный
25 valuation оценка
26 workmanship мастерство
TEXT 2. English Painting.
1 allusion намек
2 alter изменять
3 ceremonial церемониальный
4 cockney кокни (лондонский)
5 earl граф
6 faith вера
7 fame известность
8 foreign иностранный
9 glorification прославление
10 grace изящество
11 harmonious гармоничный
12 heroic героический
13 impressive впечатляющий
14 vividly живо
15 would-be претендующий
16 merchant торговец
17 mythological мифологический
18 owe задолжать
19 passage прохождение (отрывок)
20 personage персонаж
21 prevailing преобладающий
22 render воспроизводить
23 subject-matter содержание
24 success успех
25 vanity тщеславие
26 vigorous энергичный
27 vivacity оживленность
28 easel мольберт
29 crayon цветной карандаш
30 brush кисть
31 paint-box ко коробка с красками
32 charcoal угольные карандаши
33 watercolor акварель
34 oil масляная краска
35 stretcher подрамник
36 canvas холст
37 nude model обнаженная модель
38 drapery драпировка
39 light colors светлые краски (цвета)
40 dark colors темные цвета (краски)
41 vivid colors яркие цвета (краски)
42 brilliant colors яркие цвета (краски)
43 intense colors интенсивные цвета (краски)
44 warm colors теплые цвета (краски)
45 cool colors холодные цвета (краски)
46 strong colors сильные цвета (краски)
47 harsh colors резкие цвета (краски)
48 soft colors мягкие цвета (краски)
49 subdued colors гипсометрическая шкала цветов
50 delicate colors нежные цвета (краски)
51 ochre colors охра
52 beige colors бежевые цвета (краски)
53 pink colors розовые цвета (краски)
54 art exhibitions художественные выставки
55 special exhibitions специальные выставки
56 permanent exhibitions постоянные выставки
57 one-man exhibitions персональные выставки
58 traveling exhibitions передвижные выставки
59 street scene уличная сцена (эпизод)
60 city scene городская сцена
61 country scene деревенская сцена
62 hunting scene сцена охоты
63 historical scene историческая сцена
64 battle scene батальная сцена (военная сцена)
TEXT 3. Pablo Piccaso.
1 ballet балет
2 Barbaric варварский
3 canvas холст
4 ceramic керамический
5 charlatan шарлатан
6 circus окружность
7 companion компаньон
8 disallow запрещать
9 drypoint игла для гравировки без кислоты 10 encounter сталкиваться
11 etching гравировка, травление
12 graphic графический
13 grim мрачный
14 lino cut линогравюра
15 lithograph литография
16 melancholic меланхолический
17 mural фреска
18 palette палитра
19 printmaker печатник
20 prolific плодовитый
21 prostrate поверженный
22 raid налет
23 simultaneously одновременно
24 starve голодать
25 synthetic синтетический
26 technique техника
27 vow клятва
28 weep плакать
29 woodcut гравюра на дереве
TEXT 4. Landscape Painting. Landscape painting of Constable.
1 appreciate ценить
2 fundamental фундаментальный
3 landscape painting пейзаж
4 artistic background художественный фон
5 maturity зрелость
6 influence влияние
7 idyllic идиллический
8 sublime возвышенный
9 scenic paintings живописные картины
10 humble attitude смиренным отношение
11 undoubtedly несомненно
12 a projection проекция
13 a master мастер
14 permits разрешения, разрешать
15 indulgence снисходительность
16 arbitrary произвольный
17 dilettantish дилетантский
18 exaggerations преувеличение
19 rigor строгость
20 pictorial изобразительный
UNIT 2. Живопись: формы, техники и содержание. (Painting: forms, techniques and content)
TEXT 1. Easel Painting.

1 assign приписывать
2 bulk объем
3 coat слой
4 consistent стойкий
5 discern разглядеть
6 aqueous водный
7 glaze глазурь
8 imply подразумевать
9 intractable неподатливый
10 loaded загруженный
11 meticulously тщательно
12 milestone веха
13 obscure безвестный
14 opaque непрозрачный
15 prominence известность
16 reign царствовать
17 resinous смолистый
18 subtle тонкий
19 trace след
20 transparent прозрачный
21 wax воск
22 artistic tastes художественные вкусы
23 draftsmanship мастерство
24 easel painting станковая живопись
25 tempera темпера
26 fluent stroking свободное поглаживание
27 gesso гипс
28 jewel драгоценный камень
29 linear линейный
30 mediums медиумы
31 tonal masses тональные массы
32 softening or blending of colors размягчение или смешивание цветов
33 technical approaches технические подходы
TEXT 2. The Magic of Watercolors.
1 alteration внесение изменений
2 backrun «обратный ход»
3 blend смесь
4 binder связующее вещество
5 borrow заимствовать
6 cling-film упаковочная пленка
7 cluster скопление
8 coarse грубый
9 comprise включать
10 consummate доводить до конца
11 diffuse рассеивать (разбросанный)
12 dilute разбавлять
13 dissolve растворяться
14 draft проект (набросок)
15 edge край
16 fluid жидкость
17 hatch штриховка
18 hue оттенок
19 imperfection несовершенство
20 judicious рассудительный
21 lacquer лак
22 medium средний
23 mill пресс
24 penetrable проницаемый
25 plow рассекать (прокладывать)
26 plunge окунаться
27 pointillism пуантилизм
28 precisely точно
29 precision точность
30 random случайный
31 raw сырой (сырье)
32 refine очищать
33 resemblance сходство
34 ridge край (хребет)
35 saturate насыщать
36 serrate зазубренный
37 soluble растворимый
38 sprinkle разбрасывать
39 stroke штрих (мазок)
40 subtlest тончайший
41 tilting опрокидывание
42 tip наконечник
43 translucent полупрозрачный
44 varnish лакировка
45 wick тампон
TEXT 3. Digital Printing. Digital Painting.
1 brush technique техника кисти
2 eclecticism эклектизм
3 curator хранитель музея
4 smuggler контрабандист
5 digitally в цифровом виде
6 versatile разносторонний
7 inkjet струйной печати
8 airbrush краскопульт
9 theft кража
10 damage insurance premiums страховая премия по ущербу
11 Digital printing technology технология цифровой печати
12 outdoor advertising наружная реклама
13 forgery подделка
14 large scale advertising campaigns широкомасштабная рекламная кампания
15 classic screen-printing technique классический метод трафаретной печати
16 fade выцветать
17 persist настойчиво продолжать
18 convenience удобство
19 canvas холст
20 essential creative matters существенные творческие вопросы
21 incorporation включение (слияние)
22 marvelous изумительный
23 splash всплеск (брызги, пятно)
24 application применение
25 charcoal угольный карандаш
26 immense огромный
27 counterpart точная копия (дополнение)
28 output продукция (результат)
29 hesitant колеблющийся (нерешительные)
30 screenprint изготовленный методом трафаретной печати
31 closs глянец, лоск
32 stencil трафарет
TEXT 4. Graffiti.
1 spray-can paint баночная краска
2 neighborhoods окрестности
3 scratched поцарапана
4 incise надрезать
5 designate определять
6 etch травление (гравировка)
7 signature подпись
8 supplement дополнение
9 pictorial изобразительный
10 surface поверхность
11 embellish приукрашивать
12 arabesques арабески
13 checkerboard pattern шахматная доска
14 dedication посвящение (преданность)
15 achieve достигать
16 fame известность
17 sign language язык знаков
18 everyday communication повседневное общение
19 personal touch характерные черты (особенности)
UNIT 3. Как оценивать живопись. (How to Appreciate Painting)
TEXT 1. Studying Art.
1 adapt адаптироваться
2 appreciation оценка
3 audience аудитория
4 awareness осведомленность
5 bequeath завещать
6 carve вырезать
7 clay глина
8 concrete бетон
9 contemporary современник
10 contribute делать вклад (сотрудничать)
11 current современный
12 differently по-разному
13 duplicate дублировать (удваивать)
14 eternal вечный
15 evoke вызывать
16 foreground передний план картины
17 insight понимание
18 intrigue интрига
19 marble мрамор
20 merely только
TEXT 2. How to Talk to an Artist.
1 assume предполагать
2 commission комиссия (доверенность, поручение)
3 convey передавать
4 coy застенчивый
5 dye краситель (красить)
6 estate имущество
7 intense интенсивный
8 intricate запутанный
9 loft чердак
10 ludicrous смехотворный
11 odd странный
12 offend обижать
13 overlap перекрытие (нахлестка, совпадение)
14 patronize покровительствовать
15 pursue преследовать
16 response ответ
17 subjective субъективный
18 tempt искушать (соблазнять)
19 tremendous огромный
20 vulnerable уязвимый

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