Составитель: Жукатинская Виктория Александровна, учитель английского языка, г.Липецк, МАОУ лицей №44,2016-2017 учебный год
Грамматическая таблица «Classification of simple sentences» с упражнениями.
The Simple Sentence
It is a unit of speech whose grammatical structure conforms to the laws of the language and which serves as the chief means of conveying a thought. It is not only a means of communicating something about reality but also a means of showing the speaker's attitude to it.
The classification of simple sentences is based on two principles:
according to the purpose of the utterance:
Kinds of sentences Characteristic
features Word order Intonation Examples NB !Declarative states a fact in the affirmative or negative form The subject precedes the predicate falling No palace in Europe was batter suited for formal mass revelry In English the predicate in a sentence can have only one negation
interrogative Asks a question Inversion takes place here - general Requires the answer "yes" or "no" The part of the predicate (the auxiliary or modal verb or the verbs to be or to have) is placed before subject rising Do you like art?
Don't you like the classical music? Sometimes such questions have a negative form and express astonishment or doubt (разве, неужели).
- special Begins with interrogative words The same as in general questions but the interrogative word precedes the auxiliary verb. falling Where are you going?
Who watched this film yesterday? When the interrogative word is the subject of the interrogative sentence or an attribute to the subject the order of words is that of the statement, no inversion takes place.
- alternative Indicates choice The same as in general questions but the alternative word stays near the word to which it is given. Rising (in the first part)and falling (in the second part ) Do you like tea or coffee? - disjunctive Requires the answer "yes" or "no"; consists of the statement and a tag to it. The statement is what it is and in the tag auxiliary verb precedes the subject expressed by a personal pronoun Falling ( in the first part) and rising (in the second part ) Ann misses her English lessons every Monday, doesn't she? If the statement is affirmative, then the tag will be in the negative & vice versa.
imperative Serves to induce a person to do something, it expresses:
an invitation etc. Begins with a verb in imperative mood -falling
-rising Come to me!
Open the door, please! Exclamatory Expresses some kind of emotion feeling Often begins with the words what and how. No inversion takes place. falling
What a lovely day it is.
How beautiful. according to the structure:
two - member one - member Has two members - a subject and a predicate. If one of them is missing it can be easily understood from the context.
e.g. He looked for another place to go. Has only one member which is neither the subject nor the predicate but makes the sense compete. Generally used in descriptions and emotional speech.
incomplete / elliptical complete nominal "infinitive" One of the principal part or both of them are missing, but can be easily understood from the context. Mostly used in colloquial speech, esp. in dialogue.
e.g. Where were you yesterday? - At the cinema.
Has a subject and a predicate.
e.g. Young John couldn't help smiling Expressed by a noun and may be modified by attributes.
e.g. The dull pain and the life slowly dripping out of him. Expressed by an infinitive.
e.g. To die out there - lonely.
extended unextendedConsists of the subject, predicate and one or more secondary parts.
e.g. After all she is the only one whom I have. Consists only of the principle parts of the sentence.
e.g. She is a student.
Ex. 1. Try to solve the crossword.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
9 10 11 Across:
3. Kind of a question.
5. Sth. that the imperative sentence expresses.
7. The type of a sentence according to its structure.
9. The part of a disjunctive sentence.
10. Kind of a sentence.
11. The thing that alternative question indicates.
1. Kind of an interrogative sentence.
2.The intonation the special questions are pronounced with.
4. Kind of a two-member sentence.
6. A unit of speech.
8. Kind of a sentence according to its structure.
Ex. 2. Make up the sentences, that would have the following characteristics:
simple, interrogative, disjunctive, two-member, complete, extended.
simple, declarative, one-member, nominal, extended.
simple, exclamatory, two-member, complete, unextended.
simple, interrogative, special, two-member, complete, unextended.
simple, declarative, two-member, infinitive, unextended.
simple, imperative, two-member, elliptical, extended.
simple, exclamatory, one-member, nominal, unextended.
simple, interrogative, alternative, two-member, complete, unextended.
simple, declarative, one-member, infinitive, unextended.
simple, interrogative, general, two-member, complete, unextended.
Ex. 3. Translate the extracts from E. Zamyatins story and analyse them.
Ледники, мамонты, пустыни. Ночные, черные, чем-то похожие на дома, скалы; в скалах пещеры. И неизвестно, кто трубит ночью на каменной тропинке между скал и, вынюхивая тропинку, раздувает белую снежную пыль ... Одно ясно: зима ... Дальше отступить было некуда: тут надо было выдержать осаду или умереть 2) - Ты куда, Март? - Я сейчас. За водой вниз. 3) Двадцать девятое. С утра низкое, дырявое, важное небо, и сквозь дыры несет льдом ... 4) В пещере еще темно. Глиняный холодный, слепой - Мартин Mартиныч тупо натыкался на перепутанные в пещере предметы.5) Внизу начали колоть каменным топором. Вдруг перестали, какая-то беготня, крик… 6) - Погоди, Маша - кажется - кажется у нас стучат. Нет. Никого. Пока еще никого. Еще можно дышать, еще можно запрокинуть голову, слушать голос - такой похожий на тот прежний.
Ex. 4. Check the sentences below and dwell on mistakes in the analysis.
The opening could possibly be worse. (O. Henry) - simple, declarative, two-member, incomplete, extended.I can support her myself. Leave me and go to him (S. Austen)
simple, declarative, two-member, complete, unextended;
simple, declarative, one-member, infinitive, extended.
«What are you looking at?» «At a countess in her bathing suit» (A.Christie)
simple, interrogative, general, two-member, incomplete, extended;
simple, declarative, one-member, extended.
He broke off abruptly, alarmed at what he had done. (K. Rhodes) - simple, declarative, two-member, elliptical, extended.
It was the rejection slips that completed the horrible machine - likeness of the process. (J. London) - simple, declarative, two-member, complete, unextended.
The things that really matter happen in the heart. (A. Huxley). - simple, declarative, two-member, complete, unextended.
Who else is going to give birth to more chumps like you two? (J.Herbert) - simple, interrogative, special, one-member, extended.
Dont look at him: (R. Kipling) - simple, exclamatory, two-member - elliptical, extended.
The story of the Tsar, his Empress, and the realm they cost. (R.K.Massie) - simple, declarative, one-member, nominal, unextended.
The proposition and demonstration were fairly written on a thin wafer. (J. Swift). - simple, declarative, two-member, complete, extended.
Ex. 5. Analyse the sentences:
1. One dollar and eighty-seven cents. ( O. Henry). 2. So, all that day they spent the time in nothing but sighs and bitter lamentations.(J.Bunyan). 3.It would be difficult to find any adequate mention of instincts in treaties on human psychology. (W.Mc.Dougall). 4. Forget the hashed metaphor. (O.Henry). 5. The pitty of a monkey.(RKipling). 6. The day passes. ( A. Chechov). 7.Marie's prophecy was accurate. (R.K. Massie). 8. Life, life and still more life. (A. Huxley). 9.Half a cord? More. (E.Zamyatin).10.The bed was eight yards from the floor. (J.Swift).11.Oh, how disguisting you are! (F.Dostoevsky). 12. Up and kill! (R. Kipling).13."Let's get off..." "Where?"- she asked, surprised. "At this landing." (I.Bunin).14. How differently did everything now appear! (J.Austin). 15. Isn't that amusing! (I.Turgenev). 16) “She must be annihilated.” Who?” “the Empress.” (R.K. Massie). 17. Dusk. The 29th of October has grown old. (E.Zamyatin).18. Wonderful, isn't it? (A.Huxley).19.How fortunate that we are leaving soon! What impossible boys!( F. Sologub).20. You have other gardens, haven't you? (K.Rhodes). 21. She certainly isn't guilty. Impossible! The letter is written in a way no person guilty of a crime can write. (N.Gogol). 22.Who calls? (R. Kipling). 23. Tighter the knot, ever tighter! (E.Zamyatin). 24. " Recognise it?" " Certainly." (A. Cristie). 25.Was she embarrassed? No, not much. ( I. Bunin). 26."What is Hoke?" “Bombs." (J. Herbert). 27. And no dying notisable in the organism. (M.Zoshchenco). 28. Happen! The worst that can happen. (R. Kipling). 29.In all my life I had not seen such a melancholy grave yard. (A.Pushkin).