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МАОУ СОШ № 36 г. Тамбов Учитель английского языка Лобанова Светлана Игоревна What makes the English - English The English peoples have a wonderful heritage and although they may not outwardly show the patriotism of their American cousins, there is an underlying pride in this little island, of the monarchy, the beautiful countryside, our historic buildings and national sports. So what is it that make the English so… English? It is thought that the first settlers arrived here around 250,000BC. The remains of a woman were found at Swanscombe in Kent dating from around that time, but the road that forged England as we see it today has been a turbulent one that started when the land bridge, which connected England with France and the rest of Europe, disappeared. During the Bronze Age, there were already organised societies. Thousands of people were employed on an amazing feat of engineering to build Stonehenge, on Salisbury Plain. The stones were first cut in South Wales, carried by river and sea, and dragged overland to their final resting-place. The Celts, who were fond of war, arrived in about 600BC and later would trade with Europeans from Carthage and Greece. They wanted tin, gold and iron in exchange for fine cloth and wine. The Celtic women were highly respected and some became chieftains. The Celts In 55 BC, Julius Caesar led the first Roman army of about 10,000 soldiers to see how strong these Celts, or British, really were, but it wasn’t until 43 AD that the Roman General Aulus Plautius arrived in Kent. He was determined to colonise Britain and, with the exception of parts of Wales, Scotland and Cornwall had, within a few years, achieved his goal, but at a heavy price. Julius Caesar The Romans In 60 AD the Romans were almost driven out of England by the elected Queen of the Iceni tribe in what is now Norfolk. Boudicca led a revolt against Rome and burnt down London, Colchester and St. Albans. When finally defeated, she killed herself. Boudica Queen of the Iceni After 400 AD, when these shores were undefended, came the invasion of the Anglo-Saxons, Jutes and others. The Saxons spoke different languages and it’s from this mix that the English language evolved. About 400 years later the Vikings arrived and, almost eighty years later, were defeated at the battle of Ethandun by Alfred the Great (871-901AD). The country was split between Wessex and Danelaw, but later Danelaw (part of the Midlands, South and SW England) were recaptured until the time of Ethelred who wasn’t prepared for further Danish raids. Put this together with the Norman Invasion (1066 and all that), the Middle Ages, the wars of the White Rose of York and the Red Rose of Lancaster, the time of the Tudors, Cromwell, Victoria and the expansion of an Empire plus two World Wars and the blitz, this is what makes the English.Forged in the furnace of time. This is England. The Norman Conquest The House of York used a white rose. The House of Lancaster used a red rose. The Wars of the Roses 1. http://www.dashinvaine.co.uk/Boudica%20boudicca%20image.jpg2. http://www.murphsplace.com/owen/arthur/images2/osprey4.jpg3. http://www.richardiii.net/images/Battle%20of%20Bosworth.jpg Список источников: