МЕТОДИЧЕСКАЯ РАЗРАБОТКА по английскому языку по теме «ЭКСКУРСИИ И ПУТЕШЕСТВИЯ» с изучением артиклей


МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ МУРМАНСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ
ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ АВТОНОМНОЕ ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ МУРМАНСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ
«КАНДАЛАКШСКИЙ ИНДУСТРИАЛЬНЫЙ КОЛЛЕДЖ»
(ГАПОУ МО «КИК»)
МЕТОДИЧЕСКАЯ РАЗРАБОТКА
по английскому языку по теме
«ЭКСКУРСИИ И ПУТЕШЕСТВИЯ»
с изучением артиклей
г.Кандалакша2016 г.
Разработано с учетом Федерального государственного образовательного стандарта среднего профессионального образования.
Разработчик: Храмцова Тамара Владимировна, преподаватель ГАПОУ МО «Кандалакшский индустриальный колледж».
Пояснительная записка
Данная разработка предназначена для студентов НПО и СПО 1 и 2 курсов. Занятие №8 данного модуля было разработано для профессии 23.01.09 «Машинист локомотива» для изучения темы «Поезда и вагоны».
Целью изучения данного модуля, как и учебной дисциплины «Английский язык» в целом, направлено на достижение следующих целей:
формирование представлений об английском языке как о языке международного общения и средстве приобщения к ценностям мировой культуры и национальных культур;
формирование коммуникативной компетенции, позволяющей свободно общаться на английском языке в различных формах и на различные темы, в том числе в сфере профессиональной деятельности, с учетом приобретенного словарного запаса, а также условий, мотивов и целей общения;
формирование и развитие всех компонентов коммуникативной компетенции: лингвистической, социолингвистической, дискурсивной, социокультурной, социальной, стратегической и предметной;
воспитание личности, способной и желающей вести здоровый образ жизни, участвовать в общении на межкультурном уровне;
воспитание уважительного отношения к другим культурам и социальным субкультурам.
В результате освоения данного модуля обучающийся должен знать:
1. значения новых лексических единиц, связанных с тематикой данного этапа и с соответствующими ситуациями общения;
2. языковой материал: идиоматические выражения, оценочную лексику, единицы речевого этикета;
3. средства и способы выражения модальности; условия, предположения, причины, следствия, побуждения к действию;
4. лингвострановедческую, страноведческую и социокультурную информацию, расширенную за счет новой тематики и проблематики речевого общения;
В результате освоения учебной дисциплины обучающийся должен уметь:
Говорение:
1. вести диалог (диалог–расспрос, диалог–обмен мнениями/суждениями, диалог–побуждение к действию, этикетный диалог и их комбинации), используя аргументацию, эмоционально-оценочные средства;
2. рассказывать, рассуждать в связи с изученной тематикой, проблематикой прочитанных/прослушанных текстов; описывать события, излагать факты, делать сообщения;
3. создавать словесный социокультурный портрет своей страны и страны/стран изучаемого языка на основе полученной страноведческой и культуроведческой информации.
Аудирование:
4. понимать относительно полно (общий смысл) высказывания на изучаемом иностранном языке в различных ситуациях общения;
5. понимать основное содержание аутентичных аудио- или видеотекстов познавательного характера на темы, предлагаемые в рамках курса, выборочно извлекать из них необходимую информацию, а также оценивать важность/новизну информации, определять свое отношение к ней.
Чтение:
6. читать тексты, используя основные виды чтения (ознакомительное, изучающее, просмотровое/поисковое) в зависимости от коммуникативной задачи.
Письменная речь:
6. описывать явления, события, излагать факты в письме;
7. использовать приобретенные знания и умения в практической и профессиональной деятельности, повседневной жизни.
Lesson 1.
Articles. The Indefinite Article. The Indefinite Article
1.1. Study the usage of the indefinite article.
Неопределенный артикль a произошел от числительного one, поэтому употребляется только с исчисляемыми существительными в единственном числе.
A употребляется перед словами, начинающимися с согласного звука: a cat
An употребляется перед словами, начинающимися с гласного звука: an apple
Употребление неопределенного артикля «а» с исчисляемыми существительными:
Неопределенный артикль а только указывает на то, что предмет принадлежит к какому-нибудь классу предметов, но не выделяет его из однородных предметов.
I want an apple. I need a pencil. I like bananas
В некоторых случаях неопределенный артикль полностью сохранил значение числительного one один.
I will come in an hour. He didn’t say a word.
Неопределенный артикль «а» с исчисляемыми существительными употребляется:
1. Когда речь идет о лице или предмете именно данного класса, в
отличие от лиц или предметов другого класса.
2. Когда существительное обозначает, кем или чем является
лицо или предмет, о котором говорится в предложении:
My brother is an engineer.
This is a dictionary.
3. Когда имеется в виду всякий, любой представитель данного класса лиц или предметов
A child can understand it.
4. Когда речь идет об одном каком-нибудь лице или предмете
еще неизвестном собеседнику или читателю, упоминаемом
впервые.
It happened in a small town in Siberia.
5. В восклицательных предложениях после слова
what (что, за, какой): What a clever man!

6. После слов such, rather, quite.
She is such a clever woman!
7. После прилагательных с предшествующими словами so или too.
It is not so simple a problem as it seems.

Во всех вышеперечисленных случаях употребления перед существительными во множественном числе артикль отсутствует.
Это нужно запомнить – слова и словосочетания, которые употребляются обычно без артикля:
слова breakfast , lunch, dinner
существительное + числительное: Room 15
слова bed, work, home в следующих случаях: go to bed/ be in bed; go to work/ be at work/ start work/ finish work; go home/ come home/ arrive home/ be at home
фразы go to sea, be at sea (в значении «быть в путешествии»)
school/ hospital/ university/ church/ prison (когда важно не конкретное место или здание, а понятие учреждения в целом) Alison is ten years. She goes to school.
1.2. Make sentences. Choose from Box A and box B. Choose a/an where necessary.
A B
I want to ask you
Tom never wears
I can’t ride
My brother is Barbara works in
Ann wants to learn
Jim lives in
This evening I’m going to old house
party
bookshop
hat artist
question
foreign language
bicycle
1. I want to ask you a question.
2.________________________________________________________________________
2.________________________________________________________________________
3.________________________________________________________________________
4.________________________________________________________________________
5.________________________________________________________________________
6.________________________________________________________________________
7.________________________________________________________________________
8.________________________________________________________________________
1.3. Some of these sentence are right, but some of them need a/an. Put in a/an where necessary.
1. I haven’t got watch. a watch
2. Do you like cheese? OK
3. Ann never wears hat.______________
4. Are you looking for job?___________
5. Mary doesn’t eat meat.____________
6. Mary eats apple every day._________
7. I’m going to party tonight._________
8. Music is wonderful thing.__________ 9. Jamaica is island. _____________________
10. I don’t need key. _____________________
11. Everybody needs food. ________________
12. I’ve got good idea.___________________
13. Can you drive car? ___________________
14. Do you want cup of coffee? ____________
15. I don’t like coffee without milk. ________
16. Don’t go out without umbrella.__________
Lesson 2.
Articles. The Definite Article.2.1. Study the usage of the definite article.

Определенный артикль произошел от указательного местоимения that, он указывает на определенное лицо или предмет (лица или предметы), т.е. на лицо или предмет, выделенный из всех лиц или предметов данного класса.
Определенный артикль the может употребляться как с неисчисляемыми, так и с исчисляемыми существительными в единственном числе и множественном числе:
The milk is in the cup. Can you see the men?
Употребление определенного артикля «the» с исчисляемыми существительными:
Определенный артикль the употребляется с исчисляемыми существительными:
1. Когда существительное имеет определение, которое выделяет его из всех лиц или предметов данного класса.
Show me the letter you received yesterday.
2. Когда из ситуации или контекста ясно, какое именно лицо или предмет имеется в виду.
Please close the window.
3. Когда лицо или предмет уже названный ранее, снова упоминается в беседе или тексте.
When I entered the room, I saw a man standing at the window. The man was very old.
4. Когда лицо или предмет является единственным в своем роде или в данной обстановке. The earth goes round the sun.
5. Для обозначения целого класса предметов
The African elephant is taller than the Indian.
6. Перед именами прилагательными и причастиями, превратившимися в имена существительные, со значением множественного числа.
Do you think the rich should pay more taxes to help the poor?
3. С названиями национальностей (во мн.числе):
the Spanish, the French, the Chinese
Употребление определенного артикля «the» с неисчисляемыми существительными:
Определенный артикль the употребляется с неисчисляемыми существительными:
1. Когда речь идет об определенном количестве данного вещества:
Количество вещества ясно по контексту
Bring the milk from the kitchen.
или
Это количество, названное ранее, упоминается снова.
The waiter brought me some tea and some milk. I drank the tea but did not drink the milk.
2. Перед названием вещества имеется определение, выделяющее его из всего вещества данного рода: The ore discovered by the expedition is of high quality.
Это следует запомнить – cлова и словосочетания, всегда употребляющиеся с неопределенным артиклем the:
the environment – окружающая среда the sea – море
the country – сельская местность the ground – земля
the sky – небо the same – тот же самый
the theatre – театр the cinema – кино
the radio – радио, но television - телевидение
__space – космос но the space – место, пространство
There are millions of stars in space.
I tried to park but the space was too small.
2.2 Put in a/an or the.
We enjoyed our holiday. The hotel was very nice.
“Can I ask a question?” “Of course. What do you want to ask?”
You look very tired. You need ___ holiday.
“Where’s Tom?” “He is in ____ bathroom”
Jane is ___ interesting person. You must meet her.
A: Excuse me, can you tell me how to get to ___city centre?
B: Yes, go straight on and take the ___ next turning left.
A: Shall we go out for ___ meal this evening?
B: Yes, that’s ___ good idea.
It’s ___ nice morning. Let’s go for ___ walk.
Amanda is ___ student When she finishes her studies, she wants to be ___ journalist.
She lives with two friends in ___ flat near ___ college where she is studying. ___ flat is small but she likes it.
Peter and Mary have got two children, ___ boy and ___ girl. ___ boy is seven years old and ____ girl is three. Peter works in ___ factory. Mary hasn’t got ___ job at the moment.
2.3 Complete the sentences. Use a or the + one of these words:
airport cup door floor picture radio

Lesson 3.
Articles with geographical names.3.1. Study the usage of articles with geographical names.
Определенный артикль the употребляется с названиями стран, океанов, морей, заливов и др. географических названий, которые являются сочетаниями нарицательных существительных с определяющим словом:
the British Empire the United States
the Pacific Ocean the British Channel
the Mediterranean Sea the Baltic Sea
the Persian Gulf the Sahara Desert
Определенный артикль сохраняется перед названиями океанов и морей, даже когда слова Ocean и Sea опущены: the Pacific, the Atlantic, the Baltic
2. Когда географическое название представляет собой сочетание существительного собственного с предшествующим определяющим словом, то артикль не употребляется:
Eastern Europe, Central Asia, Northern Ireland
3.2. Study the usage of the definite article with geographical names.
Определенный артикль с географическими названиями употребляется в следующих
случаях:
С названиями некоторых стран, местностей и городов, особенно если они находятся во мн.числе: the Ukraine, the Crimea, the Caucasus, the Transvaal, the Congo, the Netherlands, the Argentine (Argentina), the Hague, the Philippines
Перед названиями рек: the Volga, the Thames
Перед названиями горных хребтов: the Alps, the Apennines
Запомни. Названия отдельных вершин употребляются без артикля: Everest
4. Перед названиями групп островов: the Canaries, the British Isles
5. С названиями замков, дворцов, зоопарков, станций и других мест и исторических зданий, если они не начинаются с названия города или фамилии человека: the White House
Сравни: Buckingham Palace, London Zoo, Westminster Abbey.
Если в географическом названии есть предлог of : the Republic of Ireland the Tower of London
Со словами, обозначающими стороны света: the east, the west, the north, the south, the middle (of) …: the north of Italy
These are geography questions. Choose your answer from the box. Sometimes you need The.

_____Cairo_____is the capital of Egypt.
__The Atlantic__ is between Africa and America.
______________ is a country in northern Europe.
______________ is a river in South America.
______________ is the largest continent in the world.
______________ is the largest ocean.
______________ is a river in Europe.
______________ is a country in East Africa.
______________ is between Canada and Mexico.
______________ are mountains in South America.
______________ is the capital of Japan.
______________ are mountains in central Europe.
______________ is between Saudi Arabia and Africa.
______________ is an island in the Mediterranean.
______________ are a group of islands near Florida. Alps
Amazon
Andes
Asia
Atlantic
Bahamas
Cairo
Kenya
Malta
Pacific
Red Sea
Rhine
Sweden
Tokyo
United States
Lesson 4.
The British on holidays. Watching the video. Before watching the video:
Study the vocabulary, learn the words:
deckchair – шезлонг
bed and breakfast – гостиница, предоставляющая номер с завтракомdeparture lounge –зал ожидания
sunbathe – загорать
customs – таможня
destination – место назначения, цель путешествия
guest house – гостевой дом climb – взбираться, подниматься
campsite – кемпинг, палаточный лагерь
towel – полoтенцеpier – пирс
hang-gliding – дельтапланеризм
narrowboat - узкая баржа
Be ready to choose the best answer after watching the video:
The most popular holiday months for British people are …
June and July
July and August
August and September
What is the most popular destination for British holidaymakers?
the USA
Greece
Spain
3. How far from London is the seaside town of Brighton?
100 kilometres40 kilometres400 kilometres4. Brighton is a good place for family holidays because …
it is cheap
there are lots of things to do
it’s always sunny
How many British people go to London on holiday every year?
5 million
2,5 million
250,000
3. Put the words in the correct place:
At the airport
______________________
______________________
______________________
deckchair
bed and breakfast
swim
departure lounge
hotel
sunbathe
customs
passport destination
ice-cream
guest house
climb
campsite
towel
windsurf
pier Things to do
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
Places to stay
______________________
______________________
______________________
Things at the seaside
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
4.2. Watch Sequence 1 of the video (up to: Sometimes there isn’t very much sun) and do the exercises.
Watch the sequence and tick (v) the places you hear.
Florida
the Caribbean
Western Europe
Greece The USA
Brazil
Spain
France
Mark the sentences T (true) or F (false).
All British people take a two-week break in July or August.
The British make 14 million holiday trips year.
Most British people go to Western Europe.
Over a quarter of British holidaymakers go to Spain.
The British go abroad because the weather is often better.
4.3. Watch Sequence 2 of the video (up to: Everyone hopes for a lot of sunshine and not too much rain!) and write the names for:
one thing people hope for on holiday.
two types of transport not used in the nineteenth century.
three British seaside towns.
four things that people do on holiday
five places where people sleep on holiday.
4.4. Watch Sequence 3 of the video (to the end) and do the exercises:
Watch the Sequence and tick (V) the activities you hear:
yachting
climbing
cycling hang-gliding
walking
sailing on a narrowboat
Would you like to spend a holiday on a narrowboat? Why? Why not?
4.5. Go back and check the Quiz. Add to or change your answers. Watch the unit again if
necessary.
Lesson 5. Ways of travelling.
5.1. Study the vocabulary, learn the words.
to go on business – ездить в командировку
all over the world – во всем мире
to travel on business – путешествовать по делу
to board a plane/airliner – сесть на самолет
in advance – заранее, заблаговременно
hiking – туризм, пеший поход experience – опыт
destination – место назначения, цель путешествия
to depart – уезжать, отбывать
to go abroad – ездить за границу
5.2. Read and translate the text.
Travelling
Modern life is impossible without travelling. The scientific and technological progress of the 20th century has allowed people to overcome time and distance. The whole world is open now. To begin with most of us in big cities travel every day to our schools, offices and factories. They go by underground, they change to a bus or they take a taxi. From time to time we have to go to another city or country on business. Then after a year’s work people go on holiday.
Millions of people all over the world spend their holidays travelling. They travel to see other countries and continents, modern cities and the ruins of ancient towns, they travel to enjoy picturesque places or just for a change of scene. It is always interesting to discover new things, to see different ways of life, to meet different people, to try different food, to listen to different musical rhythms.
People who wish to travel either for pleasure or on business have at their disposal various means of transport. If you want to get somewhere as quickly as possible, the best way is to travel by plane. It is better to book tickets in advance. On the appointed day you go to the airport by car. Soon you’ll be boarding the big airliner and it will carry you to new lands.
Travelling by train is slower than by plane but it has its advantages. When on the train you can
always see the country side around you, so you are not simply travelling, but your holidays have already begun..
Travelling by sea is mostly for those who are going on holiday and want a pleasant voyage. On board a large cruise ship people traverse oceans and visit other countries.
Many people prefer travelling by car. The greatest advantage is that you can stop whenever you like and that you are not bound by any schedule. You start from your own front door and take any road you like.
Coach tours are not expensive and very popular. They are planned as holidays and there is a chance to do a lot of sightseeing and have a good rest at the same time.
One of the cheapest and the most popular ways of travelling is hiking. It is always a great experience for a lover of nature.
All means of travel have their advantages and disadvantages. People choose one according to their plans and destination. When travelling we see and learn a lot of things that we can never see or learn at home.
5.3. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following:
преодолевать время и расстояние; весь мир; ездить на метро; брать такси; командировка; открывать/обнаруживать; делать пересадку; ради удовольствия; средства транспорта; располагать чем-нибудь; заказать билеты заранее; пересекать океаны; расписание/график; автобусные туры; ходить в поход; цель путешествия; преимущества. 5.4. Answer the following questions:
When do you usually travel?
Where do you go?
Do you collect information about the places you would like to visit?
Do you think that travel broadens one’s mind?
Some people travel to faraway places not to see people, while others travel to meet people. What about you?
What places would you like to visit?
What do you like better, to travel along or in a group? Why?
How are you going to spend your next vacation? Are you going to go anywhere? How long are you going to be on vacation? What are you going to do? Is anyone going to travel with you?
What do you hate doing on vacation?
When did you last travel by railroad?
From which railroad station do trains leave Moscow for the South (the North, the West, the East)?
Do you prefer a lower or an upper berth? Why?
Are you fond of travelling?
Why do people travel?
How many hours a day do you spend travelling?
Why do some people choose planes for travelling?
Do you like to travel by train? What are its disadvantages?
Would you like to go on a big ocean cruise?
Why can it be convenient to travel by car?
Have you ever been on a coach tour?
If you could spend a hiking holiday wherever you like, what place would you choose?
5.5. Choose the proper words from the table.
business by plane to cross summer holidays to travel traffic lights get traffic car round left in advance right wrong to the left to the right
1. I don’t like to go .., I prefer … by train. 2. Where are you going to spend your ..? 3. How do you … to your office? – I drive my own … . 4. He is going on a … trip on Monday. 5. It is safe … the road only where the … are. 6. It is a very busy street, there is always a lot of … . 7. When crossing the street, first look ..., then… . 8. It’s always good to book tickets … . 9. Where’s the nearest metro station? – It’s … the corner. 10. In Britain on the road the right side is the … side and the … side is the … side.
5.6. Study the vocabulary, learn the words
trip – поездка, путешествие
window – окно, место в самолете у окна
aisle – ряд, место в самолете у прохода
to take(took/taken) a bus – сесть на автобус
to take a train – сесть на поезд
to take an airplane/ a plane – сесть на самолет
donkey – осел
route – маршрут exciting – захватывающий
local – местный
to miss the train – опоздать на поезд
by mistake – по ошибке
to rent a car – взять машину в аренду
an accident – несчастный случай
to get (got/ got) seasick – заболеть морской болезнью
5.7. Watch the video and listen to the dialogue. Be ready to answer the following questions:
1. What trip was Mrs Beatty going on?
2. What continent and what country was Mrs Beatty going to visit?
3. What seat in the airplane did Mrs Beatty choose: a window or an aisle?
4. What way of travelling from Francistown to the Okavanga Delta did Mrs Beatty prefer? Did she decide to take a small plane or not?
5. How was Paul’s trip to the Okavanga Delta? What did happen to him?
Lesson 6. Travelling by air.6.1. Study the vocabulary, learn the words:
to book the flight - заказывать билеты на рейсreservations desk - стол резервированияticket — билетpassenger list — список пассажировto check in — регистрироватьсяluggage — багажmiss the flight — опоздать на рейс
to get on the plane— входить в самолет
to fasten seat belts — пристегивать ремни безопасностиcrew [kru:] — экипаж take-off— взлет
to take off –взлетать
to land — приземлятьсяpilot — летчик, пилотrunway — взлетно-посадочная полосаsuitcase — чемодан
cockpit – кабина (в самолёте)
rear – задний, хвостовой
altitude – высота
on time – вовремя
Read and translate the text:
I knew it was going to be a bad day when, on the way to the airport, the taxi driver told me he was lost.
I had booked my flight over the telephone, so when we finally arrived, I had to rush to the reservations desk to pay for my ticket. The woman at the desk told me that my name was not on the passenger list. It took fifteen minutes for her to realise that she had spelled my name incorrectly. She gave me my ticket and told me I'd better check in my luggage quickly or I'd miss my flight.
I was the last person to get on the plane. I found my seat and discovered that I was sitting next to a four-year-old boy who had a cold. I sat down and wondered if anything else could go wrong.
I hate flying, especially take-off, but the plane took off and everything seemed to be all right. Then, a few minutes later, there was a funny noise and everything started to shake. I looked out of the window and-oh my God-there was smoke coming out of the wing. All I could think was, "The engine is on fire. We're going to crash. I'm too young to die".
Almost immediately, the captain spoke to us in a very calm voice, "Ladies and gentlemen. This is your captain speaking. We are having a slight technical problem with one of our engines. There is absolutely no need to panic. We will have to return to the airport. Please remain seated and keep your seat belts fastened."
Well you can imagine how frightened I was, but the crew was fantastic. The flight attendants were really calm and told us not to worry. One of them told me to relax and said that everything would be all right.
A few minutes later, we were coming in to land. The pilot made a perfect landing on the runway. It was over. We were safe.
That day, I decided not to fly again. I caught another taxi and went home. But as I closed the front door, I looked down at my case. Somehow I had picked up the wrong suitcase.
6.3. Read and translate the text:
When on the plane you may look around. In front of you in the cockpit you’ll see the pilot and his crew. Some of the passengers are already reclining in comfortable armchairs. There is a kitchen in the rear part of the plane where the stewardesses are preparing the meals. Presently we take off and in a few minutes the pilot informs us of the altitude. Sometimes it is possible to see land. It is like a geographical map. Our plane is due to arrive in eight hours. The time passes quickly. The plane arrives at the airport on time.
6.4. Study the vocabulary, learn the words:
frequently – часто
twice – дважды
to stretch – вытягивать(ся)
to lean – прислонять(ся)
terms – условия
nightmare – кошмар, страшный сон to delay a flight – задержать вылет
to cancel a flight – отменить вылет
to miss a flight – опоздать на самолет
to postpone a flight – отложить вылет
to get stuck –застрять
bench – скамья
6.5. Watch the video. Fill in the table. There may be no information about some people.
Lisa San Christiane Joe
Do they fly frequently?
How often? What kind of a seat in a plane do they prefer? Why? What was their worst flight? 6.6. Listen to the song “My dream vacation”. Retell it in your own words. Learn the song by heart, sing it and have fun!
Lesson 7. Travelling by train.7.1. Study the vocabulary, learn the words
foreigner – иностранец
railway – железная дорога
carriage – вагон
luggage – багаж
crowded – переполненный
ticket – билет
dining car – вагон-ресторан waiter – официант
passenger – пассажир
journey – путешествие, поездка
to reach – достигать, доходить
to leave the train – выйти из поезда
compartment – купе
berth – койка, спальное место в вагоне
7.2. Read, translate and retell the text.
Travelling by Train in Britain

One of the first things a foreigner notices about British railways is the platforms. They are higher than in most parts of the world. The platform is almost on a level with the floor of the carriages. You do not, therefore, have to climb up into the railway carriage in Britain. This makes it a little easier to get in and out of the carriage with your luggage.
The trains that go to and from London are very crowded at the times when people are travelling to work, since about a million people travel to London to work each day. There are cheap tickets after a certain time of the day, usually about 9.30 when everyone has gone to work. These are called cheap day return tickets. It s often nearly 50 per cent cheaper to travel to London after 9.30 than before this time.On many fast trains to London there is a dining car in which you can buy lunch, dinner or coffee. On others there is a buffet at which it is possible to buy snacks and drinks. Sometimes a waiter from the dining car brings round cups of coffee to the passengers.
There are only two classes in Britain – first and second. A first - class ticket costs 50 % more than a second class ticket. On long journeys, there is a ticket inspector, who visits every passenger to see if he has the right ticket and is not travelling in the wrong class.
In England train passengers seldom converse with their fellow-travellers even on a long journey – this is more a national custom than a matter of etiquette. When the passenger reaches the end of his journey and leaves the train, he has to give his ticket to the ticket collector at the exit before he can leave the station.
7.3. Are the following statements true or false?
1. One of the first things a foreigner notices about British railways is the platforms.
2. The platforms in Britain is lower than in most parts of the world, that’s why you have to climb up into the railway carriage.
3. About fifty thousand people travel to London to work each day.
4. It s often nearly 50 per cent cheaper to travel to London after 9.00 than before this time.
5. On many fast trains to London there is a dining car.
6. There are only two classes in Britain – first and second.
7. A first - class ticket costs 50 % less than a second class ticket.
8. On long journeys, there is a ticket inspector.
9. In England train passengers often converse with their fellow-travellers.
10. When the journey is over, the passenger has to give his ticket to the ticket collector.
7.4. Study the vocabulary, learn the words
flight – перелет
scary – страшный, пугающий
to arrive – прибывать
rainy – дождливый
(un)friendly – (не)дружелюбный
to steal – stole –stolen – красть
wallet – бумажник to cancel – отменять
outbreak – вспышка
illness – болезнь
amazing – удивительный
to dive – нырять, заниматься дайвингом
to snorkel – плавать под водой с маской и трубкойshrimp – креветка
7.5. Watch the video and answer the questions:
1. How was Mr. Rashid’s vacation by his opinion?
2. How was his flight?
3. How was the weather after he arrived?
4. What did Mr.Rashid do on his vacation? Did he walk a lot?
5. Did Mr. Rashid like the room?
6. How was the food?
7. Did Mr. Rashid go shopping?
8. What happened when Mr. Rashid was shopping?
9. How was his flight home?
10. Why was Mr.Rashid’s vacation especially wonderful?
11. What was Cheryl’s worst vacation? Why?
12. What was Cheryl’s best vacation? Why?
13. What was Bob’s worst vacation? Why?
14. What was Bob’s best vacation? Why?
15. What was Marie’s worst vacation? Why?
16. What was Marie’s best vacation? Why?
17. Why does Bob work in travel agency?
7.6. Make up your own dialogues: «My best vacation» or «My worst vacation».
Lesson 8 Trains and cars.
8.1. Study the vocabulary, learn the words
VOCABULARY
1. rolling stock – подвижной состав
2. track – путь
3. rails – рельсы
4. locomotive – локомотив
road ~ – магистральный ~
switching ~ – маневровый ~
steam ~ – паровой ~
diesel-electric ~ – дизель-электрический ~
diesel-hydraulic ~ – дизель-гидравлический ~
electric~ – электровоз
gas-turbine ~ – газотурбинный ~
rail yard – сортировочная станция
automatic car coupler – автосцепка вагонов
air brake – пневматический тормоз
master control – пульт управления локомотива
coach – пассажирский вагон
double-deck ~ – двухъярусный ~
car – железнодорожный вагон
passenger ~ – пассажирский ~
freight ~ – грузовой ~
dining ~ – ~ ресторан
sleeping ~ – спальный ~
baggage ~ – багажный ~
box ~ – крытый ~
flat ~ – ~ платформа
rail ~ – ~ со встроенным блоком питания
journal box – букса (колеса)
oil-filled ~ – маслонаполненная ~
overheated ~ – перегревшаяся ~
lubrication – смазка
roller bearing – роликоподшипник
derailment – авария, сход поезда с рельсов
13. central control station – центральный диспетчерский пост
управления
14. power unit – энергоблок
built-in ~ – встроенный ~
15. turbo train – турбо поезд
16. maintenance – эксплуатация, содержание пути
8.2. Read and translate the text.
ROLLING STOCK
Railroad trains are pulled by locomotives. But some locomotives can push as well as pull. These locomotives are especially useful on commuter lines. Locomotives can be classified into two groups according to the work they do.
Road locomotives haul freight or passenger trains.
Switching locomotives, or switch engines, move cars from track to track in rail yards.
Almost all locomotives can also be classified into three groups according to how they are powered.
Diesel-electric locomotives use oil-burning diesel engines to turn electric generators. The electric power produced by the generators runs the driving mechanisms that turn the locomotive's wheels.
Electric locomotives work much as diesel-electrics do. But instead of producing their own electric power, they get it from wires suspended above the track or from an electrified third rail.
Steam locomotives burn coal or fuel oil to produce steam. The force of the steam runs the locomotive.
A few trains are powered by two other kinds of locomotives. Gas-turbine electric locomotives use the force of hot gases to run turbines, which in turn operate electric generators. The power produced by the generators runs the trains. Diesel-hydraulic locomotives use diesel engines to produce energy transmitted to the driving mechanisms by means of fluids under pressure.
Railroads in the United States operate about 20,000 locomotives. Almost all of them are diesel-electric. Only a few US railroads use electric locomotives. Railroads in most industrial countries operate both diesel-electric and electric locomotives. Steam locomotives are still used in China, India, and some other countries.
Railroad cars are grouped into two general categories: passenger cars and freight cars. Each car has a coupler at each end. This device links the cars together. The first automatic car couplers were designed in 1873. Cars also have air brakes connected to a master control in the locomotive. Railroad air brakes were patented by George Westinghouse in 1869 but were put into common practice only in the beginning of the 20th century.
On most passenger trains the cars consist mainly of coaches. The majority of coaches have seats for 50 to 90 passengers. Double-deck coaches on commuter trains seat from 150 to 170 people. Some passenger train cars include baggage cars, dining cars and sleeping cars.
Freight cars differ in shape and size according to the freight they are designed to haul. They range from boxcars for carrying general freight, to specially designed cars for new automobiles. Many newer freight cars are longer and have been designed to carry different kinds of load. Flat cars, for example, are specially equipped to hold truck trailers or containers.
Railroads have greatly improved the safety of railroad cars over years. One of the chief improvements has been to reduce the danger from overheated journal boxes. On older cars, each end of an axle turned on solid surfaces enclosed in an oil-filled journal box. A box might become overheated due to the lack of lubrication and so become a hotbox. A hotbox might cause a derailment. On newer cars, the use of roller bearings at the ends of axles has helped to reduce the number of hotboxes. Railroads have also installed electronic devices called hotbox detectors at various points alongside railroad tracks. As trains pass by, the devices detect hotboxes. This information is transmitted
to a central control station and cars with hotboxes are removed from the train.
Railcars are railroad cars with a built-in power unit. These cars do not need a locomotive, because they provide their own power. A railcar may be diesel-electric, electric, or gas-turbine electric. Some railcars are intended for carrying passengers and form railcar trains. These trains include gasturbine electric trains called turbo trains that operate between the cities of Germany, France, Italy, Spain, the UK, Japan, Canada, the USA and some other countries.
Some self-propelled cars are designed for railroad maintenance. Each car carries special equipment to do a particular job along a railroad line. Some cars have track-laying machinery or machinery for inspecting or repairing tracks; others carry such equipment as snowplows or weed cutters.
8.3. Substitute the underlined words with the synonyms from the TEXT.
1. Engines at the head of the train haul trains along the line.
2. Locomotives that can pull as well as push trains are especially efficient on suburban railroads.
3. Locomotives can be driven by different kinds of power.
4. Most great industrial countries have a lot of both electric and diesel-electric engines in operation.
5. Railway cars are classified into 2 groups: passenger cars and freight cars.
6. The first automatic car couplers and air brakes were invented in the 19th century.
7. Most passenger trains are made up of passenger cars.
8. Many modern freight cars are intended for carrying various kinds of cargoes.
9. An overheated box may result in a wreck.
10. Railcars do not require engines.
11. Gas-turbine electric trains are designed to transport people between the biggest cities of Europe, the
USA, Japan, Canada, at very high speeds.
8.4. Find pairs of synonyms.
1. locomotive
2. useful
3. to carry
4. rail yard
5. power
6. to produce
7. service
8. device
9. to include
10. to need
11. luggage
12. common
13. to couple
14. different
15. to range
16. inventor
17. lack
18. derailment
19. to remove
20. machinery a. station
b. appliance
c. baggage
d. efficient
e. to comprise
f. to link
g. to vary
h. wreck
i. shortage
j. to eliminate
k. engine
l. designer
m. to generate
n. equipment
o. to transport
p. operation
q. various
r. general
s. to require
t. energy
8.5. Complete the following sentences using prepositions, conjunctions and adverbs given below.
Some of these words may be used more than once.
about, and, by, considerably, due to, formerly, in, now, nowadays, of, on, or, than, to, with
Railway passenger cars (coaches) are … many different types … vary … … design … … the various kinds … traffic to be handled. …, all passenger cars were made … wood … equipped … hand brakes, coal … wood burning stoves … oil lamps. …, all coaches are made … steel. They are much safer … the old ones … carry a greater number … passengers. Comfort … sanitary conditions are … given great attention. A typical modern coach is … 25 m long, seats 48 passengers, weighs 50 tons, is carried … fourwheeled trucks … is … steel construction. All coaches are fitted … a hot water heating system … lighted … electricity. Improved seats, pleasant interior … air conditioning systems have added … the comfort … railway travelers.
8.6. Read the text below. Use the words given in Capitals at the end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line.
8.7. Find in the TEXT English equivalents of the following Russian word-combinations.
- тянуть и толкать поезда
- в зависимости от выполняемой работы
- дизельные двигатели на жидком топливе
- приводить в движение электрические генераторы
- колеса локомотива
- контактная сеть
- жидкости, находящиеся под давлением
- постоянная эксплуатация
- автосцепка вагонов
- пневматические тормоза
- большая часть пассажирских вагонов
- двухъярусные вагоны пригородных поездов
- вагоны-платформы для перевозки грузовых трейлеров
- снизить опасность возникновения перегретых букс
- стать причиной железнодорожной аварии
- детекторы перегретых букс
- встроенный энергоблок
- оборудование для ремонта и эксплуатации пути
8.8. Complete the following sentences. Consult the TEXT if necessary.
1. Some locomotives can … as well as … .2. These locomotives are especially useful on … lines.
3. According to the … they perform, locomotives are divided into … and … .4. … locomotives are the oldest ones.
5. Nowadays, … and …-… locomotives are most widely used on railroads.
6. Railway cars include … cars and … cars.
7. … carry passengers only.
8. There are different kinds of … cars depending on the loads carried.
9. … journal boxes increase the danger of … .10. Special devices are used to … hotboxes.
11. Railcars do not need … .12. They are equipped with …-… power units.
13. … carry passengers between the … cities of France, Germany, Italy, Spain and some other countries.
14. Some …-… cars carry special … for …, … and … railroad tracks.
8.9. Answer the following questions.
1. How are locomotives classified according to the work they perform?
2. What kinds of traction power are used to drive locomotives?
3. What type of locomotive is considered to be the oldest one?
4. What kinds of traction power are most widely used nowadays?
5. What countries still use steam engines on their railroads?
6. What are the 2 main classes of railway cars?
7. How many passengers can a coach carry?
8. What types of cars does a passenger train include?
9. What loads can freight trains carry?
10. What is a hotbox?
11. Why are the overheated boxes so dangerous?
12. What device reduces the number of hotboxes on a locomotive?
13. What device do railroad engineers use to detect locomotive hotboxes?
14. Why don’t railcars need locomotives?
15. What kinds of motive power are used in railcars?
16. What are railcars designed to carry?
8.10. Express the main idea of the TEXT in 5 – 7 sentences. Write your summary.
8.11. Translate the following sentences into English.
1. Железнодорожные локомотивы делятся на магистральные, которые тянут пассажирские и грузовые поезда, и маневровые, которые переводят вагоны с одного пути на другой насортировочных станциях.
2. Локомотивы приводятся в движение с помощью паровой, электрической, дизель-электрической, дизель-гидравлической и газотурбинной тяги.
3. Большинство развитых стран использует дизель-электрические и электрические локомотивы на своих железных дорогах.
4. Турбо поезда перевозят пассажиров на скоростных магистральных маршрутах Франции, Германии, Италии, Испании, Японии, Канады и других стран мира.
5. Разные виды грузовых вагонов, предназначенные для перевозки любых грузов, используются на железных дорогах всего мира.
6. Железные дороги имеют поезда, оборудованные специальными устройствами для осмотра, ремонта и содержания пути.
8.12. Match the railroad terms from the box and their definitions.
Locomotive.
Road Locomotive.
Switching Locomotive.
Turbo Train.
Diesel-electric Locomotive
Electric Locomotive.
Gas-turbine Locomotive.
Diesel-hydraulic Locomotive
Steam Locomotive.
Hotbox Detector.
Car Coupler.
Railcar
a) a locomotive which uses the force of hot gases to run turbines operating electric generators.
b) a gas turbine electric train.
c) a device that links cars together.
d) an engine at the head of the train used to pull or push cars.
e) a device installed at various points along the track to find hotboxes of locomotives.
f) a locomotive which uses a diesel engine to produce energy transmitted to the driving mechanism by
means of high pressure fluids.
g) a locomotive which gets electric power from wires suspended above the track or from the third rail.
h) an engine that moves cars from track to track in rail yards.
i) a railroad car with a built-in power unit.
j) a locomotive which uses an oil-burning diesel engine to turn an electric generator that produces electric
power.
k) an engine that pulls passenger or freight trains along the railroad line.
l) a locomotive which burns coal or fuel oil to produce steam.
8.13. Retell the TEXT according to the following plan.
1. Road and switching locomotives.
2. Classification of locomotives depending upon the traction power.
3. Passenger and freight cars.
4. Railcar trains.
Lesson 9 At a hotel
9.1. Study the vocabulary, learn the words
to book a room/to make a reservation – забронировать номер
in advance – заранее
to stay – остановиться
receptionist – администратор
porter/ bell boy – коридорный, посыльный
single room – одноместный номер
double room – двухместный номер (с двумя кроватями)
a twin room – двухместный номер (с двуспальной кроватью)
suite – номер люкс to check in – зарегистрироваться
to check out – выписываться, выезжать
registration form – бланк регистрации
fill in – заполнять (бланк)
show up (to) – проводить (в)
guest – гость
charge – плата
bill – счет
accommodation - размещение
9.2. Read and translate the text.
At a hotel
As soon as you are through with the customs, you’ll most probably take a taxi to a hotel. It’s best to book a room in advance. In this case you’ll be sure to stay at a hotel without any problems. You can book a room by telephone or by telegram.
In many hotels a porter takes your luggage and shows you the way to the receptionist’s desk. The receptionist will most probably ask you for how many days (nights) you are going to stay at the hotel. He may offer you a room (a single or a double room, a suite, etc.) with all modern conveniences (bath, telephone, TV). Then he will ask you to sign in. In this case you have to sign your name in a hotel register (book). In the USA you have to put down your name, nationality and address in a special registration form (fill in a form).
When this formality is over, the receptionist gives you your key and the porter shows you up to your room. Now you are referred to as a “guest”. When going out you are supposed to leave your key at the desk.
The room charge (price) usually includes your breakfast. Sometimes it includes the service paid additionally
The guests are requested to warn the receptionist in advance about the day and hour of signing out so that he could have the bill ready for them in time. Make sure that the bill is ready one day before leaving.
9.3. Find in the text the English equivalents for the following:
забронировать номер; остановиться в гостинице; коридорный; администратор; одноместный номер; двухместный номер; регистрироваться; бланк регистрации; ключ; современные удобства; обслуживание; плата; просить; предупреждать; приготовить счет; выезжать (выписываться)9.4. Answer the questions:
Why is it best to book a room/ make a reservation?
How can you book a room at a hotel?
Who usually helps you with your luggage when you come to a hotel?
Whom will you address for a room when you come to a hotel?
What will the receptionist most probably ask you about ?What do you call the formality of putting down your name in a hotel register?
Who usually shows a traveler t his/ her room?
Why are you requested to warn the receptionist in advance about the day and hour of checking out?
9.5. Retell the text.
9.6. Insert the article where necessary.
Three men came to ___ New York for ___ holiday. They came to ___ very large hotel and took ___ room there. Their room was on ___ forty-fifth floor. In ___ evening ___ friends went to ___ theatre and came back to ___ hotel very late.
“I am very sorry”, said ___ clerk of ___ hotel, “but ___lifts do not work tonight. If you don’t want to walk up to your room, we shall make ___ beds for you in ___ hall.” “ No, no” said one of ___ friends, “ No, thank you. We don’t want to sleep in ___ hall. We shall walk up to our room.”
Then he turned to his friends and said: “it is not easy to walk up to ___ forty-fifth floor, but we shall make it easier. On ___ way to ___ room I shall tell you some jokes; then you, Andy, will sing us some songs; then you, Peter, will tell us some interesting stories. “So they began walking up to their room. Tom told them many jokes; Andy sang some songs.
At last they came to ___ forty-fifth floor. They were tired and decided to have ___ rest. “Well,” said Tom, “now it’s your turn, Peter. After all ___ jokes, I would like to hear ___ sad story. Tell us ___ long and interesting story with ___ sad end.” “___ story which I am going to tell you,” said Peter, “is sad enough. We left ___ key to our room in ___ hall.
Lesson 10 Individual project.
Make an excursion to your native town (prepare sights and routs).
Список литературы
Г.Т.Безкоровайная, Н.И. Соколова, Е.А. Койранская, Г.В.Лаврик. Planet of English. – М.: Издательский центр «Академия», 2012 – 256с.
К.Н.Качалова, Е.Е.Изралевич. Практическая грамматика английского языка с упражнениями и ключами. – М.: Издательство «ЮНВЕС», 1998 – 717с.
Н.Н. Колесникова, Г.В. Данилова, Л.Н. Девяткина. Английский язык для менеджеров. – М.: Издательский центр «Академия», 2007 – 304с.
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    МЕТОДИЧЕСКАЯ РАЗРАБОТКА по английскому языку по теме «ЭКСКУРСИИ И ПУТЕШЕСТВИЯ» с изучением артиклей
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