МИНИСТЕРСТВО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ И НАУКИ МУРМАНСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ
ГОСУДАРСТВЕННОЕ АВТОНОМНОЕ ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНОЕ ОБРАЗОВАТЕЛЬНОЕ УЧРЕЖДЕНИЕ МУРМАНСКОЙ ОБЛАСТИ
«КАНДАЛАКШСКИЙ ИНДУСТРИАЛЬНЫЙ КОЛЛЕДЖ»
(ГАПОУ МО «КИК»)
по английскому языку по теме
Разработано с учетом Федерального государственного образовательного стандарта среднего профессионального образования.
Разработчик: Храмцова Тамара Владимировна, преподаватель ГАПОУ МО «Кандалакшский индустриальный колледж».
Целью изучения данного модуля, как и учебной дисциплины «Английский язык» в целом, направлено на достижение следующих целей:
формирование знаний об истории, культуре, политической системе англоязычных стран;
формирование представлений об английском языке как о языке международного общения и средстве приобщения к ценностям мировой культуры и национальных культур;
формирование коммуникативной компетенции, позволяющей свободно общаться на английском языке в различных формах и на различные темы, в том числе в сфере профессиональной деятельности, с учетом приобретенного словарного запаса, а также условий, мотивов и целей общения;
формирование и развитие всех компонентов коммуникативной компетенции: лингвистической, социолингвистической, дискурсивной, социокультурной, социальной, стратегической и предметной;
воспитание личности, способной и желающей участвовать в общении на межкультурном уровне;
воспитание уважительного отношения к другим культурам и социальным субкультурам.
В результате освоения данного модуля обучающийся должен знать:
1. значения новых лексических единиц, связанных с тематикой данного этапа и с соответствующими ситуациями общения;
2. языковой материал: идиоматические выражения, оценочную лексику, единицы речевого этикета;
3. средства и способы выражения модальности; условия, предположения, причины, следствия, побуждения к действию;
4. лингвострановедческую, страноведческую и социокультурную информацию, расширенную за счет новой тематики и проблематики речевого общения;
В результате освоения учебной дисциплины обучающийся должен уметь:
1. вести диалог (диалог–расспрос, диалог–обмен мнениями/суждениями, диалог–побуждение к действию, этикетный диалог и их комбинации), используя аргументацию, эмоционально-оценочные средства;
2. рассказывать, рассуждать в связи с изученной тематикой, проблематикой прочитанных/прослушанных текстов; описывать события, излагать факты, делать сообщения;
3. создавать словесный социокультурный портрет своей страны и страны/стран изучаемого языка на основе полученной страноведческой и культуроведческой информации.
4. понимать относительно полно (общий смысл) высказывания на изучаемом иностранном языке в различных ситуациях общения;
5. понимать основное содержание аутентичных аудио- или видеотекстов познавательного характера на темы, предлагаемые в рамках курса, выборочно извлекать из них необходимую информацию, а также оценивать важность/новизну информации, определять свое отношение к ней.
6. читать тексты, используя основные виды чтения (ознакомительное, изучающее, просмотровое/поисковое) в зависимости от коммуникативной задачи.
6. описывать явления, события, излагать факты в письме;
7. использовать приобретенные знания и умения в практической и профессиональной деятельности, повседневной жизни.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Reading and translating.1.1. Read and translate the text.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.To the west of the continent of Europe lie two large islands. The larger of them is called Great Britain, and the smaller, Ireland. These two and 5,500 smaller islands form the British Isles.
The island of Great Britain consists of England, Scotland and Wales. The isle of Ireland is divided into Northern Ireland and the Irish Republic. England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The UK (the United Kingdom) is the official name of the country, occasionally referred to as Great Britain, which is, strictly speaking, only a geographic name.
Great Britain is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea from the west, by the North Sea from the north and west. It is separated from the European continent by the English Channel. The narrowest part of English Channel is called the Strait of Dover. The UK is not a very large country. Its territory is about 244,000 square kilometers, and no point of the country is more than 120 kilometers away from the sea.
At the same time, the population of the UK is a third largest in Europe, comprising about 60 million people. It is incorrect to call everybody who lives in the United Kingdom “English”, as this is the name only for those who live in England. The residents of Wales are named Welsh, while the people of Scotland are called Scottish. The correct common name for English, Scottish and Welsh is British. Those who live in Northern Ireland are called Irish.
The climate of the British Isles is generally mild; it is seldom cold in winter and never too hot in summer. This is due to the warm current of the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf Stream. Britain was always known as a country of fogs, but now it is not quite so because of the climatic changes: there is maybe less fog than in any other European country.
There are no high mountains and long rivers in the UK. The highest mountain is Ben Nevis in the Highlands in Scotland, and the longest rivers are the Severn and the Thames.
Geographically, the UK has a very convenient position, being located on the crossroads from Europe to America. This is one of the reasons why Britain was (and is up to the present time) one of the leading world powers. The capital of the country is London. It is situated on the river Thames.
Britain has an ancient and glorious history. It used to be the great empire “where the sun never sets”. It gave the world many famous scientists, writers, political leaders and explorers, such as Newton, Darwin, Drake, Shakespeare, Churchill and others.
For centuries monarchs ruled Britain. The constitutional monarchy is still preserved in the country, though it is practically no more than a tradition and a tribute to the past. Queen Elisabeth II is the Head of State. Her power is limited by the parliament, which is elected every four years. The leader of the party that won the majority during the elections becomes the Prime Minister. In fact, he becomes the head of state and forms the Cabinet. The second largest party forms the official Opposition.
1.2. Learn the words:
to consist (of) – состоять (из)
to divide (into) – делить (на)
kingdom – королевство
to refer (to) – ссылаться (на)
to separate (from) – отделять (от)
channel – канал
to comprise – включать, содержать
resident – житель
current – течение
fog – туман
to be situated – находиться
ancient – древний
empire – империя
scientist – ученый
explorer – исследователь
century – век
elections – выборы
1.3. Find in the text the English equivalents of the following word combinations and use them in the sentences of your own.
третье по величине;
называются; никогда не бывает слишком жарко;
меньше туманов, чем;
древняя и славная;
вторая по величине
1.4. Answer the following questions:
1. What are the names of the islands situated to the west of the continent of Europe?
2. What parts does the island of Great Britain consist of?
3. How many parts is Ireland divided into?
4. What is the official name of Great Britain?
5. Name the seas and oceans the country is washed by
6. How large is the territory of the UK?
7. How are the people living in the UK called?
8. Why is the climate of the British Isles moderate?
9. What is the highest mountain in the UK?
10. What are the longest and most important rivers in the UK?
11. What is the capital of the country?
12. Prove that the UK has a very convenient position.
13. Give the names of famous people of Great Britain.
14. What type of state is the UK?
15. Who rules the country in fact?
16. How often do the elections take place?
1.5. Say what these figures refer to in the text.
5,500 244,000 120 60,000,000
1.6. Make up sentences about Great Britain using the verbs in the appropriate form.
to consist of
to be washed by
to have mild climate
seas and the ocean
four main parts
1.7. Say what these words refer to in the text (without looking into the text).
where the sun never sets
one of the leading powers
tribute to the past
only a geographic name
the third largest the country of fogs
located on the crossroads
the correct common name
this is due to the warm currents
won the majority
1.8. Retell the text
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Watching the video.2.1 Learn the words:
cathedral - собор
temple - храм
tunnel - туннель foreign - иностранный
population - население
banknote - банкнота
island - остров
lake - озеро
hill - холм
2.2. Watch Sequence 1 of the video (from the beginning to: … a very popular place for tourists) and complete the tables.
Table 1. Countries – parts of The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Nothern Ireland.
Nothern Ireland Total about: 58, 5 millionTable 2. General information about The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.Capital Population Head of the Government Lives at Head of State Lives in 2.3 Watch Sequence 2 of the video (up to: … but the countryside’s important too) and make notes on each place.
3. Liverpool 4. Stratford-upon-Avon.
2.4. Watch Sequence 3 of the video (up to: … foreign tourists come to Britain every year) and complete the sentences with numbers from the box.
9 75 24 2 10
a. Over ___ % of the land in Britain is farmland.
b. Only ___ % of the working population are farmers.
c. Britain has ___ national parks.
d. National parks cover ___ % of Britain.
e. Over __ million foreign tourists come to Britain every year.
2.5. Watch Sequence 4 of the video (to the end) and find the true sentences.
a. The Giant’s Causeway is in Northern Ireland.
b. Tourists visit Stonehenge.
c. The Snowdon National Park is in Northern Ireland.
d. 50% of people in Wales speak Welsh.
e. Britain has over 800 islands.
Lesson 3. London. Watching the video.3.1. Learn the words:
busker – уличный музыкант,
restaurant – ресторан
church - церковь
the Underground – метро
tower - башня сinema - кинотеатр
art gallery – художественная галерея
waterbus – речной трамвай
palace – дворец
bridge - мост bus - автобус
theatre – театр
cathedral – собор
museum – музей
square - площадь
3.2. Complete the word map with words from the box. Learn the words.
taxis buskers pubs restaurants churches clubs the Underground cinemas
art galleries waterbuses palaces buses discos theatres cathedrals museums
3.3. Watch Sequence 1 of the video (from the beginning to: … two and a half million people visit it every year) and do the exercises.
1. When did these things happen?
a. the Romans built the first bridge over the River Thames in AD 43/33/53.
b. The people of London built the second bridge in 1477/1747/1774.
c. London Underground started in 1836/ 1863/ 1936/
d. Madame Tussaud brought her exhibition to London in 1802/1512/1902.
2. Complete the sentences below with numbers from the box.
20 11 2.5 7
1. London has a population of about ____ million.
2. Over ___ million tourists visit London every year.
3. ___ million tourists visit London from abroad.
4. Over ___ million people visit Madame Tussaud’s every year.
3.4. Watch Sequence 2 of the video (up to: I like all of London) and do the exercises.
1. Complete the sequence with numbers.
a. Harrods has ___ departments.
b. Harrods has ___ floors.
c. Harrods has over ___ staff.
d. Harrods has about ___ customers a day.
2. Complete this sentence.
In Covent Garden you can find____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
3.5. Watch Sequence 3 of the video (to the end) and answer the questions:
a. Where can people go in the evenings?
b. How many cinemas and theatres are there in London?
c. What are the names of two London parks?
d. What do people do in the parks?
3.6 Answer the questions to the video:
1. How many bridges are there over the river Thames in London?
2. Which city had the first underground railway?
3. Who was Madame Tussaud?
4. What is “Harrods”?
5. When did the miniskirt become fashionable?
6. Who wrote “The Mousetrap?”
7. When was the first performance of the play?
8. Who said “When the man is tired of London, he is tired of life”
Lesson 4. Festivals in Britain. Watching the video.4.1. Learn the words:
to put up – вывешивать, выставлять
to blow up – взрывать, разрушать
to light – зажигать (ся)
to sign – подписывать
to celebrate – праздновать
to present – дарить a card – открытка
a criminal – преступник
a ghost – приведение, призрак
a festival – праздник, фестиваль
a present – подарок
a firework – фейерверк
roast turkey – жареная индюшка
4.2 Watch Sequence 1 of the video (from the beginning to: .. and children dress up as witches) and do the exercises:
1. Match the festival to the date.
Guy Fawkes’ Night
St Valentine’s Day 31st Octaber14st February
Some time in Fabruary
2. Make notes in the table
Festival What do people do?
Guy Fawkes’ Night Pancake St Valentine’s Day Halloween People often have parties
4.3 Watch Sequence 2 of the video (up to: .. four pairs of socks) and do the exercises:
Answer the question: What presents do Mrs Robinson and Mr Robinson get?
Complete the sentences:
The important festivals are ______________________________________
People put up ________________________________________________
They keep their presents under __________________________________
They spend Christmas with_____________________________________
They give ___________________________________________________
4.4. Watch Sequence 3 of the video (up to: .. it brings you a good luck) and answer the questions:
Where do people go with their family?
What do you find in a cracker?
What do you sometimes find in the pudding? Why?
Lesson 5. Scotland. Northern Ireland. Wales.
5.1. Study the vocabulary. Learn the words:
thistle – чертополох
patron – покровитель
devided – разделен (-а,-о,-ы)
it will take you ... to get – это займет у тебя ... чтобы добраться ...
tale – рассказ, сказка
settler – поселенец
floodlit – освещен прожектором
tattoo –барабанная дробь
modest – скромный
grave – могила
buried – погребен
devotion – преданность
striking – поразительный
valley – долина
picturesque – живописный
landscape – пейзаж
depict – рисовать
leek – лук-порей
daffodil – нарцисс
Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty – райо́н выдаю́щейся приро́дной красоты́ (открытый для туристов заповедник; охраняется государством).
integral – неотъемлемый
bounded – ограничен
portion – часть, область, участок
offshore – находящийся на некотором расстоянии от берега (в море) shoreline – береговая линия
irregularity – неровность
indentation – зарубка, извилина
lough – залив моря
feature – характерная черта
polygonal pillars – многоугольные столбы
black basalt – черный базальт
approximate – приблизительный
damp - влажный
fertile soil – плодородная почва
pasturelands – пастбища
abundant – обильный, изобильный
limestone – известняк
gravel – гравий, галька
shale – сланец
bauxite – боксит, алюминиевая руда
iron ore – железная руда
coal – уголь
indistinguishable – незаметный, неотличимый
remainder – оставшаяся часть
to evolve – развивать, обнаруживать
distinctive cultural identity – отличительная культурная индивидуальность
thriving – процветающий
society – общество
annual – ежегодный
to house – вмещать, содержать
antiquities – древности
5.2. Read and translate the texts.
Scotland. Northern Ireland. Wales.
Scotland is a country in the United Kingdom to the north of England. Its symbol is a thistle; its patron is St. Andrew.
The country is divided into Highlands and Lowlands. Most of the industry is concentrated in Lowlands, in the Clyde Valley. Glasgow is its largest and busiest town; Edinburgh is its capital. Glasgow and Edinburgh are two great centres of Scotland. There are only 45 miles between them, and it will take you an hour to get from Glasgow to Edinburgh by train but the cities are very different.
Glasgow is the heart of industry. It is a centre of business and trade. It is very busy, prosperous, dirty in some parts and smart in others. Edinburgh is rather cold but attractive. Edinburgh is known as Athens of the North. If you walk around the city you can touch on history at every step. Practically every building has a tale to tell. The two most interesting parts of the city are the Old Town and the New Town. The Old Town lies between the Castle and Holyrood Palace.
The Castle, in fact, is older than the city. No one can exactly say when the first settlers came to on the huge rock that stands high above Edinburgh. Later they built here a castle. It looks beautiful in any weather but at night when it is floodlit it looks just like a castle in a fairy-tale. It is not surprising that the Castle attracts a lot of tourists. The Edinburgh military tattoo takes place every August and September. For 90 minutes on five or six nights a week, 600 people perform in the square in front of the Castle.
One of the most modest and yet one of the best known monuments in Edinburgh is a monument to dog called Bobby. The dog belonged to John Gray. When he died Bobby lived near his grave for twenty-six years. Later Bobby was buried near his master and his statue in the Old Town has become a symbol of devotion.
The Old Town is a striking contrast to New Town with its white and beautiful streets. Princes Street is the most beautiful street of the New Town. It is Edinburgh’s popular shopping centre. Princess Street lies between the New Town and the Old Town. The modern town is on the lower side, the old one – on the higher. They look at each other across the valley under Scotland’s blue sky.
Wales is a part of the United Kingdom. The country borders on England in the east and is washed by the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea in the west. Wales is not a very big country with a population of about three million people. There are two official languages in Wales – Welsh and English, both of which are taught in schools.
Much of Wales’s landscape is mountainous, especially in the north and central regions. The highest mountain is Snowdon. There are also a lot of beautiful lakes in the country. These are Wales’s picturesque landscapes that attract tourists from all over the world.
Wales is primarily an agricultural country. There aren’t many big cities in Wales. The capital of the country is Cardiff, which is considered to be the largest media centre in the UK outside of London. There is a Roman castle and a modern shopping centre in the city as well as a cathedral and university. Cardiff is also an industrial city.
Wales has its own interesting culture including language, customs, holidays and music. The country is represented by the symbol of the red Welsh Dragon, which is depicted on the national flag. The flag of Wales, brought to Britain by Romans, is one of the oldest in the world. Other symbols of the country are leeks and daffodils. These are usually worn on St. David’s Day, which is celebrated on the 1st of March. St. David is the patron saint of Wales. The country has its own national game called rugby.
One can visit a number of beautiful places in Wales. There are three national parks: Snowdonia, Brecon and Pembrokeshire Coast. Wales has also four Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty.
So, Wales is a really nice country to visit.
Northern Ireland, integral part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, is situated in the northeastern portion of the island of Ireland. Northern Ireland is bounded on the north and northeast by the North Channel, on the southeast by the Irish Sea, and on the south and west by the Republic of Ireland. It includes Rathlin Island in the North Channel and several smaller offshore islands. It is also known as Ulster, because it comprises six of the nine counties that constituted the former province of Ulster.
The total area of Northern Ireland is 14,148 sq km. The shoreline is characterized by numerous irregularities and is about 530 km (about 330 mi) long. The major indentations are Lough Foyle in the north and Belfast, Strangford, and Carlingford loughs in the east. A striking feature of the northern coast is the Giant's Causeway, a rock formation consisting of thousands of closely placed, polygonal pillars of black basalt. The country consists mainly of a low, flat plain in the approximate center of which is Lough Neagh, the largest lake in the British Isles. Other important lakes are Lough Erne and Upper Lough Erne.
The climate of Northern Ireland is mild and damp throughout the year.
The most valuable natural resources of Northern Ireland are its fertile soil and rich pasturelands. Natural waterpower is abundant. The chief minerals are basalt, limestone, sand and gravel, granite, chalk, clay, and shale; bauxite, iron ore, and coal also are found in small amounts.
The capital and largest city of Northern Ireland is Belfast. The other major city in Northern Ireland is Londonderry.
Originally, Northern Ireland was culturally indistinguishable from the remainder of Ireland. However, with the waves of colonization from England and Scotland during the 17th century, the northeastern province of Ulster evolved a distinctive cultural identity. There is a thriving theatrical movement in Belfast, and much literary activity. Belfast is the base of Opera Northern Ireland, which presents seasons at the Grand Opera House in the city, and also tours the province. A ballet company is based in the capital, as is the Belfast Philharmonic Society, one of Britain's leading choral societies. The Ulster Symphony Orchestra is among the leading orchestras of Britain. Queen's University hosts the annual Belfast Festival. Northern Ireland has two national museums: the Ulster Museum in Belfast, which houses a collection of Irish antiquities; and the Ulster Folk and Transport Museum in Holywood, County Down.
5.3. Retell one of the texts.
Lesson 6. Political System of Great Britain.
6.1. Study the vocabulary. Learn the following words and expressions
constitutional monarchy – конституционная монархия
to reign – править
legislative – законодательный
the House of Commons – палата общин
the House of Lords – палата лордов
Parliament – парламент
to vote – голосовать
the upper house – верхняя палата
the lower house – нижняя палата
to delay – откладывать
to defeat – отвергать, отклонять
hereditary – наследственный
peer – пэр
to appoint – назначать
to approve – одобрять
to reject – отвергать, отклонять
election – выборы
bill – законопроект, бильto draw up a bill – составлять законопроект
the Cabinet – кабинет министров
the Home Office – министерство внутренних дел
the Foreign and Commonwealth Office –министерство иностранных дел
legal – судебный
court – суд
the court of appeal – аппеляционный суд
civil cases – гражданские дела
criminal cases – уголовные дела
chief – ведущий, главный
labour – труд
the Labour Party – Лейбористская партия6.2. Read and translate.
The Political System of Great Britain
Great Britain is a constitutional monarchy. The head of state is Queen Elizabeth II. The queen reigns, but does not rule.
The legislative power in the country is exercised by Parliament. Parliament makes the laws of Great Britain. It consists of the House of Commons and the House of Lords.
The House of Commons is a lower house of Parliament. It has 650 members, elected by the people. Members of the House of Commons are chosen in a general election, which must be held at least every five years. But an election may be called anytime, all British citizens 18 years old or older may vote.
The House of Lords is the upper house of Parliament. It was once the stronger house, but today has little power. It can delay – but never defeat – any bill. The House of Lords has about 1170 members. The people do not elect them. The House of Lords is composed of hereditary and life peers and peeresses. Their right to sit in the House passes, with their title, usually to their oldest sons.
The prime minister is usually the leader of the political party that has the most seats in the House of Commons. The monarch appoints the prime minister after each general election. The monarch asks the prime minister to form a Government. The prime minister picks a special group to make up the Cabinet.
The Cabinet usually consists of about 20 ministers. The ministers of the more important departments, such as the Foreign and Commonwealth Office, and the Home Office, are named to every Cabinet.
The government draws up most bills and introduces them in Parliament. The queen must approve all bills passed by Parliament before they can become laws. Although the queen may reject a bill, no monarch has since the 1700’s. Law courts of Great Britain operate under three separate legal system – one for England and Wales, one for Northern Ireland, and one for Scotland. In all three systems, the House of Lords is the highest court of appeal in civil cases. It is also the highest court of appeal in criminal cases, except in Scotland. The queen appoints all British judges on the advice of the government.
Political parties are necessary to British’s system of government. The chief political parties in Britain today are the Conservative Party and the Labour Party. The Conservative Party developed from the Tories, and has been supported by wealthy people as well as professional people and farmers. The Labour Party has been supported by skilled and unskilled workers, especially union members.
The Constitution of Great Britain is not one document. Much of it is not even in writing, and so the country is said to have an unwritten constitution. Some of the written parts of Britain’s Constitution come from laws passed by Parliament. Some – from such old documents as Magna Carta, which limited the king’s power. Other written parts come from common law, a body of laws based on people’s customs and beliefs, and supported in the courts.
6.3. Answer the questions.
1. Is Great Britain a monarchy?
2. Who is the head of state in Great Britain?
3. What body is the legislative power in Great Britain exercised by?
4. What does the British Parliament consist of?
5. How many members has the House of Commons?
6. Has the House of Lords strong power?
7. Are the members of the House of Lords elected?
8. Does the monarch or the prime minister form the government?
9. How many ministers are there in the Cabinet?
10. What body draws up bills?
11. What body is the highest court of appeal?
12. What political parties are there in Great Britain today?
6.4. Retell the text.
Lesson 7. The United States of America.7.1. Learn the words:
to cover – покрывать
to belong (to) – принадлежать
temperate – умеренный
to border (on) – граничить
mountain chain – горная цепь
lowland – низина, низменность
to include – включать
lead – свинец
oil – нефть
to establish – основывать
permanent – постоянный
to struggle (for) – бороться
struggle (for) – борьба
to succeed – преуспевать, достигать цели
previously – прежде, ранее
slave – раб
slavery – рабство
to abolish – отменять
to remain – оставаться
influence – влияние
to dominate – доминировать, господствовать
legislature – законодательство, законодательная власть
government – правительство
7.2. Read and translate the text.
The United States of America.The United States of America covers the central part of North America. Besides, Alaska and Hawaii belong to the USA. Its territory is about 9,328,000 square kilometers. The population of the United States is about 265 million people. The climate is different from state to state due to the large size of the country. It is mostly temperate, but tropical in Hawaii and Florida, and arctic in Alaska.
The USA is washed by the Pacific Ocean in the west and the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico in the east. It borders on Canada in the north and on Mexico in the south. The most important rivers in the USA are the Mississippi, the Colorado, the Ohio, and the Hudson River. The main mountain chains are the Cordillera in the west and the Appalachian Mountains in the east. Between these two mountain chains lie the central lowlands, called the prairie. To the north of the country, on the border with Canada, the Great Lakes are situated. They include the Lake Superior, the Lake Ontario, the Lake Eire, the Lake Huron and the Lake Michigan. Natural resources include nickel, lead, silver, oil, natural gas, iron and others.
Present-day American history began in 1607, when colonizers established the first permanent English settlement in Jamestown, Virginia. Further on during the 17th century the settlers from Europe came to the new lands. They struggled Native Americans and drove them away from rich land to reservations. At first thirteen British colonies were established on the eastern coast. In 1775 the colonies began their struggle for independence and succeeded in 1783. This was how the United States came into being.
In 1861 the Civil War broke out. It is usually referred to as the war between the South and the North. Its aim was to give freedom to black slaves who previously could be bought or sold. Slavery was abolished in 1865, but the discrimination of the black population remained until the 1960s. The influence of the USA was growing during the 19th—20th centuries until by the beginning of the 21st century it became the leading power. It dominates the economy and political life of the world.
The United States is a democratic federal republic. It comprises fifty states, including Alaska and Hawaii, and the District of Columbia, where the capital of the country is situated. The largest state is Alaska, and the smallest is Rhode Island. Each state has its own legislature. Head of State is the President. Washington, DC (District of Columbia) is the capital of the country, the seat of the government. The President is elected every four years.
7.3. Find in the text the English equivalents of the following words and word combinations and use them in the sentences of your own:
Занимает центральную часть; отличается … из-за; умеренный; граничит с ; основные горные цепи; называемые; современная история; начали борьбу за независимость; рабство было отменено; законодательство.
7.4. Answer the following questions:
Where is the USA situated?
What land area does it cover?
How large is the population of the USA?
Why is the climate of the USA so diverse?
What countries does the USA border on?
What seas and oceans is it washed by?
What are the most important rivers in the USA?
Where are the Great Lakes situated?
The USA is rich in natural resources, isn't it?
When did the present-day American history begin?
What was the purpose of the war between the North and the South?
Why is the USA called the leading world power?
How many states are there in the USA?
What is the capital of the USA?
Who is the President of the USA?
7.5. Complete the following sentences:
The USA covers …
The territory of the USA is …
The population of the USA is…
The climate in the United States … due to the large size of the country.
The USA is washed by …
The chain mountains are…
The Great Lakes are situated …
Present-day American history began in …
The Civil War broke out in …
The largest state is …
Head of State is …
The capital of the country is …
7.6. Say what these figures refer to in the text.
9,328,000 265 1607 1775 1783 1861 1865
7.7. Speak about the geographic position of the USA using the map.
7.8. Retell the text.
Lesson 8 Political System of the USA.7.1. Learn the words:
state – государство, штат
to sign – подписывать
amendment – поправка, исправление
rights – права
to violate – нарушать
to proclaim – провозглашать, объявлять
to issue – выпускать
trade – торговля
juridical – юридический, правовой, судебный
to vest in – переходить, передаваться
to enforce – проводить в жизнь, придавать законную силу commander-in-chief – главнокомандующий
the Armed Forces – вооруженные силы
to veto – налагать вето
to overrule – аннулировать, отклонять
chairman – председатель
to assume – принимать, брать на себя
the Secretary of State – Госсекретарь
the Supreme Court – Верховный Суд
civil cases – гражданские права
to amend – вносить поправки, изменения
to abolish – аннулировать, отменять
The Political System of the USA
The United States of America is a federal republic consisting of 50 states. Each state has its own government («state government»). In some ways the United States is like 50 small countries.
The government of the USA act according to the Constitution which was signed by the first thirteen representatives of thirteen original American states in 1787. The document was written in 1787 and since that time twenty six Amendments have been added. The first ten Amendments were simply rights or the Bill of rights. According to the Constitution the USA is a republic. So, the officials of any rank are elected by US citizens. Every citizen has rights which can not be violated.
The Constitution proclaims a federal system of government which keeps both the states and the federal power from getting too much power. It means that the federal government is given certain powers, for example, to make peace or war, to issue money and to regulate the trade and so on.
The federal power is located in Washington, D.C. It is based on legislative, executive and juridical branches of power.
The legislative power is vested in Congress, which consists of two houses: the Senate and the House of Representatives, There are 435 members in the House of Representatives and 100 senators in Congress. Each state elects two members for the Senate.
The executive branch is headed by the President who is assisted by the Vice President. The President enforces federal laws, serves as commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces. The President can veto a bill unless Congress by a two-thirds vote shall overrule him. The Vice President, elected from the same political party as the President, acts as chairman of the Senate, and in the event of the death of the President, assumes the Presidency. The President of the USA is chosen in nationwide elections every four years together with the Vice.-President. The President can not be elected for more than two terms. The Cabinet is made up of Department Secretaries. The most important of them is the Secretary of State, who deals with foreign affairs.
The judicial branch is made up of Federal District Courts, 11 Federal Courts and the Supreme Court. Federal judges are appointed by the President for life.
Federal courts decide cases involving federal law, conflicts between citizens of different states.
Constitution has been amended twenty six times. The Bill of Rights guarantees individual liberties: freedom of word, religion and so on. Later amendments abolished slavery, granted the vote to women and colour people and allowed citizens to vote at the age of 18.
Lesson 9 Canada, Australia, New Zealand.
9.1. Read and translate the text.
Canada, Australia, New Zealand
Canada is located in North America. It is the second largest country in the world, but the population of the country is only about 30 million people. Most of the population is concentrated along the southern border, in the cities such as Montreal, Ottawa and Toronto.
Canada is an independent country, though formally Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom, is recognized as Head of State. The country consists of two territories and ten provinces. There are two official languages in Canada — English, which is the language of about 60% of the population, and French. The majority of French-speaking population is concentrated in the province of Quebec.
The country is mainly agricultural. It is well known as an exporter of wheat and oats. It is also rich in natural resources. It is one of the main producers of electric power.
The continent of Australia is situated between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. Australia is the sixth largest country in the world. The country's official name is Commonwealth of Australia. It is unique, because it is at the same time a continent, the smallest one in the world.
Australia is a very young country. The explorers from Europe unanimously called it a wonderful continent. There are really a lot of wonders: strange animals and wildlife, unusually mild weather, warm winters, etc. Even the sun rises there in the west, which is strange for Europeans. Besides, there is great stock of mineral resources: gold, oil, coal and much more.
The Commonwealth of Australia is a federation of six states: South Australia, New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria, Tasmania, and Western Australia. The central part of the country is scarcely populated. The majority of the inhabitants live along the seashore or on the islands surrounding the continent: Tasmania is probably the most famous of them.
There are not very many cities in Australia. Agriculture is very well developed there. It is the world's leading manufacturer of wool. The largest and the most famous city is Sydney. It was the capital of the Olympic Games in 2000. The capital of the country is Canberra, which is a remarkable city, with lakes, parks and skyscrapers.
New Zealand is a country in the Pacific Ocean, situated to the southeast from Australia. The country consists of two main islands and a number of smaller ones. All of them belong to the large group of Polynesian Islands. As one of the former colonies of Great Britain, now New Zealand is a member of the Commonwealth. It is formally the constitutional monarchy, Queen Elizabeth II being Head of State. The Queen appoints the governor who rules in her name. But, as well as in the UK, the Queen and her representatives have little or no power. In fact, the Prime Minister is the ruler.
New Zealand is a rich country, most of its wealth being due to agricultural activities. The rate of life in New Zealand is really high. Auckland is the largest city in the country. The capital of New Zealand is Wellington. English is the official language in the country, though in some schools Maori, which is the language of the native population, is taught as well.
9.2. Learn the words.
to locate – располагать(ся)
border – граница
independent – независимый
to recognize – узнавать, признавать
wheat – пшеница
oat – овес
commonwealth – содружество, союз
еhe Commonwealth of Australia – австралийский союз
scarcely –едва, почти не
inhabitant – житель
unique – уникальный unanimously –единодушно, единогласно
stock – запас
manufacturer – производитель
remarkable – знаменитый, выдающийся
skyscraper – небоскреб
to appoint – назначать
to rule – править
representative – представитель
wealth – богатство
due to – благодаря, из-за
rate of life – уровень жизни
9.3. Answer the questions about Canada, Australia and New Zealand.
Where is the country situated?
What is the size of the country?
What are its main cities? What is the capital of the country?
Where is the majority of the population concentrated?
What is the most important sphere of economy of the country?
Is the country rich in natural resources? What are they?
Who is formally recognized as Head of State in Canada?
What is the official language of the country?
9.4. Think of the beginning of the following sentences:
… is located in North America.
… between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean.
… of two territories and ten provinces.
… is concentrated in the province of Quebec.
… belong to Polynesian Islands.
… an exporter of wheat and oats.
… a wonderful continent.
… due to agricultural activities.
9.5. Compare the countries. Use the following adjectives and adverbs:
the largest; the smallest; the most densely populated; the coldest; the youngest; the most wonderful
9.6. Choose one country to speak on the following:
1. The country’s territory
2. The country’s population.
3. Head of State.
4. The country’s main cities.
5. The country’s economy and resources.
Lesson 10. Preparing for the Quiz «English-speaking countries». Make up the questions, ask your groupmates about English-speaking countries. Then answer their questions.
Lesson 11. Quiz «English-speaking countries»
А.П. Голубев, Н.В. Балюк, Н.Б. Смирнов «Английский язык» - М.: Издательский центр «Академия», 2009 – 305с.
Н.Н.Колесникова, Г.В.Данилова, Л.Н.Девяткина «Английский язык для менеджеров» - М.: Издательский центр «Академия», 2007 – 304с.
R.MacEndrew. Window on Britain. Video Guide 1. – Oxford: Oxford University press, 1998 – 39p.
R.MacEndrew. Window on Britain. Video Guide 2. – Oxford: Oxford University press, 1998 – 39p.
R.MacEndrew. Window on Britain. Workbook 1. – Oxford: Oxford University press, 1998 – 47p.
R.MacEndrew. Window on Britain. Workbook 2. – Oxford: Oxford University press, 1998 – 47p.
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