The UK

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Great Britain is a parliamentary monarchy with an unwritten constitution consisting of historic documents such as the Magna Carta, the Petition of Right, and the Bill of Rights; statutes; judicial precedents; and custom. The constitution is flexible and may be changed by an act of Parliament. The principle behind British democracy is that the people elect Members of Parliament to the House of Commons in London at a general election, held no more than five years apart. Most MPs belong to a political party, and the party with the largest number of MPs in the House of Commons forms the government. The main functions of Parliament are: to pass laws to provide, by voting for taxation, the means of carrying on the work of government to scrutinise government policy and administration, including proposals for expenditure to debate the major issues of the day The Queen The House of Lords The House of Commons The Queen is the official Head of State. Britain has a constitutional monarchy where the Queen only rules symbolically; in reality, power belongs to Parliament. So, although the Queen 'opens' Parliament each year and laws are passed in her name, the Queen herself plays no part in determining decisions made in Parliament. The Queen has the final say on whether a bill becomes law. The last Monarch to reject a law that was wanted by both Houses of Parliament was Queen Anne. She died in 1715. The House of Lords is made up of people who have inherited family titles and those who have been given titles because of their outstanding work in one field or another. The main job of the House of Lords is to 'double check' new laws to make sure they are fair and will work. The House of Commons has 659 members who have been elected by local residents to represent an area of the country in Parliament. The members are called MPs (Members of Parliament). Each MP represents one of 659 constituencies (areas) in the UK and is a member of a political party, such as New Labour or the Conservative party. The Commons is the most important place for discussing policies and making laws. The political party system, dating from the 17th century, is an essential element in the working constitution. Several parties win seats in Commons, but Great Britain has functioned basically as a two-party system for more than a century. The majority party forms His or Her Majesty's Government, and the second party is officially recognized as His or Her Majesty's Own Loyal Opposition. The opposition leader is paid a salary from public funds for that role. The government of Great Britain is unitary in structure. Thus, the powers of local government derive from Parliamentary acts, and responsibility for the overall administration of the country rests with specified cabinet ministries. Local authorities, however, are essentially independent. Shire counties have county, district, and parish councils. Metropolitan areas have joint authorities, district councils, and parish councils. The election of all Members of Parliament for each constituency is called a General Election. In the UK we vote for the best candidate in our local area to represent us in the House of Commons. Queen Victoria (5/24/1819, London - 1/22/1901, Osborn) - the queen of Great Britain with 1837г. The Only child of prince Edward, the duke of Kentsky, fourth son George III, and princesses Victoria, widows of the prince Leningensky and daughters of the duke Saksen-Koburgsky. Last representative of the Hanover dynasty. Victoria inherited a throne after have died George IV and Wilhelm IV, not left after itself successors. The queen it became on June, 20th 1837, and crowning has taken place in Westminster abbey on June, 28th 1838. Victoria has completely entrusted the former teacher to baroness Lejzen the device of the house and management of a court yard. In more complicated questions over it the former secretary of the brother of her mother, Leopold, baron Shtokmar, the authorised representative of all family Saksen-Koburgov supervised. In questions of internal policy she relied on the leader вигов the prime minister of Melbourn. Even in early years Victorias were peculiar independence and strength of mind. On February, 10th 1840 Victoria has married for the 20-year-old cousin of prince Albert Saksen-Koburg-Gotskogo. Queen Victoria - the most sign figure in an English history. Near to it in this respect stand unless William the Conqueror, Henry VIII and Elizabeth I. From her name there are such concepts as "the Victorian epoch". There are also "Victorian morals", "the Victorian family", "the Victorian architecture". In the Victorian time there was a city household civilisation: street illumination, sidewalks, sanitary and hygiene, plumbing and sanitary, the underground. At this time have been invented and the kitchen equipment and cans, a photo, musical caskets and the mechanical piano, toys, cards have widely extended. Even practice of gifts and the dramatized celebrating of Christmas have appeared during the Victorian epoch. The mass culture was born during familiarising of the people with civilisation achievements.

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