Проект The influence of stereotypes on decision-making on example of gender stereotypes


IV-ая научно-практическая конференция по психологии для школьников «Психология глазами современного человека: психология принятие решений».
ПРОЕКТНАЯ РАБОТА ПО ПСИХОЛОГИИ
The influence of stereotypes on decision-making on example of gender stereotypes
(Влияние стереотипов на принятие решений на примере гендерных стереотипов)
Выполнили:
Ученицы 10 класса «И»
Климова Валерия Дмитриевна 89163248323
Ражина Кристина Игоревна 89032782223 kristina.ragina@mail.ru
Холоденко Мария Олеговна 89854346595 kholodenko.m@gmail.com
Руководитель:
Оськина Екатерина Викторовна –
учитель английского языка
Москва, 2016
ГБОУ г. Москвы Лицей №1535
Contents
Introduction 1
Chapter 1. Theoretical input2
1) The process of decision-making2
2) The stereotypes3
3) The gender stereotypes4
Chapter 2. . Research part6
1) Hypothesis6
2) Goals and objectives 6
3) Participants and Procedure 6
4) Results and their interpretation7
5) Conclusions 8
References10
Appendix11

Introduction
Every person at the age of 14 to 16 has to make an extremely stressful and even agonising decision, to choose his or her own future career. The authors of this project work, being students of the 10th for, also will face this acute problem very soon. Choosing a career is a difficult and challenging task: the decision once taken will influence your future life. There are many factors, which influence this decision. One of these factors are gender-stereotypes, which are over-generalizations about the characteristics of an entire group based on gender.
Boys play with cars, trains, and tools. Girls play with dolls, dress-up, and princesses. For many parents this rings true but what happens when your boy wants to play with dolls or your daughter is more interested in playing with cars? For some parents this may make them feel uncomfortable. We think we must ask ourselves why it makes us uncomfortable. While we do think that there are inherent differences between boys and girls, we do not think they are as large as we tend to think and that they are in the ways in which we have come to think. Society has assigned certain stereotypes and roles to each gender that are often arbitrary and superficial. Parents should question these stereotypes and roles and ask if they are in the best interest of child. Many of these stereotypes can be harmful and limiting to children.
For example, imagine a girl, who wanted to become a pilot, but her parents did not take her dreams seriously and tried to make her interest in more “girly” things. They were buying her different dolls, crafts and other toys from girls’ section in the store. They made her go to such study groups as dancing and theatre class. The girl did not like going to these classes and playing with those toys, she stopped dreaming about being a pilot, and in the future, she chose her career under the pressure of her parents, and not based on her own wishes.
In our project, we decided to find out whether gender stereotypes influence the choice of profession and, in case of the positive result, to what extent.
Chapter I. Theoretical input
In the first chapter we want to present the results of our theoretical part of the research. The main topics vital for our project work are covered in the following subsections:
the Process of decision making with the description of the main stages;
a general definition of the phenomenon of stereotypes;
basic information about gender stereotypes.
The process of decision making
We make hundreds of decisions every day. Everything we say and do is the resulof the decision, no matter whether we make consciously or not. For every choice we make, big or small, there is no easy formula to make it right. The best you can do is to approach it from as many perspectives as possible and then choose the course of action that seems the most reasonable and balanced at that time.
There are seven steps in the decision-making process:
Step 1: Identify the decision to be made. The first step in the process is to recognize that there is a decision to be made. Decisions are not made arbitrarily; they result from an attempt to address a specific problem, need or opportunity.
Step 2: Gather relevant information. Most decisions require collecting pertinent information. The real trick in this step is to know what information is needed, the best sources of this information, and how to go about getting it. Some information must be sought from within yourself through a process of self-assessment; other information must be sought from outside yourself - from books, people, and a variety of other sources. This step, therefore, involves both internal and external “work”.
Step 3: Identify alternatives. Through the process of collecting information you will probably identify several possible paths of action, or alternatives. You may also use your imagination and information to construct new alternatives. In this step of the decision-making process, you will list all possible and desirable alternatives.
Step 4: Weigh the evidence. In this step, you draw on your information and emotions to imagine what it would be like if you carried out each of the alternatives to the end. You must evaluate whether the need identified in Step 1 would be helped or solved via the use of each alternative. In going through this difficult internal process, you begin to favor certain alternatives, which appear to have higher potential for reaching your goal. Eventually you are able to place the alternatives in priority order, based upon your own value system.
Step 5: Choose among alternatives. Once you have weighed all the evidence, you are ready to select the alternative seeming to be the best suited to you. You may even choose a combination of alternatives. Your choice in Step 5 may very likely be the same or similar to the alternative you placed at the top of your list at the end of Step 4.
Step 6: Take action. You now take some positive action which begins to implement the alternative you chose in Step 5.
Step 7: Review decision and consequences. In the last step you experience the results of your decision and evaluate whether or not it has “solved” the need you identified in Step 1. If it has, you may stay with this decision for some period of time. If the decision has not resolved the identified need, you may repeat certain steps of the process in order to make a new decision. You may, for example, gather more detailed or somewhat different information or discover additional alternatives on which to base your decision.
During step 4 people use many factors to weigh evidences. For example, among these factors are our experience, memory, morals, the concepts of the way we think and also another factor is stereotypes.
The stereotypes
Definition: A stereotype is “...a fixed, over generalized belief about a particular group or class of people.” (Cardwell, 1996). 
The term stereotype derives from the Greek words στερεός (stereos), "firm, solid" and τύπος (typos), "impression", hence "solid impression.
Much of what enters our consciousness, of course, comes from the culture around us and like the culture, it seems that our minds are split on the subjects of race, gender, class, sexual orientation.
"We not only mirror the ambivalence we see in society, but also mirror it in precisely the same way," says Dovidio.
Our society talks out loud about justice, equality, and egalitarianism, and many people accept these values as their own. At the same time, such equality exists only as an ideal, and that fact is not lost on our unconscious. Images of women as sexobjects, footage of African-American criminals on the six o'clock news,—"this is knowledge we cannot escape," explains Banaji. "We didn't choose to know it, but it still affects our behavior."
We learn the subtext of our culture's messages early. By five years of age, says Margo Monteith, Ph.D., many children have definite and entrenched stereotypes about the blacks, women, and other social groups. Adds Monteith, professor of psychology at the University of Kentucky: "Children don't have a choice about accepting or rejecting these conceptions, since they're acquired well before they have the cognitive abilities or experiences to form their own beliefs." And no matter how progressive the parents, they must compete with all the forces that would promote and perpetuate these stereotypes: peer pressure, mass media, the actual balance of power in society. In fact, prejudice may be as much a result as a cause of this imbalance. We create stereotypes--African-Americans are lazy, women are emotional—to explain why things are the way they are. As Dovidio notes, "Stereotypes don't have to be true to serve a purpose."
The gender stereotypes
A gender stereotype is a generalised view or preconception about attributes or characteristics that are or ought to be possessed by, or the roles that are or should be performed by women and men.
Gender and gender identity
Each person has a sex, a gender, and a gender identity. These are all aspects of sexuality.
Sex is biological. It includes our genetic makeup, our hormones, and our body parts, especially our sex and reproductive organs.
Gender refers to society's expectations about how we should think and act as girls and boys, and women and men. It is our biological, social, and legal status as women and men.
Gender identity is how we feel about and express our gender and gender roles — clothing, behavior, and personal appearance. It is a feeling that we have as early as age two or three.
Gender roles are the way people act, what they do and say, to express being a girl or a boy, a woman or a man. These characteristics are shaped by society. Gender roles vary greatly from one culture to the next, from one ethnic group to the next, and from one social class to another. But every culture has gender roles — they all have expectations for the way women and men, girls and boys, should dress, behave, and look.
Children learn gender roles from an early age — from their parents and family, their religion, and their culture, as well as the outside world, including television, magazines, and other media. As children grow, they adopt behaviors that are rewarded by love and praise. They stop or hide behaviors that are ridiculed, shamed, or punished. This happens early in life. By age three, children have usually learned to prefer toys and clothes that are “appropriate” to their gender.
Gender stereotypes begin the second a baby’s gender is found out. As soon as we find out it is a girl, we immediately begin decorating a pink nursery filled with soft décor and butterflies and flowers. We assume that our daughter will be very "girly" and fill her closet with frilly dresses and her toy box with tea sets and dolls. What this is essentially doing, even though many parents do not realize it, is setting our child up to be the "perfect lady," and teaching her how to be the stereotypical woman. We are teaching her that girls are supposed to wear dresses, serve food, and take care of babies; the biggest and most common stereotype put on women.
Have you ever watched a little girl playing house? Even as young as five or six, she is well aware that she is supposed to stay home with the baby while the husband goes to work, and she has dinner ready when he gets home. Here is another stereotype; women stay at home while men go to work. While there are a million gender stereotypes about females, these are definitely the biggest, and the most debated by feminists of today.
Chapter II. Research part
Hypothesis
We suppose that parents, who are under the influence of gender stereotypes, can unintentionally affect the decision-making of career.
Goals and objectives
Thus, inspired by the information we found out, we want to see if gender stereotypes exist in our lives and if they really influence the choice of the career.
Mainly we wanted to see can a profession be associate with certain gender.
Participants and Procedure
The participants of our experiment were 100 female and 100 male at the age of 16-45.
To prove that all of us have gender stereotypes we conducted experiment in which we asked people from our focus group to distribute the cards with images of many different toys in two groups: the first group is made from toys, which people usually buy for boys and the second group is made from toys, which people usually buy for girls.
To prove that people associate professions with certain gender we conducted an experiment in which we asked people from our focus group to distribute the cards with the professions in two groups: the first is the professions which suit men, and the second is the professions, which suit women.
Results and their interpretation
I. Toys experiment
In course of the first experiment we obtained the following results that we grouped according to the sex of the participants. Below we present the results for the female and male groups. (For the detailed results see Tables 1 and 2 in Appendix.)
Female group:Toys, which were chosen for girls:
100%- kitchen, iron, doll house, teddy bear, doll, cash-register
90%- ball, doctor set
80%- paint and brush
60%-monopoly, crafts
Toys, which were chosen for boys:
100%- helicopter, constructor, sword and shield, builder set
90%- PSP, soldier
80%- lego, car
70%- chemistry
And toys which were half for girls half for boys: microscope
Male group:
Toys, which were chosen for girls:
100%- kitchen, iron, doll house, teddy bear, doll, cash-register
80%- monopoly, paint and brush, doctor set
Toys, which were chosen for boys:
100%- lego, car, soldier, helicopter, constructor, sword and shield, builder set
60%- PSP, ball, microscope, chemistry
II. Professions experiment
The second experiment was devoted to the analysis of gender-profession associations. The results of the experiment are also grouped according to the participants’ sex. (For the detailed results see Tables 3 and 4 in Appendix.)
Female group:Professions, which were chosen for women: 
100% - Kindergarten teacher
90% - Secretary, Psychologist, Designer
80% - Accountant, Teacher
70% - Doctor
60% - Educator
Professions, which were chosen for men:
100% - Surgeon, Solider
90% - Programmer, Architect
80% - Athlete, Trolleybus driver
70% - Buisnessperson
Male group:
Professions, which were chosen for women:
100% - Accountant, Secretary, Educator, Kindergarten teacher
80% - Artist, Teacher
60% - Psychologist, Architect, Doctor
Professions, which were chosen for men:
100% - Programmer, Surgeon, Athlete, Solider, Scientist, Trolleybus driver
80% - Buisnessperson, Cook
Conclusions
By way of conclusion we may say that gender stereotypes exist, and what is more important, they influence our everyday life. The main consequence of gender stereotypes is gender roles, which shape the way people act to express being a male or a female.
Children learn gender roles from an early age — from their parents and family, their religion, and their culture, as well as the outside world, including television, magazines, and other media. Parents, who are under the influence of society, try to raise a child according to the gender roles. They do this by buying certain toys or punishing children for their “wrong” behavior. It turns out that as children grow, they adopt behaviors that are rewarded by love and praise. They stop or hide behaviors that are ridiculed, shamed, or punished. This happens early in life. By age three, children have usually learned to prefer toys and clothes that are “appropriate” to their gender.
Children, knowing from the very young age their gender role in society continue to live trying to behave in the certain way. And when they face the problem of choosing the profession, they also make a choice under the influence of society. For example, there are less girls, who would try to be an engineer, than boys, or there are less boys, who would want to try to become secretary, than girls.
This is how gender stereotypes, which are raised in us from very young age, influence our choice of profession.
Our advice can be summarized in the following points:
Buy and expose your child to gender neutral toys or toys of all kinds as much as possible. Also do not be rigid on what you allow your child to play with. For boys, let them play with baby dolls. For girls, let them play with cars.
Read books, watch TV shows, and movies that portray positive and uplifting portrayals of gender
Talk with your child about stereotypes.
Be an example and role model. There is no replacement for modeling the type of person you want your child to be. 
References
Brown, C., George-Curran, R., & Smith, M. L. (2003). The Role of Emotional Intelligence in the Career Commitment and Decision-Making Process. Journal of Career Assessment, 11(4), 379-392. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1069072703255834Eduardo Missri Gender Differences in Decision Making Processes: A Computerized Experiment. http://portal.idc.ac.il/en/schools/government/politicalpsychology/documents/gender_differences_in_decision_making_processes.pdfHammond, J.S., R.L. Keeney, and H. Raiffa. 1999. Smart Choices: a practical guide to making better life decisions. Broadway Books, NY. 242pp.
Meyers-Levy, J. (1989). Gender differences in information processing: A selectivity interpretation. In P. Cafferata & A. M. Tybout (Eds.), Cognitive and Affecting Responses to Advertising (pp. 219-260). Lexington, MA, England: Lexington Books/D. C. Heath and Com.
Psychology Today Decision-Making https://www.psychologytoday.com/basics/decision-makingSkinner, D.C. 1999. Introduction to decision analysis: a practitioner’s guide to improving decision quality. Second edition. Probabilistic Publishing, Gainesville, Florida, USA
Von Winterfeldt, D. and W. Edwards. . Behavioral Decision Analysis.
Wing, D. A., Benner, R. S., Petersen, R., Newcomb, R., & Scott, J.R. (2010). Differences in Editorial Board Reviewer Behavior Based on Gender. Journal of Women’s Health, 19(10), 1919-1923. US: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
APPENDIX
Table 1. Results of the “Toys experiment” within the female participants.
Toys Girls (%) Boys (%)
Monopoly 60 40
Lego 20 80
Ball 90 10
PSP 10 90
Car 20 80
Soldier 10 90
Kitchen 100 0
Iron 100 0
Doll house 100 0
Teddy bear 100 0
Microscope 50 50
Helicopter 0 100
Constructor 0 100
Chemistry 30 70
Doll 100 0
Sword and shield 0 100
Cash-register 100 0
Paint and brush 80 20
Doctor set 90 10
Builder set 0 100
Crafts 60 40

Table 2. Results of the “Toys experiment” within the male participants.
Toys Girls (%) Boys (%)
Monopoly 80 20
Lego 0 100
Ball 40 60
PSP 40 60
Car 0 100
Soldier 0 100
Kitchen 100 0
Iron 100 0
Doll house 100 0
Teddy bear 100 0
Microscope 40 60
Helicopter 0 100
Constructor 0 100
Chemistry 40 60
Doll 100 0
Sword and shield 0 100
Cash-register 100 0
Paint and brush 80 20
Doctor set 80 20
Builder set 0 100
Crafts 80 20
Table 3. Results of the “Professions experiment” within the female participants.
Profession Women (%) Men (%)
Accountant 80 20
Secretary 90 10
Psychologist 90 10
Artist 50 50
Programmer 10 90
Surgeon 0 100
Educator 60 40
Architect 10 90
Designer 90 10
Buisnessperson 30 70
Athlete 20 80
Solider 0 100
Scientist 50 50
Doctor 70 30
Trolleybus driver 20 80
Cook 30 70
Kindergarten teacher 100 0
Teacher 80 20
Table 4. Results of the “Professions experiment” within the male participants.
Profession Women(%) Men (%)
Accountant 100 0
Secretary 100 0
Psychologist 60 40
Artist 80 20
Programmer 0 100
Surgeon 0 100
Educator 100 0
Architect 60 40
Designer 100 0
Buisnessperson 20 80
Athlete 0 100
Solider 0 100
Scientist 0 100
Doctor 60 40
Trolleybus driver 0 100
Cook 20 80
Kindergarten teacher 100 0
Teacher 80 20


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The influence of stereotypes on decision-making on example of gender stereotypesГосударственное Бюджетное Образовательное Учреждение города Москвы лицей № 1535Students of 10 “I” formRajgina Kristina Kholodenko MariaKlimova Valeria Supervisor:Oskina E.V.–English teacherMoscow, 2016 The StereotypesA stereotype “…a fixed, over generalized belief about a particular group or class of people”Cardwell, 1996 The process of decision making:Step 1: Identify the decision to be madeStep 2: Gather relevant informationStep 3: Identify alternativesStep 4: Weigh the evidence Step 5: Choose among alternatives Step 6: Take action Step 7: Review decision and consequences The gender stereotypesA gender stereotype is general view or preconception about attributes or characteristics that are or ought to be possessed by, or the roles that are or should be performed by women and men. Research part HypothesisStereotypes do influence the process of decision making.Goals and objectives To check if gender stereotypes influence the choice of toys for boys and girls.To check if gender stereotypes influence the choice of career for male and female workers. Participants100 female and 100 male at the age of 16-45 Materials and Procedure Toy experimentFemale respondentsMale respondents Professions experimentFemale respondentsMale respondents ConclusionGender stereotypes exist and they do influence our choices. Useful tipsBuy gender neutral toys. Read books, watch TV shows, and movies that show positive and uplifting portrayals of genderTalk with your child about stereotypes.Be an example and role model. ReferencesBrown, C., George-Curran, R., & Smith, M. L. (2003). The Role of Emotional Intelligence in the Career Commitment and Decision-Making Process. Journal of Career Assessment, 11(4), 379-392. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1069072703255834Eduardo Missri Gender Differences in Decision Making Processes: A Computerized Experiment. http://portal.idc.ac.il/en/schools/government/politicalpsychology/documents/gender_differences_in_decision_making_processes.pdfHammond, J.S., R.L. Keeney, and H. Raiffa. 1999. Smart Choices: a practical guide to making better life decisions. Broadway Books, NY. 242pp.Meyers-Levy, J. (1989). Gender differences in information processing: A selectivity interpretation. In P. Cafferata & A. M. Tybout (Eds.), Cognitive and Affecting Responses to Advertising (pp. 219-260). Lexington, MA, England: Lexington Books/D. C. Heath and Com.Psychology Today Decision-Making https://www.psychologytoday.com/basics/decision-makingSkinner, D.C. 1999. Introduction to decision analysis: a practitioner’s guide to improving decision quality. Second edition. Probabilistic Publishing, Gainesville, Florida, USAVon Winterfeldt, D. and W. Edwards. . Behavioral Decision Analysis.Wing, D. A., Benner, R. S., Petersen, R., Newcomb, R., & Scott, J.R. (2010). Differences in Editorial Board Reviewer Behavior Based on Gender. Journal of Women’s Health, 19(10), 1919-1923. US: Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Thank you for your attention!


The influence of stereotypes on decision-making on example of gender stereotypes
(Влияние стереотипов на принятие решений на примере гендерных стереотипов)
Aвтор: Климова Валерия Дмитриевна, Ражина Кристина Игоревна, Холоденко Мария Олеговна (ученицы 10 класса «И»)
Руководитель: Оськина Екатерина Викторовна, учитель английского языка, ГБОУ г. Москвы лицей №1535
ГБОУ г. Москвы лицей №1535
Тезисы
Данная проектная работа была проведена на границе двух областей психологии: психология пола и теории принятия решений. Основной целью нашего проекта было проверить влияют ли, существующие в обществе, стереотипы на процесс принятия решения.
В теоретической части нашей работы мы рассматривали две главные темы нашего исследования: основные стадии принятия решения и понятие стереотипов, с особым акцентом на гендерные стереотипы.
Мы принимаем сотни решений каждый день. Существует семь шагов принятия решений, начиная с осознания, что решение должно быть принято, заканчивая стадией рассмотрения решения и его последствий. Во время четвертого этапа, который является взвешиванием возможных вариантов решения, на людей влияет много различных факторов. Например, этими факторами является наш опыт, память, моральные принципы, концепции того, как мы думаем, и еще один фактор – стереотипы. Стереотипом является «…фиксированное обобщенное мнение о конкретной группе или классе людей». Мы очень рано узнаем о подтексте сообщения, которое несет наша культура. Гендерные стереотипы — это обобщенное представление или предрассудок о характеристиках, которыми должны обладать или о ролях, которые должны выполнять мужчины и женщины.
Мы предполагаем, что родители, находящиеся под влиянием гендерных стереотипов, могут ненамеренно повлиять на выбор карьеры. Чтобы проверить нашу теорию, мы провели эксперименты, с помощью которых мы смогли увидеть существуют ли гендерные стереотипы в нашей жизни и действительно ли они сильно воздействуют на наш выбор карьеры. В основном мы хотели увидеть ассоциируются ли у нас профессии с гендером.
Участниками нашего эксперимента являлись 100 девушек и 100 мужчин в возрасте от 16-45.
Чтобы доказать, что у нас у всех есть стереотипы, мы просили людей из нашей фокус-группы распределить карточки с рисунками различных игрушек в две группы: в первой группе должны были быть игрушки, которые, по их мнению, покупают мальчикам, а во второй группе те игрушки, которые покупают девочкам.
Чтобы доказать, что люди ассоциируют профессии с определённым гендером, мы провели эксперимент, в котором просили людей из нашей фокус-группы распределить карточки с профессиями в две группы: в первой группе должны были быть профессии, которые подходят мальчикам, а во второй профессии, которые подходят девочкам.
Проанализировав полученные результаты, мы пришли к выводу, что гендерные стереотипы существует, и что важнее всего, они влияют на нашу повседневную жизнь. Основным последствием гендерных стереотипов являются гендерные роли, которые формируют поведение мужчин и женщин.
Дети узнают свои гендерные роли ее в раннем детстве, благодаря родителям, семье, религии, культуры, в том числе и из внешнего мира: телевизора, журналов и других средств массовой информации. Родители, которые находятся под влиянием общества, пытаются воспитать ребенка в соответствии с гендерными ролями. Они делают это, покупая определенные игрушки или наказывая ребенка за его «неправильное» поведение. Дети, знающие с самого раннего детства их гендерную роль в обществе, продолжают жить, пытаясь вести себя определённым образом. И когда они сталкиваются с выбором профессии, они так же принимают решение под влиянием общества.

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