Государственное бюджетное образовательное учреждение среднего
индустрии и городского хозяйства»
Методические рекомендации по работе с текстами
по специальности для строителей
третьего курса по теме «Санкт-Петербург»
(на английском языке).
Преподаватели: Хедер Е.Н.
Целью данного пособия является развитие навыков работы с текстами по специальности. Каждый из текстов пособия рассчитан на 2 часа аудиторной работы.
Предложенные для анализа тексты, с одной стороны, включают специальную лексику по строительству (части здания, материалы, глаголы, характеризующие строительство), с другой стороны, несут страноведческую информацию, что особенно актуально для иногородних студентов. На занятиях используются иллюстрации, в более сильных группах можно попросить объяснить, как добраться до того или иного архитектурного памятника.
В предложенных для анализа текстах есть несколько грамматических доминант (пассивный залог, Прошедшее простое время, Прошедшее завершенное время, Герундий, Первое и второе причастия). Данные грамматические темы рассмотрены перед текстами. Также там проводится анализ незнакомой лексики с переводом и примерами для перевода. В некоторых случаях наблюдается расширение значения, например: to remain – оставаться, remains of somebody – останки (а не остатки) человека.
Расстановка текстов в принципе является произвольной. Мы руководствовались следующими принципами: увеличение объема текстов и объема лексического и грамматического комментария к ним (увеличение объема от текста к тексту и уменьшение размера комментариев), грамматическая сложность (в первых текстах некоторые грамматические явления рассматриваются на лексическом уровне без напоминания правила, которое будет объяснено в последующих текстах). Применяется принцип нарастания трудностей: слова, рассмотренные в первом тексте, в четвертом не семантизируются повторно.
При работе с текстом могут применяться различные методики. Мы считаем, что предтекстовую работу следует проводить устно со всей группой. Дальше можно или попросить студентов перевести весь текст самостоятельно, или разделить их на группы, каждая из которых будет отвечать за свой кусочек текста, или устно переводить весь текст, спрашивая по очереди всех студентов. После этого можно попросить их записать перевод части текста или весь целиком.
Практика показывает, что наиболее продуктивным является устный перевод со всей группой. Это позволяет скорректировать стилистику перевода, потому что не все студенты в состоянии самостоятельно понять, что фраза «Павла пришили во дворце» не является стилистически нейтральной, хотя по сути правильно отражает смысл английского предложения. Следует сказать студентам, что тексты такого плана могут встретиться в справочнике о Санкт-Петербурге. Студенты технических специальностей зачастую не вполне владеют стилистикой русского языка, что вызывает определенные трудности при переводе. Кроме того, в исправлении стилистики на русском языке могут принимать участие и слабые студенты, которым сложно справиться с переводом текста. Именно их можно попросить записать перевод текста после окончания его анализа.
Необходимость такой методики работы подтверждается и синтаксисом английского языка, в котором строение предложения сильно отличается от русского, что провоцирует не вполне правильные фразы при дословном переводе. Например, английское предложение – «рабочие были приведены»на русском лучше передать предложением «рабочих привели». Кроме того, предлоги в английском и русском не всегда совпадают, например: англ. «под разными правителями» и русское «при разных правителях».
Таким образом, данные тексты позволяют не только научить студентов основам перевода текстов по специальности, но и стимулировать интерес к изучаемому предмету и дать ценные страноведческие сведения.
To have – есть. I have 2 sisters. Mary has three flowers. My friend has 300 discs.
To be proud of – гордиться. He is proud of his mother. All mothers are proud of their sons. Russia has much to be proud of.
Talent – талант, talented - ……………… My brother is very talented.
City, town – город. Moscow is a famous ………….. Luga is a ………. Near Saint-Petersburg.
Abroad – за границей. I have never been abroad. A lot of Russians live abroad.
It is situated – он расположен. Rostov-On-Don is situated on the right bank of the river Don.
One of the most beautiful - …………………………………………………………………….
We (not to walk) last Sunday. 2. My brother (not to get up) at nine o'clock the day before yesterday. 3. Our aunt and uncle (not to come) home at eleven o'clock last Monday. 4. The children (not to go) to school at a quarter to nine yesterday. 5. His niece (not to have) lunch yesterday morning. 6. I (not to eat) soup for dinner yesterday.
1. Den (to wake up) at ten o'clock the day before yesterday. 2. My sister (to do) her home work yesterday afternoon. 3. Their aunt (to read) a book yesterday evening. 4. He (to wash) his face yesterday evening. 5. Her friend (to write) a letter to her grandmother yesterday. 6. You (to play) chess last week.
Раскройте скобки, задайте вопросы к предложениям:
1. My niece and nephew (to go) to the cinema last Monday. (When, who, where) 2. I (to play) tennis the day before yesterday. (Who, when) 3. His aunt (to drink) coffee for breakfast yesterday. (What, who, when) 4. My cousin (not to do) his homework yesterday morning. (who, what, when) 5. Our parents (to go) to the theatre last week. (when, where, who) 6. His father (to go) to Africa last year. (who, why, when, where).
Swamp – болото. There were a lot of swamps in St-Petersburg.
Mouth – устье.
1917, 1739, 1935, 2005, 1671, 1598, 1472, 1196, 1276, 1941.
Find – found – found – находить, founf – founded – founded – основывать. 1. I can’t ………. my pen. Where is it? 2. St-Petersburg was ………….. in 1703. 3. Moscow was …………… long ago. 4. I’m looking for my glasses. I hope I’ll …………. them soon.
Dream – dreamt – dreamt – мечтать. I dream of going to Finland. I dream of studying at the University.
Thousands of workers - ………….., five thousand workers - …………….. Translate: 150 рабочих, сотни рабочих, 2000 людей, тысячи людей.
square [skwea], площaдь. A square — squares, Red Square, a small square, a quiet square. There are two squares in our town. Are there any squares in your city? Oh, yes, a lot. We live in Moscow near Red Square.
church, церковь, a church — churches, in the church, near the church. There were many people in the church when we came. Is there a church in your town? Yes, there is. It is in Main Square. The old church was very beautiful. There are many old churches in this city.
ST. PETERSBURGRussia has much to be proud of; talented people, musicians, painters, and scientists, many great cities and towns. It has always been a great attraction to many tourists from abroad.
St. Petersburg is one of such cities — the city of Russian glory. It is situated on the Neva River. It is the second largest city in Russia and one of the most beautiful cities in the world.
Peter the Great dreamt of building the fleet and starting trade with many countries. He wanted to open "the window to the west". In 1703 Peter the Great founded St. Petersburg. Thousands of workmen were brought from all parts of Russia to build a new city on swampy land at the mouth of the Neva. The work was fast and hard, people died by the hundreds. When the work was finally finished, a beautiful city with palaces, cathedrals, churches, government buildings appeared and became the capital.
Later on, under other rulers the capital of the Russian Empire grew rapidly. It was wealthy and beautiful. Architects were invited from Western Europe to lay out the city in harmonious squares. Buildings were constructed of gray and rose-coloured granite. The Hermitage palace and the Winter Palace, the homes of the tsars, were equal to any in Europe. In 1917, after Great October Revolution it was given the name Leningrad.
Influence - влиять. Существительное - influence. I was still under the influence of my parents. His friends have
a bad influence on him. The Baltic Sea influences our climate. Who influenced her to do that? Наташа плохо
влияет на Катю. Что повлияло на твоё решение? Я нахожусь под его влиянием. Солнце влияет на климат в
That - что, который. She said hat she loves him. The old man that lives next to me likes to walk in the morning. I
think that she lives in this house. The girl that came to me was very nice.
Except and besides
I speak 3 languagesEnglish. I don't speak any languagesEnglish.
I have 2 friendsNelly. I have many relativesmother and father.
I like all pupils of our classMisha. I help my mother about the house andI do
my homework. All books are greenthis one. I don't want to go fora walk andI go to the
theatre. I have many computer gamesWar craft. I have been to many countriesFinland. I
haven 4 been to any theatresMariinskiy.
Built - she watched the children writing the dictation. The dictation written the day before was difficult.
Everybody looked at the dancing girl. The word said by the student was not correct. The students speaking good
English must help their classmates. A word spoken in time may have very important results.
Residential -жилой. Residential area.
Therefore - поэтому, следовательно. I don't love her, therefore, I won't marry her.
Passive voice - to be + глагол в третьей форме. Bread (to eat) every day. The letter (to write) yesterday. I (to ask)
at the lesson tomorrow.
To catch – чтобы поймать. She went to the shop to buy food. She went to England to see its famous parks.
To melt – плавиться, таять. The sugar melted in the tea. The sun melted all snow.
Architect – архитектор. Famous Italian architects built a lot of houses in our city. She is a good architect.
There is – There is a book on the table. There are 3 chairs in the classroom.
Instead of – вместо. Do your homework instead of playing computer. Go for a walk instead of sitting at home.
The climate of a country is one of the factors that influence the style of its architecture. It can be best illustrated by British residential buildings. The weather in England is often cloudy and there are few sunny days in the winter season, therefore, as a rule, the windows in an English house are of a large size to catch as much light and sunshine as possible. In the houses built in the past century the windows, besides being large, opened upwards. It is very convenient on windy days.
As there is much rain in England, typical British houses have high, steep roofs where rain water and melting snow can easily flow down.
Most of the houses have a fireplace which forms the most characteristic feature of an English home. It is seldom seen in other European countries.
The plan of an English house also differs from the plan of the houses where we live. English architects plan some apartments vertically instead of planning them horizontally, so that an English family having a separate apartment lives on 2 or sometimes 3 floors with rooms connected with a narrow staircase. They find it the most convenient style of apartment. There are usually three rooms in each apartment besides a kitchen and a bathroom; a living room, a bedroom and a dining room.
Where is Smolny cathedral situated?
Who was the architect of this cathedral?
Do you know any other buildings designed by this architect in our city?
Was he born in Saint-Petersburg?
Where was he from?
To erect – возводить. Smolny Palace was erected on the Neva bank.
To retire – уйти в отставку. Elizabeth wanted to retire.
To take the veil – уйти в монастырь. Elizabeth wanted to take a veil.
Convent – женский монастырь.
To surround – окружать. The cathedral is surrounded with 4 churches.
Unfortunately – к сожалению. Unfortunately, I can’t go with you.
Belfry – колокольня. The belfry is 100 meters high.
Turning point – поворотный пункт. That evening was a turning point in my life.
Blasphemously – богохульно.
Institution – ведомство, организация, учреждение.
Write – писать, writer – писатель, invest – вносить деньги, investor – инвестор, follow – следовать, follower - …
Landscape – ландшафт, cityscape - …
It takes me 45 minutes to get to work. – У меня занимает 20 минут дорога на работу. It takes her 2 hours to cook dinner. It takes me 15 minutes to wash my face. It takes my mom 2 hours to buy a new dress. How much time does it take you to do your homework? How much time does it take you to get to the technical school? How much time does it take you to have supper?
Passive voice to be + III форма глагола
Bread (to eat) every day. The letter (to receive) yesterday. Nick (to send) to Moscow next week. I (to ask) at the lesson yesterday. I (to give) a very interesting book at the library last Monday. Many houses (to build) in our town every year. This work (to do) tomorrow. My question (to answer) yesterday. His new book (to finish) next year. St Petersburg (to found) in 1703.
One of the best Baroque architectural ensembles of Saint Petersburg the Smolny Cathedral is situated on the bank of the River Neva.
Close to this territory on the Neva bank in the 18th century a small Smolny Palace was erected. There the daughter of Peter the Great, Elisabeth, spent some years. She dreamt of retiring from the world and taking the veil. But she didn't want to leave Saint Petersburg, and ordered to erect a convent. Architect Rastrelli made a design and directed the construction works that started in 1749.
The blue and white Baroque-style cathedral became the center of the ensemble. The architect combined elements of Russian and European architecture harmonically. The cathedral is surrounded with four blue and white churches that form a cross.
Rastrelli died in 1771. The construction works were stopped at the end of the 18th century and renewed only in the 1830s when architect Stasov started cathedral interior decoration.
Unfortunately, the original design of Rastrelli was not fulfilled completely. According to the architect's project, the ensemble should have a 140 meters high belfry – the tallest belfry in Russia. But Rastrelli's followers didn't build it because they thought that it would spoil the harmonious cityscape.
The Smolny Cathedral is the record breaker. The building has the longest story of erection in the city. The construction works were started in 1748, and the interior decorations were finished only in 1835. It took 87 years to build the cathedral.
The revolution of 1917 became an important turning point in the history of the cathedral. For quite a long period the Smolny Cathedral was blasphemously used as a storehouse.
Today Smolny Cathedral is used primarily as a concert hall and houses various offices and government institutions.
Упр. 212. Раскройте скобки, употребляя глаголы в Past Simple или Past Perfect.
1. When I (to come) home, mother already (to cook) dinner. 2. When father (to return) from work, we already (to do) our homework. 3. When the teacher (to enter) the classroom, the pupils already (to open) their books. 4. Kate (to give) me the book which she (to buy) the day before. 5. Nick (to show) the teacher the picture which he (to draw). 6. The boy (to give) the goats the grass which he (to bring) from the field. 7. Mother (to see) that Nick (not to wash) his hands. 8. The teacher (to understand) that Lena (not to do) her homework, 9, I (to know) that my friend (not yet to come). 10. Tom (to return) from the cinema at five o'clock. 11. Tom (to return) from the cinema by five o'clock. 12. I (to finish) my homework at seven o'clock. 13. I (to finish) my homework by seven o'clock. 14. He (to think) that he (to lose) the money. 15. Ann (to tell) me that she (to see) an interesting film. 16. When I (to wake) up yesterday, father already (to go) to work. 17. Nick (to think) that his father (not yet to come) home. 18. Mary (to tell) us that she (to cook) a good dinner. 19. Yesterday I (to find) the book which I (to lose) in summer. 20. When we (to come) to the station, the train already (to leave).
Divine service – богослужение.
Replace – заменять. to replace the broken window. We suggest replacing the present chairman with a younger person.
Wooden – деревянный. A wooden chair, a wooden house.
Miracle – чудо. to work a miracle It's a miracle that she was not killed. by a miracle, miracle worker.
Entrust – поручать. I entrusted the child to your. He entrusted the job to me.
To face – выходить, быть обращённым. The little church that faced eastwards. The village faces full to the south.
To solve – решать. to solve a question, to solve a difficulty, to solve smth easily.
Semicircular – полукруглый. Semicircular colonnade.
Wing – крыло. His bird has 2 wings. He added a wing to the building.
Passage-way – проход, коридор.
Suit – подходить. This dress suits me very much. Red colour doesn’t suit you.
Bury – хоронить. My father is buried in Moscow.
Convert – переделывать. The cathedral was converted into a museum.
The Cathedral of Our Lady of Kazan was founded on the 27th of August, 1801. The new cathedral replaced the wooden church that had been constructed in 1733-1737. The miracle-working icon of Our Lady of Kazan was there.
The construction of the cathedral was entrusted to architect Voronikhin. It took 10 years to build the cathedral.
The Cathedral of Our Lady of Kazan was planned in the shape of the Latin cross. Voronikhin had a difficult task: the altar of the cathedral had to face eastwards, so the main entrance and the facade faced westwards. So the main street of the city, Nevsky Prospect, would front the side facade of the cathedral, and not the main one. Voronikhin solved the problem by adding a semicircular colonnade facing Nevsky Prospect. The wings of the colonnade that form a square in front of the cathedral have monumental portals at the ends, and at the same time are passageways. Voronikhin wanted to put up a similar colonnade facing south; but the Patriotic War of 1812 interfered with his plans.
Inside and outside the cathedral is decorated with unique columns made of large granite monolith weighing 30 tons each.
In 1813 field-marshal Kutuzov was buried in the cathedral.
In 1837 the monuments to Field Marshals Kutuzov and Barclay de Tolli were placed in front of the cathedral. They suit the whole ensemble so perfect that many citizens of Saint Petersburg think that they were included in the original project of Voronikhin.
Soon after the Revolution of 1917 the Soviet Government converted the unique building into the Museum of the History of Religion and Atheism that was opened to the public in 1932.
On the 4th of November, 1990 for the first time after more than a 70-years the divine service was held in the Cathedral of Our Lady of Kazan.
Большой – больше – самый большой, важный – важнее – самый важный.
Маленький, красивый, старый, трудный, молодой, интересный, длинный.
To build – строить, building – здание. Many buildings are built in our city every year.
Main – главный. Nevsky prospect is the main street of our city.
Storey – этаж. This house has only one storey.
Marvel – чудо, диво. She was a marvel.
Between, among – между. between you and me, between the devil and the deep sea.
House – to build a house, country house, town house, a beautiful house, The office complex can comfortably house 25,000 people. The house music was instrumental and when there was vocalists, they were female divas that often sang stupid melodies.
Exhibit, exhibition. The exhibition was opened in February. There were 35 exhibits in that museum.
It is located=it is situated.
Exhibit – выставлять, exhibition – выставка, define– определение, definition – определение, attract – привлекать, attraction - … … is the main attraction of this city.
Write – writer, invest – investor, visit – visitor - …
As – в качестве, как. They know him as a teacher. As a writer, he's great. She was dressed as a man.
Progress – progressive, impression – впечатление, impressive - …
Arrange. to arrange furniture — расставить мебель, to arrange pupils in pairs — построить учеников парами to arrange tourists in five parties — разделить туристов на пять групп
Side by side – бок о бок. These buildings are arranged side by side.
Along – вдоль. The buildings are arranged along the river.
Range – ассортимент, The museum has a range of works of art.
Display - …
Ancient – древний. Ancient Egypt.
Both – оба. We are both teachers. Both of us often talk to the girls. She is both clever and beautiful. He is both rich and nice.
Diverse – разнообразный. The collection of this museum is diverse.
Can – мочь, to be able to – физически иметь возможность. He can skate. I am able to go to the cinema. My friend can play volleyball. I am able to walk 50 kilometres.
If + Present Simple, Future Simple. If the weather is good, we will go to the country – Если будет хорошая погода, мы поедем за город. If I study well, I will get only good marks. If she goes to Paris, she will be happy. If they have time, they will go to the cinema.
WINTER PALACEThe Winter Palace was the main residence of the Russian Tsars. It is located on the bank of the Neva River. This Baroque-style palace is maybe St. Petersburg’s most impressive attraction. Many visitors also know it as the main building of the Hermitage Museum. The green-and-white three-storey palace is a marvel of Baroque architecture and has 1,786 doors, 1,945 windows and 1,057 richly decorated halls and rooms, many of which are open to the public.
The Winter Palace was built between 1754 and 1762 for Empress Elizabeth, the daughter of Peter the Great. Unfortunately, Elizabeth died before the palace was finished and only Catherine the Great was able to enjoy the interiors of Elizabeth’s home. Many of the palace’s impressive interiors have been remodeled since then, particularly after 1837, when a huge fire destroyed most of the building. Today the Winter Palace, together with four more buildings arranged side by side along the river, houses the collections of the Hermitage. The Hermitage Museum is the largest art gallery in Russia and is one of the largest art museums in the world.
The museum was founded in 1764 when Catherine the Great bought a collection of 255 pictured from Berlin. Today, the Hermitage has over 2.7 million exhibits and displays a range of works of art from all over the world and of all historical periods (from Ancient Egypt to the early 20th century Europe). The collection is both big and diverse. The experts say that if you spend a minute looking at each exhibit in the Hermitage, you will need 11 years to see them all.
Переведите на английский язык: плавание, пение, бег, чтение, строительство, письмо. Какой частью речи являются эти слова?
To be afraid (of)– бояться. To be afraid to + infinitive, to be afraid of + gerund, noun.
I am afraid to go there. I am afraid of spiders. I am afraid of swimming. What are you afraid of?
Я боюсь собак. Я боюсь плавать. Я боюсь его. Я боюсь быстро бегать.
Assassin – убивать. Assassinate - ?, assassination - ?, assassinator - ?.
North, West, East, South. in the south — на…, to the south — к … He lives in the South. They live in a small town to the North of Saint-Petersburg.
To be surrounded by – быть окружённым чем-либо.The cathedral is surrounded by 4 churches.
To dig – dug – dug – копать, рыть. To dig for gold. To dig the garden.
Inscription – надпись, посвящение.
Depict – изображать. The artist depicted him walking in the garden. They depicted the situation to us. He was depicted as a stupid man.
To graduate from – заканчивать вуз, амер. – заканчивать любое учебное заведение. My daughter did so well in her studies that she graduated from high school at the age of 16.
Nowadays=теперь, в наши дни.
Branch – ветка, a branch of the tree, branch office of BMW - ?
Victory – победа. A victory over an enemy. Cheap victory, bloodless victory - ?
None – никто, ни один. None of these newspapers was published more often than two times a week.
Such – такой. He is such a bad boy! She was such a nice girl!
Member – член (организации). active member, life member, member of Parliament, member of sentence.
Open the brackets. Put the verbs into the Past Indefinite Passive.
The soup (to eat) yesterday afternoon. 2. This beautiful building (to build) two centuries ago. 3. These flowers (to plant) three weeks ago.4. He (to invite) to the birthday party last Tuesday. 5. This exercise (to do) at the last Russian lesson. 6. The meat salad (to make) half an hour ago. 7. Moscow (to found) in 1147 by Yuri Dolgoruky.
27. Put the verbs into the Past Indefinite Passive. Ask questions.
When this building (to build)? 2. How your problem (to solve) yesterday? 3. Why the tickets (not to bring) last Monday? 4. Where the carpet (to hang) in your room two years ago? 5. Why Clem (to laugh) at? 6. With whom Liz (to invite) to the New Year party last year? 7. Why the telegram (to send) yesterday evening?
MIHKAILOVSKY CASTLE The Mikhailovsky Castle was built in 1797-1801. Paul I was afraid of intrigues and assassinations. He didn't like the Winter Palace where he could never feel safe. The Mikhailovsky Castle was built to the south of the Summer Garden. Paul I wanted to build a castle where he could hide from his enemies. The castle is surrounded by the Moika River, the Fontanka River and two canals, which were specially dug.
The Mikhailovsky Castle was designed by architects Vincenzo Brenna and Vasily Bajenov. The castle looks different from each side, as the architects used the motifs of various architectural styles.
In 1800 a gracious bronze monument to Peter the Great was placed in front of the castle. There is an inscription on the pedestal: "From Great Grandson to Great Grandfather". The pedestal is decorated with bas-reliefs depicting scenes of two Russian victories over Sweden during the Northern War.
Emperor Paul I spent only 40 nights in the castle. On the 12th of March 1801 he was murdered in his own bedroom by a group of officers. After the death of the Emperor none of the members of the royal family wanted to live in such a house. In 1819 the castle was given to the Main Engineering School. The castle got its second name - the Engineers' Castle. Fyodor Dostoevsky, a famous Russian writer, graduated from this school.
Nowadays the Mikhailovsky Castle is a branch of the Russian Museum and houses several exhibitions. The core of gallery is formed by the official portraits of Russian monarchs starting with Peter the Great and ending with Nicolas II, and members of royal family and Russian generals. The portraits were made by outstanding Russian and foreign artists.
Why is the cathedral called Savior-on-the-blood? Who was the architect of the cathedral?
Is there a building similar to this cathedral in Russia?
Переведите на английский язык: Большой – самый большой, трудный – самый трудный, высокий – самый высокий, красивый – самый красивый, длинный – самый длинный.
Which is (large): the United States or Canada? What is the name of the (big) port in the United States? Moscow is (largest) city in Russia. The London underground is (old) in the world. St. Petersburg is one of (largest) cities in the world. The rivers in America are (bigger) than those in England. The island of Great Britain is (small) than Greenland. What is the name of the (high) mountain in Asia? Russia is a very (large) country. This man is (tall) than that one. Asia is (large) than Australia. The Volga is (short) than Mississippi. Which building is (high) in Moscow? Mary is a (good) student than Lucy. This garden is (beautiful) in our town. She speaks Italian (good) than English. Is the word “newspaper” (long) than the word “book”? The Thames is (short) than the Volga. Spanish is (easy) than German. January is (cold) month of the year. This girl is (good) student in our group. Which is (beautiful) place in this part of the country? Which is (hot) month of the year? My sister speaks English (bad) than I do. This book is (interesting) of all I have read this year. It is as (cold) today as it was yesterday. Today the weather is (colder) than it was yesterday. A bus is (fast) than a tram. The (tall) trees in the world grow in California. My sister is (tall) girl in her class. He was (fat) man in the village.
To commemorate – напоминать, to commemorate the memory of somebody.
Liberator – освободитель, спаситель. (liberty – свобода)
Contest – соревнование, to win the contest, to take part in the contest.
To have a lot in common with – быть очень похожим на. This town has a lot in common with Moscow.
Value – ценность, Of great value - … Total – общий, total sum, total war.
Marble – мрамор. Desert – пустыня, precious – драгоценный, semiprecious - …, semi desert - …
Jasper – яшма Socle – подножие. Dedicate – посвящать. He dedicated the poem to his wife.
Event – событие. Coat of arms – герб. Smalt – смальта.
Adorn with=decorate with Scaffolding – леса. Railing – ограда.
One of the most beautiful cathedrals of Saint Petersburg, the Savior-on-the-Blood, was erected on the place where Russian Emperor Alexander II was murdered on the 1st of March, 1881. The next day the Municipal Duma decided to construct the cathedral to commemorate the tsar-liberator.
Soon the architectural contest was declared. It was won by architect Alfred Parland.
The cathedral was constructed in the style of the 16th-17th century Russian architecture and has a lot in common with the Church of St. Basil the Blessed that stands on the Red Square in Moscow.
The rich mosaics that cover the walls of the cathedral both inside and outside are of great value. The mosaic panels were made in Frolov's workshop by outstanding Russian artists, including Vasnetsov, Nesterov, Riabushkin and others. The total area of the mosaic is 7,050 square meters.
In the decor of interiors Italian marbles and Russian semiprecious stones, such as jasper, topaz, rock crystal and others are used. On the socle of the cathedral, there are 20 granite desks, dedicated to the major events and reforms of the ruling of Alexander II, and on the belfry there are coats of arms of all the regions and provinces of Russia. The height of the tallest dome is 81 meters. The domes are gilt and covered with colourful enamel and the one over the altar is adorned with golden smalt.
The cathedral was greatly damaged under the Soviets. It was closed after the revolution of 1917 and was used as a storehouse. In 1970 the restoration works that lasted for almost 30 years were started. It was difficult to explain and people say that if the scaffolding had stood, the Soviet power would last. It is strange but the scaffolding was taken away in 1991.
The Cathedral of Our Savior on the Spilled Blood is separated from the Mikhailovsky Garden with the railing made in 1903-1907 on the Binclers' manufactory after Parland's sketches. This railing is a recognizable symbol of Saint Petersburg.
Какое грамматическое явление очень часто встречается в данном тексте? В каких временах оно использовано? Укажите все предложения, где оно использовано.
What’s the Russian for General Staff Building?
Where is it situated?
What architectural style does it represent?
Which of the two architectural styles do you prefer and why?
Упр. 356. Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на Participle I и Participle II.
1. a) A fish taken out of the water cannot live. B) A person taking a sun-bath must be very careful. C) Taking a dictionary, he began to translate the text. 2. a) A line seen through this crystal looks double. B) A teacher seeing a mistake in a student's dictation always corrects it. C) Seeing clouds of smoke over the house, the girl, cried: "Fire! Fire!" 3. a) The word said by the student was not correct. B) The man standing at the door of the train carriage and saying goodbye to his friends is a well-known musician. C) Standing at the window, she was waving her hand. 4.a) A letter sent from St. Petersburg today will be in Moscow tomorrow. B) He saw some people in the post-office sending telegrams. c) When sending the telegram she forgot to write her name.
Упр. 357. Выберите из скобок требующуюся форму причастия.
1. a) The girl (writing, written) on the blackboard is our best pupil. b) Everything (writing, written) here is quite right. 2. a) The house (surrounding, surrounded) by tall trees is very beautiful, b) The wall (surrounding, surrounded) the house was very high. 3.a) Who is that boy (doing, done) his homework at that table? b) The exercises (doing, done) by the pupils were easy. 4.a) The girl (washing, washed) the floor is my sister. b)The floor (washing, washed) by Helen looked very clean.
To help – helpful, skill – умение, skillful - ? He is a skillful builder. He is a very skillful artist.
Chariot – колесница.
By means - с помощью. You can talk to her by means of the telephone. By no means - ?
Majestic – величественный. This building is really majestic.
Outline, layout – контур, форма, очертание.
Boundary – граница, to draw, fix, set boundary, to redraw a boundary, to form a boundary, common boundary.
Semicircular – полукруглый. The piece of cheese was semicircular.
Tier – уровень, ярус
General Staff Building
Apart from the General Staff, the building used to house the Foreign Office and the Ministry of Finance. After the revolution the right half of the building was assigned to the General Staff Academy, the left half - to the Hermitage museum. The whole complex was constructed in 1820-1827 to a design by Carlo Rossi.
In the south Palace Square is bound by a grand building, erected to house the General Staff and two ministries those of foreign affairs and finance.
The building consists of two parts of great length united into a single whole by monumental arches thrown over Bolshaya Morskaya Street. One of them is spreading over the exit to the square, while the other one lends the final stroke to the whole ensemble on the side of Nevsky Prospect.
Rossi managed to make use of the curved outline of the southern boundary of the square. The two buildings opposite the Winter Palace enlarge the space in front of its facade by their semicircular layout. The architect’s skill is manifested in the manner he was combining the classical forms of the new building with the lavish decoration of the Winter Palace. He achieved this by dividing the General Staff facade into two tiers, similar to the Winter Palace; the lower one, at the same time, serves as a socle for Corinthian columns.
It was not easy to arrange the facade of the longest building in contemporary Europe (about 600 m) in such a simple and expressive way. Rossi skillfully solved the task accentuating the central part by means of a majestic arch, that was a monument to the Patriotic War of 1812. The arch is decorated with imitations of Russian armor and flying Glories, and topped with Victory driving a six-horse chariot. The sculptural details of the arch and the chariot are chased from sheet copper to the models by the sculptors S. Pimenov and V.Demuth-Malinovsky.
On the first floor of the left wing some interiors have remained to a designs by Rossi. Among them are the Blue Hall and the home church illuminated by overhead lights.
Where is St. Isaac’s cathedral situated? Who was the architect of this cathedral? Was he born in Saint-Petersburg? Where was he from? Do you know any other cathedrals in our city?
Construction – строительство. The new skyscraper is under construction. Строение. A number of other constructions were discovered.
Dome – купол. Colonnade – колоннада. Millennium – тысячелетие, тысячелетняя годовщина. Interval – интервал, перерыв. Prayer – молитва.
Commission – поручать, делать заказ. I have commissioned him to do a sketch of the park for me.
Reconstruct – перестраивать. Complete – заканчивать.
Attempt – попытка. to make an attempt, first attempt. We made an attempt to talk to them.
Вспомните функции окончания ing:
Герундий (плавание, бег, ходьба, игра в футбол)
существительное или прилагательное (здание, интересный, обворожительный)
группа времен Continuous.
1. Open the brackets. Put the verbs into the Future Continuous or the Past Continuous.
It (to rain) the whole day yesterday. 2. Liz (to watch) the baby playing in the garden the whole morning yesterday. / Liz (to watch) the baby playing with toys at home from 4 till 6 tomorrow. 3. Mary (to help) me with Physics the whole evening yesterday. / Mary (to help) me with Maths the whole morning tomorrow. 4. The boys (not to make) a fire in the forest at 5 o'clock yesterday. / The boys (not to make) a fire in the forest when they arrive tomorrow evening. 5. Jerry (to fly) to Washington at this time yesterday? / Jerry (to fly) to Canada at this time tomorrow?
Open the brackets. Put the verbs into the Future - Continuous or the Present Continuous.
The children (to celebrate) Christmas at school right now. / The children (to celebrate) New Year at school at this time next Friday. 2. Mike (to go) to the Russian Museum with his friends at the moment. / Mike (to go) to the Hermitage with Helen at 7 o'clock tomorrow. 3. Janet (to feed) her pets in her room now. / Janet (to feed) her birds in the cage at this time tomorrow. 4. Bessy and her brother (not to train) for the game right now. / Bessy and her brother (not to train) for the game the whole morning tomorrow. 5. You (to take) a pill for toothache at the moment? / You (to take) mixture for cough at this time tomorrow morning?
ST. ISAAC'S CATHEDRAL
The history of St. Isaac Cathedral started with the construction of the small wooden church commissioned by Peter the Great. The church was built in 1710 close to the Admiralty on the place where nowadays the Bronze Horseman stands. After the death of Peter the Great some attempts to reconstruct the church and put up a cathedral were made but none of the constructions was completed.
In 1809, Alexander I declared the contest for the best project of the new cathedral. The winner was a young French architect August Montferrand who had come to Russia two years earlier. Montferrand offered 24 projects of the future cathedral in different styles. Alexander I approved the project of a five-domed cathedral in classic style.
The construction works were started in 1818 and lasted for almost 40 years. People joked that Montferrand was foretold that he would die upon completing the construction of the cathedral that's why he didn't hurry. But in fact soon after the beginning of the works several serous mistakes were found in the designs of Montferrand who was a talented drawer but lacked architectural and design experience. The works were stopped and a special committee was formed to correct the project.
The temple became the city's main cathedral.
St. Isaac's Cathedral is the forth largest domed cathedral in the world. St. Isaac's Cathedral, which is 101.5 meters high and has the area of 4 thousand square meters, can hold up to 12 thousand people. The interior is decorated with paintings, mosaic works and sculptures made by well-known Russian artists and sculptors, such as Bryullov, Klodt, Pimenov and others.
Under the Soviets St. Isaac cathedral housed an antireligious museum and the building got a status of an architectural monument. The cathedral wasn’t damaged during World War II.
Today St. Isaac's Cathedral is one of the best Russian cathedrals and one of the most popular museums in Saint Petersburg. The visitors are invited to climb the colonnade of the cathedral and enjoy the view of the center of Saint Petersburg from the 43-meter height. In 1988, when Russia was celebrating millennium of Christianity, the cathedral for the first time after a long interval was used for prayer.
Letter – буква, small letter, large letter. There are 36 letters in the Russian alphabet.
Work out – разрабатывать. The project was worked out by 5 architects.
Stone – камень. A house built of stone
Tower – башня. TV tower, water tower
5 meters high, 17 meters long.
Consist - состоять из ( of ) A cricket team consists of eleven players. The cake consisted of flour, butter, eggs and sugar.
Since – с тех пор She has stayed there since then. He has been healthy ever since. Since – после; после того, как... They have changed since then. She has got two jobs since she graduated from the university.
Example – образец. Some of these carpets are among the best examples of the period.
Naval – морской, флотский. Naval architect, naval forces, naval communications, naval law; naval science.
Compose – сочинять музыку.
Lay out – разбивать (сад). The garden was laid out in 1994.
Bust – бюст. There are busts of Russian writers in this garden.
Trident – трезубец. Neptune has a trident.
Hand – вручать, передавать. Hand me the newspaper, please. At tables food was handed by the servants.
In front of, above, opposite, behind, near…
Weather-vane – флюгер. The central part of the main building is topped with the tower that has the weather-vane in the form of a ship.
Top – вершина, шпиль, to top - …
The Admiralty shipyards were founded by Peter the Great on the left bank of the Neva River in 1704. The project was worked out by Emperor. The first Admiralty was a one-storey building arranged in the form of the Russian letter "П". Some years after in the center of this building the stone construction of the Admiralty colleges was erected. In the 1730s the building was rebuilt in stone. Architect Korobov who directed construction works didn't change the original design except for the tower that became 72 meters high.
At the beginning of the 19th century the Admiralty building again needed reconstruction. The works were directed by a talented architect A. Zakharov. He designed a construction (its main facade is 407 meters long) consisting of two H-shaped buildings. The central part of the main building is topped with the tower that has the weather-vane in the form of a ship on its top that has become the symbol of the city. The weather-vane, which we can see today, is the forth one, placed on the top of the Admiralty tower in 1886. It weights 65 kg and it's covered with 65 kg of gold, but still it turns around easily to indicate the wind direction.
The Admiralty building was richly decorated with sculptures made by outstanding Russain sculptors. The 22-meters high-relief represents Neptune who is handing Peter I the trident - the symbol of power over the sea. The sculptural decoration of the Admiralty tower also includes the Nymphs carrying the globe. The statues above the upper colonnade of the tower symbolize the four seasons of the year, four elements of nature, and four main winds.
In 1874, in front of the Admiralty building the Alexandrovsky garden was laid out. In 1883, the garden was decorated with the busts of Russian writers and poets Gogol, Jukovsky, Lermontov, composer Glinka and the Central Asia explorer Prjevalsky.
In the 19th-beginning of the 20th century the buildings of the Admiralty were given to administrative naval establishments. Since 1832 the Admiralty housed the Naval Architecture School that was later transformed into Saint Petersburg Naval Engineering Institute.
Now the Admiralty is the architectural and compositional center of Saint Petersburg, and one of the most beautiful examples of the early Russian Classicism.
According to – согласно. If all goes according to plan, the first concert will be Tuesday evening
Troops – войска.
To last – продолжаться. The programme lasted for 3 hours. The football match lasted for 4 hours. The opera lasted 4 2 hours.
To defeat – побеждать. Alexander defeated Swedish troops.
Smth was finished in 1995, in 5 years, by 1996.
Although (though) хотя. Though I love this girl very much, I will never marry her. Thought it’s late, I don’t want to go home. Though I want to read, I will go with you.
Mark – обозначать. (marker pen)
Consecration – освящение
Monkery – монашество
Resume – возобновлять, продолжать после перерыва. He stopped for a moment and then resumed speaking. The wars were stopped during The Olympic Games and resumed after they finished.
Holy – святой. The Holy trinity - ?
Remain – оставаться, to remain silent. Remains of somebody - ?
Abolish – отменить, упразднить. to abolish colonialism, the movement to abolish child labour
A crown – корона. The cathedral is crowned with something.
ALEXANDER NEVSKY LAVRA
One of the oldest architectural ensembles of Saint Petersburg, Alexander Nevsky Lavra, was founded in 1710 on the place where according to the legend Alexander Nevsky defeated Swedish troops.
The construction works lasted for almost a century and were finished only by 1790. During that period several talented architects changed one another. Among them were Trezini, Shvertfeger, Zemtzov, Pustoshkin, Korolev, Eropkin, Rastorguev, Starov. But although each of them introduced something new into the project they didn't change the main idea of Tresini who designed monastery as a complex of residences, institutions and palace constructions.
The compositional center of Lavra is the Holy Trinity Cathedral, constructed by architect Starov. The end of the construction works and the consecration of the cathedral in 1790 marked the end of the forming of the Alexander Nevsky Lavra ensemble. The monumental cathedral is crowned with a high dome and harmonizes well with the surrounding monastery buildings. Among the icons of the cathedral the one most honored is the icon of Saint Serafim Sarovsky.
In 1724 the remains of Saint Alexander Nevsky who had been canonized by the Orthodox Church as the Holy Patron of Russia were transferred to the monastery.
By the end of the 18th century the Alexander Nevsky monastery which name in 1797 was changed to the status of Lavra (Lavra is a name given to rich monasteries of the highest rank that have special privileges), became the spiritual and cultural center of Saint Petersburg. All Russian empresses and emperors protected and sponsored the Lavra. Already under Peter the Great on the territory of the monastery a hospital, a charity house for the poor, a printing house and the school for the children of priests were built. Later the school was transformed into the Theological Seminary and then into the Theological Academy. So the Alexander Nevsky Lavra became the educational center of the Saint Petersburg eparchy. There were only four monasteries of such a status in Russia before the Revolution, so it is easy to imagine the important role the Alexander Nevsky Lavra played in the life of Saint Petersburg and the country.
From the very beginning the Alexander Nevsky Lavra got the status of the most prestigious burial place in Imperial Russia. Commander Suvorov, prince Bezborodko, architects Quarenghi, Voronikhin, Rossi and others were buried there.
After the Revolution of 1917 the monastery was abolished and its churches were closed by the Soviet government. In 1936-1937 on the territory of the monastery the museum was created. It was called Leningrad Necropolis and in 1939 was transformed into the Museum of Urban Sculpture.
The Holy Trinity Cathedral was returned to Russian Orthodox Church only in 1956 and in 1987 the services were resumed in Nikolskaya Church. At the beginning of the 20th century there were about 12 churches on the territory of the Lavra. Nowadays there are only two of them that are open. The revival of monkery happened in autumn 1996 and today the Alexander Nevsky Lavra is a functioning monastery of Saint Petersburg eparchy.