Cultural Studies 1. Методические рекомендации по проведению работы с текстом Change the Way You Look At Things


Юнусова Юлия ШамильевнаГБОУ "Школа № 2095 "Покровский квартал", Москва2016
Cultural Studies
Методические рекомендации по проведению работы с текстом Change the Way You Look At ThingsTEXT. CHANGE THE WAY YOU LOOK AT THINGS
PRE-READING TALK
The famous saying “never judge a book by its cover” is ageless, however it is human nature to judge people by their image and we do it without realizing it. Can you say that the way you look means a lot in your relationship with friends? What is more important: the appearance of a person or his (her) character traits and inner beauty? Have you thought about advantages and disadvantages of your appearance?
Read the title and a quotation below the title and say how it helps predict its content. Is the story about academics or social life and relationships?
Read the title again “Change the Way You Look at Things”. What “things” do you think the author implies?
INTERACTIVE READING
Read the story at home and explain why two girls, Molly and Rosie, were so unhappy during their freshman year at high school? What important lesson of life did the girls learn in the end? After reading the story, do the test and other exercises that follow to enhance your comprehension and build your vocabulary.
While reading, you will come across a number of culturally marked. Most of them can be found in the Glossary at the end of the book. As for the culturally marked words in italics, so be sure to consult Internet resources, dictionaries or encyclopedias to find out what they mean.
CHANGE THE WAY YOU LOOK AT THINGS
If you change the way you look at things, the things you look at change.~Dr. Wayne Dyer
“Hey, Molly, c’mon to the girls’ room with me before class! I have to fix my hair.” Every day, my friend, Rosie, would haul me off to the bathroom before I’d barely closed my locker.
Freshman year is often traumatic. For me, the change was enormous: bigger classes, lockers, a revolving schedule, riding a bus instead of walking, lots of new people and activities, a much larger, maze-like building, and more competition. Also, as you can imagine, the 225 freshmen at my school had to adjust to a new social pecking order.
Our daily trip to the bathroom allowed Rosie and me to saunter past the corner where cool junior guys hung out. Once around the bend and out of sight, our maturity would vanish, and we’d scurry down the hallway dissolving into giggles.
Our destination was the quiet lavatory outside the bathroom. There we could fix our hair and make-up, and exchange gossip, minus the intimidating presence of upperclassmen.
Rosie and I had clicked from the first day of school. Students were arranged in homerooms alphabetically, and since she was an “H” and I was a “G,” we had adjacent seats. When schedules were compared, we discovered that we were in every class together.
Back in those unenlightened times, when no one worried about self-esteem, students were placed in academic groups based on entrance exam scores. Rosie and I were placed in “Group A”, which contained forty of the overall top scorers.
Social placement took a little longer, but by the end of October it was well established which girls made up the popular crowd. A discouraging number of them had older sisters who were cheerleaders. Worse still, many of them were also in Group A, so Rosie and I didn’t even have an academic advantage!
It seems every high school has that one perfect girl, the poster model of all-American good looks and charm. Our representative in the beauty contest of life was Linda, who seemed to have it all. Linda was a petite girl with perfect hair, a winning smile, sparkling personality, and straight As. She could have any guy in the school, but she never flaunted her popularity.
Rosie and I were clearly outside the “in-crowd”. Socially, we were second string. Although we had our fair share of talents, we were ordinary compared to the glittering upper tier. I was moderately happy with our comfortable spot in Trinity’s ranking system, but Rosie aspired to the heights of cheerleader and in-crowd member, and she was trying to drag me with her.
“Rosie, I can’t believe you,” I said. “Why aren’t you ever happy? You have gorgeous blue eyes, natural blond hair, you’re tall and slim, and have a great personality. Be thankful for what you have.”
“I’m too tall, that’s one problem,” she responded. “If you haven’t noticed, I tower over most of the freshman boys, including the center on the basketball team! And I don’t have freckles or a cute little nose like Linda Carr.”
In the beginning, I listened patiently to Rosie’s long rants about not having the long brown hair and sprinkling of freckles that Linda had. I tried to help Rosie appreciate her own assets. In the spirit of friendship, I went with her to cheerleader signups and struggled through three weeks of splits, jumps, and routines.
The day of try-outs was the first time I lost patience with my new friend. After being cut in the third round, Rosie was crying and wishing herself shorter, prettier, and more popular. At first I was able to commiserate with her; after all I’d only made it to the second round. Then I tried to soothe her, but nothing worked. Handing Rosie a pile of tissues, I decided to get tough.
“Listen, stop wishing your life away! Not making cheerleader isn’t the end of the world. You have a lot going for you, and there are plenty of girls who’d like to trade places with you the way you’d like to trade places with Linda.”
“Yeah, right.” Rosie looked down at me through tear-reddened eyes.
“I wasn’t going to say anything, but I know something about Linda that might change your opinion. This is just between us, okay?”
Rosie nodded.
“My mom grew up with Linda’s mother, and they ran into each other a few weeks ago. Mrs. Carr told Mom that Linda has to give herself injections every day. She has to watch her diet and exercise carefully because she has diabetes.”
“Wow. That’s serious.”
“Mrs. Carr says Linda never goes to sleepovers or on overnight field trips because she’s embarrassed about her condition. She doesn’t go to certain activities because her insulin has to be refrigerated. If she exercises too much, her blood sugar runs low. She can never eat candy and drink soda the way the rest of us do.”
“I thought she always drank diet soda just to stay thin.”
“Yeah, once you know the truth, it changes the way you see things, doesn’t it?” I asked, hoping Rosie had gotten something out of our conversation.
After absorbing the news, Rosie hugged and thanked me. We freshened up and spread some strawberry gloss on our lips before exiting the bathroom to cheer for a friend who was still in the competition.
Of course, at the end of the day, Linda was one of the ten girls who made the squad, but Rosie and I were among the crowd clapping for the lucky winners. Rosie turned to me smiling and said, “Hey, the majorettes and drill team are having sign-ups next week.”
In junior year, Rosie and I were still best buddies and the newly elected captain and co-captain of the drill team. Rosie was dating the 6’7” center of the basketball team, whom she later married. She’d finally come to terms with her own gifts and accomplishments.
Four years later, on a beautiful afternoon during our junior year in college, a friend from home came to my dorm with shocking news. Linda had died unexpectedly from an infection. Before Tom finished telling me, the phone rang. It was Rosie.
“As soon as I heard about Linda, I thought of you, Molly. I remembered that day at try-outs when I was so down about life.”
During my thirty-year teaching career, I’ve repeated the story of my classmates, Rosie and Linda. Its theme, “Be happy with yourself, and make the most of what you have,” is ageless.
Sometimes students ask, “Why did God take Linda who was so sweet and talented when she was still young?” One teen, wise beyond her years, said, “Maybe it’s the other way around; Maybe God was compensating for Linda’s short life by giving her all those gifts.”
~Molly Roe
[From Chicken Soup for the Soul: Teens Talk High School: 101 Stories of Life, Love, and Learning for Older Teens / Jack Canfield, Mark Victor Hansen, Amy Newmark, Madeline Clapps. Mode of access: http://www.chickensoup.com/book-story/29651/4-change-the-way-you-look-at-things]
WHILE-READING ACTIVITIES
Molly describes “the intimidating presence of upperclassmen”. Upperclassmen are students of the last two years at high school (11th and 12th grades). Decide if the statements are true (T) or false (F). Choose the right variant and colour the proper letter. Finally, you will learn the word that is used to describe 12th grade students.
The word is:
True False
Freshman year was carefree, without any problems and full of new events. j s
Rosie and Molly became friends immediately. e u
Rosie and Molly were in every class together as they were placed in the same group – Group A. n l
Rosie and Molly were outside the “in-crowd.” That’s why, both Molly and Rosie wanted to become the “in-crowd” members. m iLinda was a perfect girl with perfect hair, a winning smile, sparkling personality, and straight As who was constantly showing off. a o
Rosie believed that Linda never ate candy and drank soda just to stay fit and thin. r n
What is the word for 11th grade students? Find it in the text.
Choose the correct variant.
1. Freshman year is often traumatic because:
a) the students have to study hard in order not to drop out;
b) the students have to adjust to new academic changes and social regulations;
c) the students have to take part in more activities in order to succeed;
d) the students have to sit additional exams to be placed in academic groups.
2. Rosie and Molly were placed in the same academic group because:
a) the girls were of the same age group;
b) the placement in groups was arranged alphabetically;
c) the girls had similar entrance exam scores;
d) the placement in groups was arranged geographically.
3. Rosie was envious of Linda because:
a) Linda was popular and was showing off;
b) Linda was very smart and intelligent;
c) Linda was very wealthy;
d) Linda was a very appealing girl with straight As.
4. Molly went to cheerleader signups because
a) she wanted to be inside the “in-crowd”;
b) she tried to show that she can be best in extracurricular activity as well as in academics;
c) she wished to help her friend and support her;
d) her best friend insisted that she should do this.
5. Who told Molly about Linda’s health problem?
a) her friend Rosie;
b) Linda herself;
c) Linda’s mother;
d) her mother.
Provide English equivalents from the text for the following key words you will need to discuss the story. Then use these phrases to describe the situations that happened to the author and her friend.
- приспосабливаться, привыкать;
- сойтись, отлично ладить друг с другом;
- выставлять напоказ;
- иметь львиную долю чего-либо;
- ценить свои достоинства;
- сочувствовать.
Paraphrase the following phrases and expressions from the story. Provide Russian equivalents to the underlined words and phrases from the story. Then translate the whole sentence.
1. Also, as you can imagine, the 225 freshmen at my school had to adjust to a new social pecking order.
2. Our destination was the quiet lavatory outside the bathroom. There we could fix our hair and make-up, and exchange gossip, minus the intimidating presence of upperclassmen.
3. Our representative in the beauty contest of life was Linda, who seemed to have it all. Linda was a petite girl with perfect hair, a winning smile, sparkling personality, and straight As.
4. Rosie and I were clearly outside the “in-crowd.” Socially, we were second string. Although we had our fair share of talents, we were ordinary compared to the glittering upper tier.
5. In junior year, Rosie and I were still best buddies and the newly elected captain and co-captain of the drill team.
Match the columns to define the cultural lacunas on the left after you have done some search in the Internet
1. A locker a) in the US, a group of people, especially girls, who shout and dance to encourage the crowd to cheer at a sports event.
2. A homeroom b) a student who gets the best results in all examinations
3. Straight As c) a small, usually metal, chest, compartment, or closet that may be single- or two-tier, and has internal divisions or shelves to accommodate both hanging space for clothing and room for storing textbooks and valuables such as personal things while the student have classes at school or playing sports outside.
4. Cheerleaders d) a team of dancers that perform dance routines in unison. They usually belong to high schools or colleges and perform at games and other school related events. Some of the teams compete with other teams at competitions.
5. Majorettes e) a classroom in a school where a group of students of the same grade meet daily.
6. Drill team f) dancers, male or female doing dance or movement, primarily baton twirling associated with marching bands during parades.
ENHANCING COMPREHENSION
Look through the story and find the paragraphs that
– describe the social placement at high school and Rosie’s and Molly’s position in the structure;
– illustrate the moment when Molly couldn’t stand her friends complaints any longer.
Answer the questions
1. Was Molly convincing when she was trying to support her friend? What made Rosie change her opinion on her own personality and appearance?
2. “During my thirty-year teaching career, I’ve repeated the story of my classmates, Rosie and Linda. Its theme, “Be happy with yourself, and make the most of what you have,” is ageless”. Do you agree with this statement? What other pieces of advice can you give to those who have the same situation in high school?
3. If you were Molly and had a constantly complaining friend, what would you do to improve the situation? And what wouldn’t you do? Why?
Role Play
There are two situations that have happened to two friends. Read the information in your card, think about the solutions and your own actions if you had such a situation in your real life. Be ready to act out a short dialogue with your partner.
Situation 1. A Tricky Question
Card #1
Your friend and you go to sigh-ups in order to become a member of a cheerleader squad. To become a member of the squad is a lifetime dream for both of you. Unfortunately, only you have made the squad, but your friend is not chosen. You know, that the news will spoil your warm relationships. What would be your decision: to quarrel with your close friend but follow your dream OR leave the squad to save your relationship with your friend? Card #2
Your friend and you go to sigh-ups in order to become a member of a cheerleader squad. To become a member of the squad is a lifetime dream for both of you. Unfortunately, only your friend has made the squad, but you are not chosen. You are upset, but you understand that this is the dream of your close friend and you wish your friend all the best. Would you make your friend leave the squad OR would you insist that she should make the most of the possibilities that are awaiting her?
Situation 2. A Mocking Bird
Card #1
You are at a school dance party. You are Diana – a shy girl wearing simple clothing. You have a best friend, Kate. Other “popular” students wearing stylish jeans and casual shirts.
Situation: The students in the stylish clothes are dancing and laughing. You and enter and stand apart, watching the others.
Card #2
You are at a school dance party. You are Kate – Diana’s classmate who is modest and dressed in a casual way.
Situation: The students in the stylish clothes are dancing and laughing. Diana enters the party and stand apart, watching the others. One of the students, Kevin, shows his disrespect toward Diana because of her appearance. What would be your actions: will you support your classmate or will you join Kevin’s company?
Card #3
You are at a school dance party. You are Kevin, one of the popular students, stylishly dressed and looking really posh. You notice Diana and give her “the look,” which can include looking her up and down, rolling the eyes, slightly shaking the heads in disapproval, and so on.
CULTURE PERSPECTIVE
1. Freshman year is often traumatic, as Molly stated. One of the changes she illustrated was a “locker”. What can you say about this school item? Where is it usually located? What can be kept in the locker? How can a student use it during the day?
2. Comment on the use of the “homerooms” in high school. Why do American students need such kind of room? Do Russian student have homerooms at high school?
3. Most of the text devoted to the theme of organized social students’ activities such as cheerleading. There are two major types of cheerleading: spirit squads and competitive teams (drill teams). Besides, Molly and Rosie went to majorettes’ signups and tryouts. In what way do these activities differ from each other? Search the Internet and provide the classmates with additional information.
4. Linda couldn’t attend such extracurricular activities as sleepovers and overnight field trips. What do students usually do during these activities? What can be said about Russian students?
5. What do you know about “dorm”? Where is it situated: closer to campus than private housing or farther? Do both girls and boys usually live in the same dorm in the USA?
SUMMARIZING
Give a short account of the story from Rosie’s and from Linda’s viewpoint. Make it clear whether she was a success in high school and give the reason for your opinion.
LEADS TO DISCUSSION
1. When Molly described her freshman year, she mentioned that she had to “ride a bus instead of walking” in order to get to high school. What are the common ways of getting to high school in Russia? What else do the US students use instead of school buses to get to high school?
2. Comment on the USA system of grading A, B, C, D, E, F. Which Russian grades correspond to them? How do the two systems correspond?
3. The author writes “Rosie and I were placed in “Group A”, which contained forty of the overall top scorers”. Do the grades influence the placement of the high school students in the group in the USA and in Russia?
4. Comment on the problem of “social pecking order” and “in-crowd” students. Can this situation happen in our schools?
CULTURAL WEB
Having read and discussed the story, you can start filling out the Cultural Web with culturally marked words concerning school organization and management, learning and social life.
PROJECT WORK
There is a list of American films about cheerleaders. In groups, choose a film, watch it and find information about cheerleading, that is shown in a movie. Make a presentation and be ready to present it orally.
1) Bring It On: Fight To The Finish
http://www.online-life.cc/5757-dobeysya-uspeha-2000.html2) Fired Up
http://kinobanda.net/film/9558/3) Fab Five: The Texas Cheerleading Scandal
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HwwNNS0FRRwDO YOU KNOW THAT…cheerleading was started by a man? in 1898 Johnny Campbell, an undergraduate at the University of Minnesota, was the one who stood before the crowd at a football game and directed them in a famous and still used chant, “Rah, Rah, Rah! Sku-u-mar, Hoo-Rah! Hoo-Rah! Varsity! Varsity! Varsity, Minn-e-So-Tah!” 
several US presidents and politicians have been cheerleaders, such as:
George W. Bush – 43rd President of the United States was not only a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon, Skull and Bones, and the rugby team in college; he was also a cheerleader at Yale University (picture #1).
Dwight Eisenhower – 34th President of the United States, was enthusiastic about traditions and sports while in school at West Point. He was on the football team, participated in horseback riding, boxing, fencing, gymnastics, and of course cheerleading. When he was no longer able to play football at Army, he decided to continue supporting his team by cheerleading instead. One source says he was also on the squad at his Abilene, Kansas, high school.
Ronald Reagan – 40th President of the United States was a cheerleader at Eureka College in Illinois as well as a member of the football team and captain of the swim team (picture #2).

Глоссарий культурно-маркированных лексических единиц текста
CHEERLEADERS: in the US a group of people, especially girls, who shout and dance to encourage the crowd to cheer at a sports event. Cheerleading ranges from yelling to intense physical activity for sports team motivation, audience entertainment or competition based upon organized routines. The routines usually range anywhere from one to three minutes, which may contain many components of tumbling, dance, jumps, cheers, and stunting in order to direct spectators of events to cheer for sports teams at games or to participate in cheerleading competitions. The yellers, dancers, and athletes involved in cheerleading are called cheerleaders.
Cheerleading originated in the United States, and remains predominantly American, with an estimated 1.5 million participants in cheerleading. There are several types of cheerleading: spirit squads, competitive teams (sometimes called drill teams) and majorettes. Spirit squads are typically limited to cheering for sports teams. Competitive teams (drill teams) primarily focus on competing, although they also perform at athletic events and can function as spirit squads as well.
DRILL TEAM: a team of dancers that perform dance routines in unison. Drill teams usually belong to high schools or colleges and perform at games and other school related events. Some drill teams compete with other teams at competitions.
GRADING SYSTEM: form of five letter grades used in American academic grading system. Historically, the grades were A, B, C, D, and F, A being the highest and F, denoting failure, the lowest. In the mid-twentieth century, many American educational institutions, especially in the Midwest (particularly the state of Michigan) began to use the letters A, B, C, D, and E, the only difference being that failure is denoted by E instead of F, which is not used by these schools. The A–F/A–E quality index is typically quantified by correlation to a five-point numerical scale as follows:
A = 4.0
B = 3.0
C = 2.0
D = 1.0
E/F = 0.0
Like all prototypes, the A–F/E system admits many variations. These often take the form of plusses and minuses, thereby producing a scale having the possibility of fifteen distinct units: A+, A, A–, B+, B, B–. and so forth. In actual practice A+ is seldom used, the same is true for D+ and D– an F/ E+ and F/E– to denote degrees of a very low score or no score at all (F/E), thereby forming a scale of between eight to ten units. The grade A+ is used frequently to denote 100% in
American education. The minority of institutions that use it may quantify the grade as 4.3 or 4.5, but many of them quantify A+ as 4.0 on the theory that a 4.0 scale cannot go higher than 4.0. Though in Advanced Placement (AP) classes students receiving A or A+ are given higher grade than 4.0 and many times when a senior’s grades are averaged, it is found that they have achieved college credits already, before they have even begun their freshman year.
American high schools typically require a 1.0 grade point average to qualify to take a diploma. The industry standard for undergraduate institutions is a minimum of 2.0 average. Most graduate schools have required a 3.0 grade point average since 1975 (the transition began two decades earlier), but some schools still have 2.75 as their pass standard.
Letter Percentage Standing Notes
A* 80–100 Standard of Excellence *Final course grades in this range
are annotated with Honors Standing
in the Alberta Senior High School
Transcript
B 65–79 Acceptable Standard C 50–64 Acceptable Standard D** 40–49 **As of September 1986, final grades in this range are not awarded any credits toward Alberta Senior High School Diploma
F/ E*** 0–49 *** Failing grade with no credits
awarded toward Alberta Senior
High School Diploma
Reference: Языкова Н. В., Столярова И. Н., Луткова Е. С. USA Education Reader: High School and College Culture: Книга для чтения. – М. : МГПУ, 2012. – С. 160-161.
FIELD TRIPS: trips normally taken as part of the school program of one day or less in duration are considered Regular Field Trips. The district will not permit regular field trips which are not related to sound educational objectives. The teacher notifies parents in a timely manner of provisions relative to the approved regular field trip and takes a written permission from the parent/ guardian for each child participating in the trip.
Overnight field trips are considered extended field trips.  All requests for extended field trips must be organized by a teacher/supervisor using the special form and submitted for approval to the school principal a minimum of four weeks in advance of the scheduled field trip. The teacher notify parents in a timely manner of provisions relative to the approved extended field trip and takes a written permission from the parent/guardian for each child participating in the trip.
As a general rule, the per pupil cost of extended field trips is to be paid by a sponsor, individual parent/guardian, or by approved fund-raising.  Student participation in extended field trips shall be voluntary and students who do not participate shall not be disadvantaged in terms of credit, course requirements or grades. 
The selection and orientation of chaperones is the responsibility of the teacher/ supervisor who is in charge of the trip.  The use of chaperones contributes to the safety and well-being of all field trip participants; therefore, adequate supervision of students should be carefully planned. The teacher/supervisor is considered a chaperone.  The following chaperone-to-student ratios should be considered a minimum:
Elementary          -  one chaperone per 5 students;
Middle School     -  one chaperone per 7 students outside the district,
                            -  one chaperone per 12 students inside the district;
High School         -  one chaperone per 8 students outside the district,
                            -  one chaperone per 12 students inside the district;
Middle School and High School Vocal/Instrumental Performance and Competition:
one teacher or chaperone per bus for regular in- or out-of-district field trips,
one chaperone per 12 students for extended (overnight) in- or out-of district field trips.
The actual number of chaperones depends on the nature of the trip, the age and number of students, and whether or not the trip includes an overnight stay. Because chaperones must give their full attention to the students for whom they are responsible, only students enrolled in the class/activity can be allowed on field trips.
HOMEROOM: a classroom in a school where a group of students of the same grade meet daily with the same teacher before attending other classes to record that they are present, usually at the beginning of the day. In the US the students of high school of the same class do the compulsory subjects such as English, maths, science, history in the same classroom. However, a lot of subjects in high school are electives, that is why these classes are not fixed or set. Students from one group may sometimes meet only in this or that class and might scarcely know each other. The only place where they meet on a daily basis is a homeroom.
LOCKER: a small, usually metal, chest, compartment, or closet that may be single- or two-tier, and has internal divisions or shelves to accommodate both hanging space for clothing and room for storing textbooks and valuables such as personal things while the student have classes at school or playing sports outside. A locker is locked with a padlock or a built-in lock. Each user has his/her own key and cannot open other people's lockers. There is sometimes a master key used only by the manager which can open all of the lockers. Lockers are usually situated in the main corridor of the school in a row on both sides.
MAJORETTE: a dancer, male or female doing dance or movement, primarily baton twirling associated with marching bands during parades. Majorettes can also spin knives, fire knives, flags, light-up batons, and fire batons. They do illusions and flips, and sometimes twirl up to four batons at a time. Majorettes are often confused with cheerleaders; baton twirling is more closely related to rhythmic gymnastics rather than cheerleading.
SLEEPOVER: also known as a slumber party, is a party most commonly held by children or teenagers, where a guest or guests are invited to stay overnight at the home of a friend, sometimes to celebrate birthdays or other special events.
A lock-in is a similar event held in a setting other than a private home, such as a school or church. The sleepover is often called a “rite of passage” as a young child, or a teenager, begins to assert independence and to develop social connections outside the immediate family. Sleepover parties often consist of small group of close friends. Great sleepover invitations are usually sent out to all of the invited friends.
If it is a slumber party, teenagers may buy plain pillowcases and write the slumber party information on the pillowcase and decorate one side of the pillowcase with their name and bring it to the party. During the party everyone signs each other’s pillowcases on the back. Sometimes teenagers may make fun exchanging their T-shirts to remember the slumber party, organize funny talent show or fashion show.


Приложенные файлы

  • docx file12
    Юнусова Юлия Шамильевна
    Размер файла: 289 kB Загрузок: 0