Cultural Studies. The USA. The Red Scare

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The Red ScareЮнусова Юлия ШамильевнаГБОУ "Школа № 2095 "Покровский квартал", Москва2016Cultural Studies. The USA The Red ScareTime: shortly after the end of World War I: 1919The Red Scare: a nationwide fear of communists, socialists, anarchists, and other dissidents in the USA.  The nation was gripped in fear and jailed for expressing their views, Civil liberties were ignored Origin of the Red ScareOrigin: is in the nationalism of  WWI After the Bolshevic revolution in Russia, American authorities saw the threat of revolution in the actions of organized labour The Seattle Shipyard Strike of 1919January 21, 1919: 35,000 shipyard workers in Seattle went on strike seeking wage increasesFebruary 6, 1919: 60,000 total strikers paralyzed the city’s normal activitiesThe strikers were labeled as “Reds” who were trying to incite revolutionFebruary 10, 1919: orders were given to end the strike The Seattle Shipyard Strike of 1919In the press: strikes = “crimes against society”, “conspiracies against the government”, “plots to establish communism”May Day (May 1), 1919: riots were held throughout the country, in Boston, New York, and Cleveland The Boston Police StrikeThe American Federation of Labour (AFL) began granting charters to police unionsSeptember 9, 1919: the Boston Police  went on strike in order to achieve recognition for their union and improvements in wages and working conditions. The result of the strike: the policemen were fired the new hired officers received higher salaries, more vacation days and city-provided uniforms, just as the original strikers had sought The Steel Workers StrikeSeptember, 1919: 350,000 steelworkers who went on strike worked a 12-hour day, 7 days a week. Sometimes they had to work 24 hours straight, risking injury and death. Elbert Gary denied their simple demand: one day's rest out of the week. The steel companies: the strike = a radical outbreak and dangerous uprising. The steel owners made riots break up union meetings and employed police and soldiers to end the strike. Result: the steelworkers' union won none of its demands. The Coal StrikeTime: lasted for a month in the late autumn of 1919 threatened to paralyze a country The USA depended on coal to heat its homes and run its factoriesResult: won nothing and went back to the same working conditions The ResultsThe strikes of 1919 were portrayed as anti-American actions that threatened the US governmentThe issues of long hours and poor working conditions got lost in the shuffle Thank You For Your Attention!

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