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What is Christmas? Выполнила: Лялина Милена МАОУ СОШ №67 с УИОП г. Екатеринбург, 2016 учитель: Шадрина Н.Н. Christmas is a holiday which was established in memory of the birth in Bethlehem of Jesus Christ. Christmas is a public holiday more than in a hundred countries of the world. It is celebrated in Europe, Canada, the United States, New Zealand, Australia and other countries. Catholics celebrate it on December 25, and orthodox – on January 7. Why is the same holiday celebrated in different days?Actually, some confusion takes place here.As well as the Catholic church, the orthodox celebrates Christmas on December 25th.The difference is due to the Julian chronology. It makes the difference of 2 weeks. That is why in Russia Christmas is celebrated in January.. Christmas history For the first time Christians began to celebrate Christmas in the 4th century. However, there is still not given the answer to a question of when Jesus was born. And why is Christmas celebrated on December 25? In this respect there are several points of view. One of them goes that such a date was chosen for the reason that Easter and Epiphany (Christ's conception) were celebrated by Christians at the same time. 9 months after March 25 which turned out to be on December 25. How is Christmas celebrated? Christmas is a celebration of the birth of the savior Jesus Christ. Millions of believers around the world see this day in in temples where solemn services are held. In Russia, orthodox believers celebrate Christmas on the night of January 7, and in the countries of Europe and Americas where Catholicism prevails, it is celebrated on December 25 Christmas food in Russia In ancient Russia Christmas was preceded by a Great Lent. It was observed practically by all. Today this tradition dies away among most of the Russian people. In the villages on the eve of Christmas they still kill a pig to cook it in various ways. On Christmas Eve there is a special menu. They cook various salads for a festive dinner, and bake a goose or other meat. As the Lent is finished, the menu is rich, nourishing and various. Carols On Christmas night Russian children go to the neighbors singing Christmas carols. They also recite rhymes and poems to the hosts of the houses they go to and are treated in turn with sweets and various fun things. All friends, acquaintances and relatives visit each other for all night long and have fun. As custom goes, the table should be served with an even quantity of tableware, if not so, one excess tableware is placed on. Nowadays Nowadays people visit church Christmas services which go on all night long. Winter holidays in Russia begin with the celebration of New year. At this time all streets sparkle with fires of garlands, huge fir-trees are placed into the big squares. In each house they decorate with toys and candies artificial or natural Christmas trees. Everything flickers around and sparkles, filling the country with the spirit of a holiday. Christmas in England The biggest holiday for the British is Christmas. It is celebrated at dinner after the congratulatory speech of the queen. But before it all residents of England visit the temple. For Christmas they usually place the main Christmas tree of Great Britain into the Trafalgar Square of London. All country changes amazingly on this bright holiday. People decorate trees and houses with multi-colored tinsel and garlands. And on lawns they put big and small Santas. Almost every door is decorated with a Christmas wreath, and there are garlands in the windows. British children believe that if you write a wish and throw it into a fireplace, the smoke will inform Santa of it. They leave as a treat for Santa a piece of a meat pie and a glass of milk, and for his deer Rudolf – some carrots. Before going to bed all children say prayers and tell Christmas fairy tales and stories. In the morning children run to the bedroom of their parents to go together to a drawing room and to open the gifts left in the special stockings and embroidered socks on a fireplace.By the lunch time all close relatives and friends gather in the house to congratulate each other and to exchange gifts. After that all are seated at table for the celebration. The main course on this holiday is a turkey baked in an oven in a currant sauce. Christmas in Germany All Germans notwithstanding their age always look forward to Christmas holidays. The atmosphere starts permeating all the country since December 1. It is seen in the decoration of the shop windows, facades of the houses and trees in the streets, Christmas trees in the squares. The latter tradition is connected with an ancient popular belief that in green needles there lives a wood spirit. The tradition of many countries to decorate a Christmas tree for winter holidays came from Germany. Christmas trees are set on the balconies and near houses there. On Christmas Eve Germans go to church and after that sit down to have dinner with all the family. On every table there should be some porridge cooked with milk, oil and honey. The main course of a Christmas dinner in this country is the stuffed goose. The menu is very rich and contains not less than 9 various dishes. All shops and restaurants on this night are closed because Christmas is to be celebrated in a warm family circle in Germany.