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CELLintroduction DISCOVERY OF CELLSThe cell was first discovered by Robert Hooke in 1665. CELL THEORYThe cell is the fundamental unit of structure and function in living things. All cells come from pre-existing cells by division.Energy flow (metabolism and biochemistry) occurs within cells.Cells contain hereditary information (DNA) which is passed from cell to cell during cell division/. All cells are basically the same in chemical composition.All known living things are made up of cells. Some organisms are unicellular, i.e., made up of only one cell. Others are multicellular, composed of a number of cells.The activity of an organism depends on the total activity of independent cells. Two primary types of cells:Prokaryotic CellsThey have no true nucleus as the DNA is not contained within a membrane or separated from the rest of the cell, but is coiled up in a region of the cytoplasm called the nucleoid.Here belong:Bacteria Eukaryotic CellsEukaryotic cells are called so because they have a true nucleus. The nucleus, which houses DNA, is contained within a membrane and separated from other cellular structures. Here belong:Unicellular - Protists Multi-cellular - Fungi - Plants - Animals Example of a Prokaryotic Cell Elements of a Prokaryotic Cell :Capsule - Found in some bacterial cells, this additional outer covering protects the cell when it is engulfed by other organisms, assists in retaining moisture, and helps the cell adhere to surfaces and nutrients.Cell Wall - Outer covering of most cells that protects the bacterial cell and gives it shape.Cytoplasm - A gel-like substance composed mainly of water that also contains enzymes, salts, cell components, and various organic molecules.Cell Membrane or Plasma Membrane - Surrounds the cell's cytoplasm and regulates the flow of substances in and out of the cell.Pili - Hair-like structures on the surface of the cell that attach to other bacterial cells. Shorter pili called fimbriae help bacteria attach to surfaces.Flagella - Long, whip-like protrusion that aids in cellular locomotion.Ribosomes - Cell structures responsible for protein production.Plasmids - Gene carrying, circular DNA structures that are not involved in reproduction.Nucleiod Region - Area of the cytoplasm that contains the single bacterial DNA molecule. Example of a Eukaryotic Cell An Example of a Plant Cell An Example of an Animal Cell