Municipal budget educational institution
secondary school № 7, Tuimazymunicipal district Tuymazy district
Of The Republic Of Bashkortostan
The abbreviation as one of the expressive means of the language in written mass media
Performed by: Anna Sorokina 7 student class
Head: Timirkaeva N.P.
Teacher of English
Chapter I. Expressive means of abbreviations
I. 1. The term "abbreviation"…………………………………………………4
I. 2. The abbreviation as a way to attract attention………………………….5
Conclusions to Chapter I…………………………………………................6
Chapter II. The role of the abbreviations
II. 1. Influence of on-line of abbreviations on a standard language………..7
II. 2. Revealing of abbreviation’s understanding……………………………8
Conclusions to Chapter II…………………………………………………….9
Magazines, newspapers and all other sources of written mass media is one of the most popular ways of getting information about the current events. The text in articles is specific; it requires a concrete style of writing, includes a number of stylistic devices, abbreviations, grammatical patterns such as direct speech or free direct speech, idioms and others. All these devices are one of the branches of Lexicology (Linguistics). While dealing with stylistic devices or grammatical patterns they are more or less understandable for the reader. Though, when dealing with abbreviations not all the cases are easy to understand at once. Abbreviations can be used in different ways mostly for shortening long forms of the word or group of words. However, abbreviations can appear in the text as fixed proper or personal names of some organizations, or for members of some particular organizations. Abbreviations can follow the rules of their creation, although, the meaning of one and the same abbreviation can differ, depending on the language category where it is used.
Object of the research is the language in a press.
Subject of the research is the abbreviation in a press.
The purpose of this research is to explore what «abbreviation» means, what types of abbreviations appear and to state how their full forms differ in various language categories.
The goal of the research is to study the use of abbreviations in Russian and English newspapers.
The research is based on a hypothesis, which states: the abbreviation is that is highly used in newspaper style and articles.
The tasks of the research:
To study the theory;
To define what an «abbreviation» means;
Determine the types of abbreviations;
To find out the most common abbreviations used in political articles;
To provide the examples from the articles, full forms and meanings of the used abbreviations.The theoretical significance of the presented work is that the materials contribute to the development of the General theory of the abbreviations. It seems that the work is of interest to study a modern language picture of the world. The practical significance of the study lies in the possibility of using materials when we read Russian and English newspapers.
Chapter I. Expressive means
I. 1. The term "abbreviation"
Looking to abbreviation as a branch of Linguistics, the definition can be the following: «Abbreviation is a shortening of a word or phrase to be used to report the full form». [5, p. 83] Putting this definition into one word it is possible to define the abbreviation as a «reduction». However, returning back to definitions, the common explanation for the term «abbreviation», which can be found in any useful dictionary, looks like this: «Abbreviation is a shortened form of a word or phrase» [4, p.56]. To put it shorter abbreviation is a «reduced form».
There are different types of abbreviation:
The first type is called Shortenings. «Shortenings of the words or phrases usually consist of the first few letters of the full forms are spelt with capital letters». [5, p. 112] For example, MP (Members of the Parliament) (Appendix 1)
The second type of abbreviations is Contractions. «Contractions are abbreviated forms in which letters from the middle of the full form have been omitted». In other words, contractions are 'clippings' or 'cuttings', for example, Dr = doctor (Appendix 2).
The next type of abbreviations is called Initialisms or «semi-shortenings». «Initialisms are made up of the initial letters of the words and are pronounced as separate letters». For example, SIR or S.I.R. (Self Insured Retention). In addition, to this particular type of abbreviations are related world know reduced forms such as etc or (etc.) which means 'et cetera' in a full form, p or pp, which stands for 'page' or 'pages' in a full form interpretation. Initailisms as previous ones can be found not only in articles, but in any kind of literature.
Finally, the fourth type of abbreviations is known as Acronyms. «Acronyms are Initialisms that have become words in their own rights, or similar words formed from parts of several words. Acronyms are pronounced as several words rather than as a series of letters, and do not have periods. In many cases the Acronyms became the standard term and the full form is only used in explanatory contexts». [5, p.23] For example, UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization).
I. 2. The abbreviation as a way to attract attention
There is the tendency to increase in number of abbreviations in language of the modern press. However the review of the works devoted to research of specifics of journalese style is observed showed that questions of expressional use of abbreviations on pages of newspapers, and also their comparative analysis on material of various language groups didn't receive due lighting yet. [2, p.132]
Abbreviation is one of most characteristics of language of the modern press, uniting in itself the basic principles of journalese style: aspiration to the standard and an expression. On the one hand, high rate of the use of the reduced versions of words and phrases in language of the press indicates their belonging to the standard. On the other hand, it is possible to assume that these units don't may contain not some estimated and emotional characteristics, and it testifies that in them the tendency to an expression is realized. The expression is reached also by occasional or unusual interpretation of an abbreviation, rapprochement of an abbreviation with the usual word, reduction of proper names, education derivative of abbreviated names. Use of reductions as means of an expression can also be considered as a universal tendency of functioning of reductions. Thus, abbreviations, seeking for acquisition of the status of standard lexical units, somewhat change our idea of the standard, fixing in it specific expressional characteristics.
Conclusions to Chapter I
To sum up, the abbreviations mean reduction or reduced form of a word or phrase. There are four types of reduction known as Shortenings, Contractions, Initialisms and Acronyms. All these types are highly used and can be found in newspapers and magazines of different subjects.
Use of reductions as means of an expression can also be considered as a universal tendency of functioning of reductions. Thus, abbreviations, seeking for acquisition of the status of standard lexical units, somewhat change our idea of the standard, fixing in it specific expressional characteristics.
Chapter II. The role of the abbreviations in the press
II. 1. Influence of on-line of abbreviations on a standard language
Communication is a mixed reviews and average ratings of experts in the field of language, which, recognizing the inevitability of the new developments and Express concerns about the status of the national language. It is obvious that the language of formation cannot develop and exist in isolation. They influence and change the standard language, according to linguists, can lead to a total decline of literacy.
By analyzing the characteristics of chat language, full of abbreviations and truncations, we can distinguish its positive and negative sides. The definite pluses include the following properties:
1) the Transfer of more information in the minimum amount of time;
2) the Possibility of information transmission when the recipient is unavailable;
3) the Opportunity to learn how to briefly and clearly articulate their thoughts;
4) simultaneous transfer of information and emotions (can convey tone of oral speech);
5) revival of the tradition of correspondence. Among the negative characteristics are highlighted difficulty in understanding the content and disregard for the rules of grammar and spelling.
The language used in chat rooms to a greater extent popular among young people, adolescents use it partly because it gives them a sense of belonging to a certain social group. The use of this language for its users is analogous to the possession of a secret code, and some really invent its own dialect, understood only by members of a certain group. Not casually in many countries the language of virtual communication are so popular among teenagers - it really is still a difficulty in deciphering their parents. Possible cases such that, using the language of SMS-messages in chat that one of the communicants is wrong and writes, for example, "comptuer" instead of "computer". This error is picked up by visitors in the chat, like the spelling of a word becomes the standard on this chat, and those who write the word correctly not considered to be "own". Supporters of the language of chat emphasize its flexibility, no restrictions, regulations and norms when using it, allowing you to be creative and to invent new forms of words when writing, resulting in an enrichment of the language. At the same time, many believe that the diversity of grammatical and lexical forms in the language of French chat is useless, because their main goal is communication, and the use of complex expressions makes it difficult to understand.
II. 2. Revealing of abbreviation’s understanding
To solve the problems of abbreviation and its meaning there were 22 people involved.
We asked the following questions:
1. What is abbreviation?A) A reductionB) A definition of wordsC) I don’t know
2. How often do you use abbreviation in speech? A) Every dayB) SometimesC) Never
3. What English abbreviations do you know? (Give an example)4. Where can you see abbreviations?A) In a pressB) In official speechC) In leaflets
5. Do you use abbreviations in your life?A) YesB) NoC) Sometimes The result showed that people can understand the term clearly, but they don’t know the types of abbreviations and it took lots of time to remember any abbreviations that is used in newspapers etc. (Appendix 3)
Conclusions to Chapter II
Language cannot stay without changes while the society makes progress. One of the noticeable tendencies in modern language development is a tendency to reduction that has become widely spread.
Any language is rich in different kinds of abbreviations and people have got used to use them widely. Certainly it’s necessary to know abbreviations because among them there are important enough for job, travelling, business communication and so on.
Practically more than a half of people use this or that abbreviation doesn’t know how it was formed and what means so the aim of my research is to study meanings of widely used English abbreviations and the ways people use them.
It’s well-known that abbreviations are the most difficult for understanding and translation. Knowledge of basic laws of reduction and principles of formation essentially makes the easier.
Now abbreviations strongly were a part of any language. Especially visually it can be noticed in language of newspapers and magazines. The aim of our research was to study the use of abbreviations in Russian and English newspapers. We learn that there are lots of abbreviations in newspapers.
In chapter I we studied the term of abbreviation. The abbreviations mean reduction or reduced form of a word or phrase. There are four types of reduction known as Shortenings, Contractions, Initialisms and Acronyms. All these types are highly used and can be found in newspapers and magazines of different subjects.
In chapter II we studied the role of it and how people understand the abbreviation. We draw the conclusion that people may understand the meaning of abbreviation, but they do not know how to expand them. It’s well-known that abbreviations are the most difficult for understanding and translation. Knowledge of basic laws of reduction and principles of formation essentially makes the easier.
The practical output of this work is the brochure with the abbreviations and its interpretation. (Appendix 4)
Adams V. Introduction into English Word-Formation / V. Adams. - Lnd., 2014. - 200 p.
Ginzburg R.S. A Course in Modern English Lexicology. - М.: Высш. школа, 2012. - 269 с.
Maurer D.W., High F.C. New Words - Where do they come from and where do they go. American Speech.,2010. -171 p.
Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary. 2005
World English Dictionary. 2009
Abbreviation- (from Latin brevis, meaning short) is a shortened form of a word or phrase. It consists of a group of letters taken from the word or phrase. For example, the word abbreviation can itself be represented by the abbreviation abbr.,abbrv. or abbrev.
Adolescent- relating to or peculiar to or suggestive of an adolescent.
Interpretation- an explanation of something that is not immediately obvious.
Journalese- n. the linguistic style in which newspapers are written.
Lexical item (or lexical unit, lexical entry) - a single word, a part of a word, or a chain of words (=catena) that forms the basic elements of a language's lexicon (≈vocabulary).
Linguistics- the scientific study of language. There are three aspects to this study: language form, language meaning, and language in context. The earliest activities in the description of language have been attributed to Panini, who was an early student of linguistics (fl. 4th century BCE), with his analysis of Sanskrit in Ashtadhyayi.
Recipient-noun [countable] formal someone who receives something.Reduction- a historical process of weakening, shortening or disappearance of vowel sounds in unstressed positions.
Tendency- trend, drift, tenor can mean a movement or course having a particular direction and character or the direction and character which such a movement or course takes. Tendency usually implies an inherent or acquired inclination in a person.
Versatile- having great diversity or variety.
FCO (First Commonwealth Fund, Inc);
OMG (Operation Market-Garden);
CEO (Chief Executive Officer).
St = Saint/Street; Zoo = Zoological garden; taxi = taxicab.