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Cardiovascularsystem The cardiovascular system includes heart blood vessels lymphatic vessels The heart lies in the chest immediately behind the breastbone. The heart consists of two chambers, left and right, separated from each other by a wall. Each chamber is divided into upper compartment (atrium) and lower compartment (ventricle). Valves the tricuspid vaive –between the right atrium and the right ventricle the mitral valve – between the left atrium and the left ventricle semilunar valves –between ventricles and arteries RV LV RA LA aorta To prevent blood flowing the wrong way. The function of the valves The circulation The heart works as a pump. It circulates blood throughout the body. The circulation occurs with the help of arteries and veins. Blood vessels Arteries vessels carrying blood away from the heart Veins vessels returning blood to the heart thin-walled vessels Capillaries СО₂ О₂ СО₂ О₂ The right ventricle Pulmonary artery Capillaries of lungs pulmonary veins The left atrium The small blood circle The left ventricle Aorta Arteries Capillaries of organs The superior vena cava and the interior vena cava The right atrium The large blood circle Lymphatic vessels Blood Trasportation (the nutrients, oxygen are carried by the blood stream and cellular wastes are carried away by the blood stream). 2. Regulation (supply the constant inner state and temperature of the body). 3. Protection (provide the immunity and the blood clotting). Functions Blood is a liquid tissue containing plasma and microscopical cellular elements. PLASMA vessel Leucocytes Erythrocytes Thrombocytes (platelets) 45% 55% Erythrocytes Hemoglobin is an important protein which helps in carrying the oxygen and carrying away carbon dioxide. Erythrocytes are red blood cells made in the bone marrow. They are important in transporting oxygen. hemoglobin erythrocyte 4.5 – 5 million in each cubic millimeter Leucocytes white blood cells From 4,000 to 10,000 per cubic millimeter 8-10 mkm monocyte lymphocyte eosinophil basophil neutrophil leukopenia leukocytosis The cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body. Thrombocytes or platelets formed in the bone marrow These cells are necessary for blood clotting. 400,000 per cubic millimeter 2-5 mkm