Министерство профессионального образования, подготовки и расстановки кадров РС(Я)
АУ РС(Я) Якутский колледж связи и энергетики им. П.И.Дудкина
по предмету АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК
РЕСПУБЛИКА САХА (ЯКУТИЯ)
преподаватель Васильева В.М.
Geography.The Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) is situated in the north-east of Asia.
It occupies about one quarter (1/4) of the total area of the Russian Federation.
It's area is 3,103,200 square kilometers ( about 3 mln. sq. km.).
Over 40% of the territory lies within the Artie Circle.
The capital of the Republic is Yakutsk.
The climate in Yakutia is markedly continental: seasonal temperature variations exceed 100 degrees (from 60 degrees below zero during the winter to 40 degrees above zero during the summer).
The town of Verkhoyansk is called the Pole of Cold with the lowest registrated temperature 68 degrees below zero.
The Republic of Sakha is a land of mountains and plateaus.
The largest mountain ranges are the Verhoyansky, the Chersky and the Stanovoy ranges.
The highest point in Yakutia is Mount Pobeda (3,147 m.) situated within the Chersky range.
The Republic is known as a treasure-house of minerals.
Yakutia is located in permafrost area.
During the summer season the top layer of soil may thaw to the depth of 0.4-3.5 meters, while the ground below remains permanently frozen.
The Republic's territory is covered with taiga, forest tundra, and arctic desert. There is diverse fauna and flora here.
Make up a vocabulary on the text.
Make up a plan of the text (key words).
Speak about Yakutia using your plan.
History and Political System.The formation of the people of Sakha dates back to the 13th century.
The invasion of Genghis Khan Hordes entailed a major migration of the peoples.
Some of the tribes moved to the North.
In the 17th century Russian adventures met the people of Sakha on the Lena
In 1632 Russian Cossacks established a fort on the right bank of the Lena.
Later Yakutsk - a capital of our Republic was built here.
On April 27, 1922 Yakutia became the autonomous republic.
In 70 years the Constitution of the sovereign Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) with the president government within the unified Russian state came into force.
On September 27, 1990 the Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) was signed.
The Republic's first president, Mikhail Nikolaev, was elected on December 20, 1991.
In January 2002, V. Shtyrov became a president of Yakutia.
Now the president of the republic is Egor Borisov.
According to the Republic's Constitution, the Republic of Sakha is a sovereign, democratic, law-governed state within the Russian Federation, but it has its own government and parliament.
Legislative power resides in one chamber of Legislative Assembly (II Tumen) of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).
Executive power resides with the Cabinet of Ministers which consists of 16 ministries.
Judicial power is represented by the system of courts.
Draw a scheme "Political System of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)".
Fill in the chronological table “History of Yakutia”.
13th century State Symbols. Text A.The republic covers 1,188,339 sq. miles. Its total population is 1,070,100. Siberia of Siberia, that is how Yakutia is called foг its severe and extreme climate and resources. Practically all the chemical elements in the Periodical table of Mendeleyev can be found in its bowels.
The state emblem of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) is a circle, which has a picture of the ancient rider from rock carvings from the banks of the Lena river in the centre against the background of a shield in the form of the solar disc decorated with the traditional national ornament of seven diamond-shaped figures and an inscription «The Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)». The sun is of silver colour, the rider — of dark-red colour, and the decoration — of dark-blue colour, the ornament and the inscription are of white colour.
The national banner of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)is a rectangle with the following proportions: hoist (width) of the flag, 1; fly (length) of the flag, 2. The flag has 4 horizontal stripes of different widths arranged from the top to the bottom in the following way; a blue stripe, a white stripe, a red stripe and a green stripe with the proportions: width of a blue stripe is 3/4, width of a white stripe is 1 /16, width of a red stripe is 1/16, width of a green stripe is 1/8. 1n the centre of the blue stripe is the white circle, the proportion of the diameter of the circle to the width of the flag is 2/5. The centre of the circle is in the point of intersection of the diagonal lines on the blue stripe.
Describe the state emblem of our republic (5 sentences).
Describe the national banner of the Sakha Republic (5 sentences).
State Emblem of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia)
National Flag of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).
State Symbols. Text B.According tо the Соnstitution of the Saкha Republic, which officially confirms it as a democratic legal state, the republic has its own state symbols: a flag, an emblem, and an anthem. The description of the republic's state emblem and national flag is written in Article 140 of the Sakha Republic Constitution of 1992.
The state emblem was adopted by the Supreme Soviet of the Republic (forerunner of II Tumen) on December 26th, 1992, The stale emblem of the republic is a circle with a picture of a rider on a horse from an old Lena River rock carving in the centre. The ancient carving comes from the republic's Sakha forebears, who were horsemen and cattle breeders. More than a thousand years ago, they portrayed their history and culture in a series of rock carvings.
'The national flag of the Sakha Republic was raised over the State Assembly building in 1992. It is a rectangle with, from top to bottom, four horizontal blue, white, red and green stripes. In the centre of the blue stripe is a white circle. The colours reflect the geographic and climatic characteristics as well as the historical and cultural traditions, of the republic. The white circle in the blue stripe represents the white sun in the Arctic sky. This is a symbol of continuity through the generations and is an expression of respect to ancestors: the Sakha are thought to be the people of the ”white sun”. The white stripe below, in combination with the white circle on the blue background, expresses the simple beauty of the north and the purity of its people. The red stripe is a symbol of vital energy. It is also a symbol of the beauty of the motherland and the faithfulness of her people to her. The green stripe represents the short, hot summer and the expanses of the taiga, where the colour green predominates, it is a symbol of fertility and renewal
The combination of white, red and green has always been typical of Sakha applied art. The combination of blue, white and red corresponds to the colours of the Russian Federation State Flag and shows that the Sakha Republic is a part of the federation.
The Sakha Republic law On State Symbols of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia), of July 15th, 2004 adopted the national anthem. It was first performed on September 27th 2004 at a meeting devoted to the Sakha Republic Independence Day in Yakutsk. The lyrics are by Sakha poets Savva Тагаsov and Mikhail Timоfeyev and the music is by Кirill Gerasimov.
Answer the questions:
What are the colours of the national flag of the Sakha Republic?
What do they symbolize?
What does a white circle on the blue background stand for?
What is in the centre of the state emblem of the republic?
What does the flag in the hands of the horseman symbolize?
What do seven diamonds on the emblem stand for?
Population and Administrative Division. Text A.The territory of our republic is very large, but its population is small.The population of Yakutia is about l mln people.Two-thirds (2/3) of Yakuts live in towns and worker townships.One-third (1/3) lives in villages.Central Yakutia is the most densely inhabited region.About 25% of the population live in the capital of the republic - Yakutsk.Population density in Yakutia is very low: 35 people per 100 square kilometers
on average, but in the north - one person per 100 sq km.
The population of Yakutia is relatively young: the average age is 33.
The Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) is a multinational one.
People of over 130 nationalities live there.
The Sakha make up half the population.
The Russians constitute 33.4 % of the whole population.
Seven native nationalities of Yakutia are the Sakha, Russians, Events, Evenks, Chukchas, Yukhagirs, Dolgans.
The two official languages are Yakut and Russian.
For several years share of migrants in the total population growth reached 70%.
Now the situation has changed radically.
The republic is experiencing emigration.
Yakutia consists of 35 districts, which are called "uluuses".
The largest cities are Yakutsk and Neryungry.
Within Yakutia there are 13 towns and many villages.
population - население
worker townships - рабочие районы
density - плотность
to inhabit - жить, обитать
on average - в среднем
relatively - относительно
to make up - составлять
to constitute - составлять
share – часть, доля
growth – рост, прирост
to experience – испытывать
Speak about the population of our republic using these worlds as a plan.
3. two thirds
4. оne third
5. the most densely in habited
7. 35… per 100…, 1… per 100…
8. the average age
10. 110 nationalities
11. half the population
Population and Administrative Division. Text B.In this huge republic of Yakutia, the resident population is 949,280 according to the 2002 census. Approximately one fifth of the population lives in the capital city of Yakutsk and the surrounding district. The second most populated city is Neryungry.
The distribution of population is extremely uneven. Central Yakutia is the most densely populated region, while the population density in most other regions is very low, on average 35 people per 100 square km, although in the north it is even lower.
The most ancient ethnic group is the Yukhagir people. Sometime between the ninth and eleventh centuries, the Tingus-Manchu tribes, the ancestors of the contemporary Evens and Evenks, came to Yakutia from the Amur region. Later on, in the 13th and 14th centuries, nomadic Turkic tribes of cattle breeders settled in the area. These were the ancestors of the Sakha (Yakuts).
In the 17th century the Russian Cossacks, traders, peasants and craftsmen came to Yakutia. Sentry fortresses, settlements and later some towns were built, the land was cultivated and arable farming was developed. The Russian system of administration affected the development of the indigenous people. One of the main results of this influence was the removal of barriers between the people of the north-east of Siberia, who had lived for centuries in isolation, and those of Russia.
The 1807 Census estimates suggest that the population of Yakutia was multinational, speaking forty-six languages including Sakha (Yakut), Tatar, Bashkir, Chuvash, Jewish, Turkmen and Uzbek.
By the end of the 20th century, the population of Yakutia was extremely ethnically diverse, with more than 110 ethnic groups. Among them, the Sakha (Yakuts), Russians and Ukrainians are the most numerous, while the rest are considered to be ethnic minorities, including the indigenous peoples of the north: the Evens, the Evenks and the Yukhagirs.
There are more than thirty ethnic associations and unions in the republic that are represented in the Assembly of the Peoples of Yakutia. The associations and unions include the Congress of the Sakha, the Russian Community, the Association of the Northern Minority Peoples, the Ukrainian Cultural Association “Krinitsa”, the Buryat association 'Baikal', the Union of Armenians, the Moldavian Association, the Finnish Cultural Community, the Kazakh Community 'Ana Zer, the Tataro-Bashkir Community 'Yaktas', the Korean Community, the Lithuanian Community 'Gintaras', the Polish Public Association Toionia', and others. All of the associations aim at the preservation of culture, as well as inter-ethnic and cross-cultural cooperation.
Read the text using the dictionary. Say what it is about.
Natural Resources.Yakutia is rich in natural resources: minerals, land, forestry, water resources, flora and fauna.
The Republic of Sakha has almost all elements of the Mendeleyev’s table.
Diamonds are mined in western Yakutia(Mirny, Udachny, and Aikhal).
Concentrates of tin, gold, platinum, silver, rare metals are exported from the Republic abroad.
Rich gold-fields are located in the South, North and East of the Republic.
Over half the territory of Yakutia has oil and gas potential.
Of great industrial interest are the deposits of coal.
Yakutia is one of the most important regions of Russian in terms of forestry and timber reserves.
Land under forests takes up 73 % of the total area of the Republic.
The Republic has over 7,000 rivers (total length – 1.5 mln km).
The largest of them is the Lena (4,400 km) – one of the ten longest rivers in the world.
The republic has over 7,000 lakes.
Yakutia has rich flora and fauna.
35 species of medicinal herb grow here.
It is well-known that northern flora contains high levels of bio-active substances.
Cultivation of medicinal plants is planned as a new branch of agriculture.
The Republic of Sakha has the largest hunting grounds in Russia.
The Republic is the largest fur producer in Russia.
Yakutia is famous for its sables, arctic foxes, squirrels, ermines, elks, wolfs, brown bears, etc.
A unique breed of horse – Yakutian horse has been brought into Siberia and Far East of Russia to improve local breeds.
Study the economic map of Yakutia.
Answer the questions.
1. What natural resources is Yakutia rich in?
2. What minerals are mined in our republic?
3. What territory does the land under forests take up?
4. How many rivers and lakes are there in Yakutia?
5. What furbearing animals inhabit the territory of Yakutia?
6. What industries are developed in Yakutia?
7. What are the main branches of agriculture in the republic?
Look for the names of minerals found in Yakutia (12).
Nature and ecological problems of our region.The Nyurba district is a part of the Vilyuisky region, it is situated on the Vilyui and Markha rivers. There are a lot of other small rivers here as well. Many kinds of valuable fish are found in these rivers. The lands here are dotted with dozens of lakes, which are still rich in fish. There is a crucian here, it is known to be very nourishing.
Some twenty or thirty years ago the forests of our region were full of sables, foxes, squirrels and other fur-bearing animals. Now it is different. Since diamonds were discovered on the tributaries of Markha in 1954 the ecological situation in the region has been changed. Settlements, roads, quarries, mining factories were built in the taiga and animals disappeared, there are very few of them left here.
Diamond mining factories of Mirny are letting different wastes flow into the rivers. These wastes are poisons, they kill fish, birds, animals, and people as well. The mining industry needed more energy and in 1970-es a hydroelectric power station was built on the Vilyui river. Many thousands of square kilometres of the taiga were drowned under the waters of the Vilyuisky reservoir. And now the air, the water and land of Vilyuisky region are poisoned.
Besides that more than 10 thermonuclear explosions have been carried out in this region. Now the Vilyui Region is declared to be a zone of ecological calamity.
Many people all over the world realize that the Earth is our home, and we must take care of it. Each of us must do everything possible to keep soil, air and water clean. We must not throw tins and paper into water, pick up flowers in the forests and fields, do any harm to our "lesser brothers" - animals, must be careful with the fire in the forest.
The Government of оur Republic must take some measures to protect environment, it must carry out the pollution control of rivers, lakes and air of Yakutia.
Read the text using the dictionary.
Do you agree that ecological situation in Yakutia is dangerous? Why?
The educational system in our republic.
Nowadays children more than ever need teacher support, knowledge, truth and goodness. The educational system in our republic соnsists of three main components: secondary, technical secondary and higher.
At the age of 6 or 7 (it depends on types of schools) children enter school and until they reach 9 they have more or less the same sort of education at primary school.
Primary education means three or four years of study. At primary school children study following subjects: Reading, Writing, Arithmetics, Nature Study, Arts, Music and foreign languages. Every year children take examinations.
In senior forms pupils study a lot of subject including new ones: Management, Yakut National Culture, Russian National Culture, Accountancy, languages and others. A great number of new school appear nowadays — schools of integrate development of a person, commercial colleges, centers of aesthetic education, the Yakut national gymnasium, the centre of youth's education, the school of individual education for children-invalides, the private school for girls and others. Not so long ago great hopes were connected with the school reform, but it fell short of our expectations, because there are still a lot of problems in school education.
But it would be unfair to state that school reform didn't give anything. The creative activity of pedagogical groups increased.
After nine years of study pupils take their exams and the majority of children enter special schools. Young people can master such trades as fitter, plumber, painter, plasterer, hairdresser and barber, seamstress, cook, medical nurse and many others.
Some pupils prefer technical secondary schools, which train communications engineers, mechanizers, agronomists, accountants, river transport workers and seamen.
The rest of the children continue their study at school. In the eleventh form they take the finals and after leaving school they enter Yakut State University, which has a lot of faculties: the Faculty of Foreign Languages, the Philological Faculty, the Faculty of History and Law, the Technical Faculty and some others. Students get scholarship according to their study. They graduate from the University and get higher education.
So we come to the conclusion that the most important task today is to create such system of education in our republic which could promote the development of abilities of children.
integrated development -всестороннее развитие
to fall short of one’s expectations- не оправдать чьи-либо надежды
to master - овладеть
fitter – закройщик
plumber - водопроводчик
plasterer - штукатур
barber - парикмахер (мужской)
seamstress - портниха
medical nurse - медсестра
finals - выпускные экзамены
to get scholarship - получать стипендию
to graduate (from) - оканчивать
to promote - поддерживать
Answer the questions
1. What components does the educational system of our republic consist of?
2. Where can pupils enter after the ninth form?
3. What professions can students master in special schools, technical secondary schools?
5. What should people do if they want to have higher education?
Yakut traditions, customs and ceremonies.Yakut cooking, clothing and housing traditions are very rich, they :meet the requirements of natural and climatic conditions of the region. The Yakut national dishes are mostly prepared from milk, meat and fish. They are highly appreciated
not only for their taste but nourishing qualities as well.
The Yakut national clothes are mostly made of leather and furs, they can protect one from the cold very well.
Household articles made of wood and birch bark are usually decorated with carving. Besides wood, fossil ivory, gold, silver, bronze, nickel and other materials are used by Yakut masters. They work on diamonds and other gems too.
Yhyakh is the most popular traditional holiday of the Yakut people. This event is a real festival of music, dance, poetry and sports. Once a year, at the beginning of the last ten-day period in June all people come together to dance, sing, drink kymys and compete in national sport events.
In the ancient times yhyakh was a celebration of a Yakut New Year holiday. Rich families used to organize yhyakh, so it was a kind of charity as well. The preparations for the holiday began much earlier, when the main symbol of yhyakh — kymys was being prepared.
Then the place had to be chosen and decorated. People gathered at night just before the sunrise, and at about 4 o'clock the opening ceremony began. The most important performer there was the white Shaman. He blessed his people and asked the Gods to be kind and generous to the people. And then a kymys ceremony followed.
For 2 or 3 days people went on singing, dancing, competing in sports and improvisation. They enjoyed their favourite holiday.
Nowadays this grand holiday tradition is being restored. Yakutsk citizens remember yhyakh of Jyohogoi held in the summer of 1991. It was a great success. The festival lasted for two days and thousands of people took part in it.
Answer the questions
1. What are Yakut cooking, clothing and housing traditions like?
2. What kind of Yakut national dishes do you know? What dishes did you taste?
3. What are Yakut national clothes made of?
4. What materials do Yakut masters use in their work?
5. What kind of holiday is yhyakh?
6. When is yhyakh held?
7. What do people do during the holiday?
5. Why is the white Shaman the most important performer in the opening ceremony?
TOC \o "1-3" \h \z \u Geography. PAGEREF _Toc339573964 \h 2History and Political System. PAGEREF _Toc339573965 \h 3State Symbols. Text A. PAGEREF _Toc339573966 \h 5State Symbols. Text B. PAGEREF _Toc339573967 \h 7Population and Administrative Division. Text A. PAGEREF _Toc339573968 \h 9Population and Administrative Division. Text B. PAGEREF _Toc339573969 \h 11Natural Resources. PAGEREF _Toc339573970 \h 14Nature and ecological problems of our region. PAGEREF _Toc339573971 \h 17The educational system in our republic. PAGEREF _Toc339573972 \h 18Yakut traditions, customs and ceremonies. PAGEREF _Toc339573973 \h 20