Хеавы мачинеры2


Бюджетное учреждение профессионального образования
Ханты-Мансийского автономного округа-Югры
«Нижневартовский строительный колледж»
УТВЕРЖДЕНО
Педагогическим советом
БУ «Нижневартовский строительный колледж»
от _____________2015 года,
протокол №______
УТВЕРЖДАЮ
Директор БУ «Нижневартовскийстроительный колледж»
________________А.А. Десятов
Приказ №____от «_____» 2015 г
ТЕКСТЫ ДЛЯ ЧТЕНИЯ
НА АНГЛИЙСКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ
"Heavy machinery"
для обучающихся по специальности
«Строительство и эксплуатация автомобильных дорог и аэродромов»
«Техническая эксплуатация подъемно-транспортных, строительных, дорожных машин и оборудования»
3,4 курсов
Рассмотрено МК ______________
_____________________________
Протокол № ___ от ____________
Согласовано МС_______________
Протокол № _____от ___________
Нижневартовск
2015
Сборник текстов предназначен для обучающихся 3,4 курсов по специальности «Техническая эксплуатация подъемно-транспортных, строительных, дорожных машин и оборудования» и «Строительство и эксплуатация автомобильных дорог и аэродромов». Тексты рассчитаны на развитие навыков работы со словарем, техники перевода специальной литературы.
Материалы для учебного перевода взяты из современной английской и американской научной литературы.
Составитель: Троян О.В. преподаватель английского языка

"Heavy machinery"
Contents
1 History
1.1 From horses, through steam, to diesel
2 Types
2.1 Images
3 Implements and Hydromechanical Work Tools
4 Traction: Off-the-road tires and Tracks
5 Structure
6 Powertrain
7 Control and Information
8 Heavy equipment operator
9 Models
10 Notable Manufacturers
11 References
History
JCB 3CX backhoe loader A wheeled bulldozer in an open pit coal mine
 
A portable engine; a precursor to modern engineering vehicles
An early gasoline-powered tractor
The use of heavy equipment has a long history; the ancient Roman engineer Vitruvius (1st century BCE) gave descriptions of heavy equipment and cranes in ancient Rome in his treatise De architectura. The pile driver was invented around 1500. The first tunnelling shield was patented by Isambard Kingdom Brunel in 1818.
From horses, through steam, to diesel
Until the 19th century and into the early 20th century heavy machines were drawn under human or animal power. With the advent of portable steam-powered engines the drawn machine precursors were reconfigured with the new engines, such as the combine harvester. The design of a core tractor evolved around the new steam power source into a new machine core traction engine, that can be configured as the steam tractor and the steamroller. During the 20th century, internal-combustion engines became the major power source of heavy equipment. Kerosene, ethanol and engines were used, but today diesel engines are dominant. Mechanical transmission was in many cases replaced by hydraulic machinery. The early 20th century also saw new electric-powered machines such as the forklift. Caterpillar Inc. is a present-day brand from these days, starting out as the Holt Manufacturing Company. The first mass-produced heavy machine was the Fordson tractor in 1917.
The first commercial continuous track vehicle was the Lombard Steam Log Hauler from 1901. Tracks became extensively used for tanks during World War I, and after the war they became commonplace for civilian machinery such as the bulldozer. The largest engineering vehicles, and the largest mobile land machines altogether, are bucket-wheel excavators, built from the 1920s.
"Until almost the twentieth century, one simple tool constituted the primary earthmoving machine: the hand shovel - moved with animal and human powered, sleds, barges, and wagons. This tool was the principal method by which material was either sidecast or elevated to load a conveyance, usually a wheelbarrow, or a cart or wagon drawn by a draft animal. In antiquity, an equivalent of the hand shovel or hoe and head basket—and masses of men—were used to move earth to build civil works. Builders have long used the inclined plane, levers, and pulleys to place solid building materials, but these labor-saving devices did not lend themselves to earthmoving, which required digging, raising, moving, and placing loose materials. The two elements required for mechanized earthmoving, then as now, were an independent power source and off-road mobility, neither of which could be provided by the technology of that time."[2]
Container cranes were used from the 1950s and onwards, and made containerization possible.
Nowadays such is the importance of this machinery, some transport companies have developed specific equipment to transport heavy construction equipment to and from sites.
Types
These subdivisions, in this order, are the standard heavy equipment categorization. Some contractors place numbers on the side of their equipment corresponding to the category - Grader '02' - followed by a sequential number that usually corresponds to the number it was purchased, for example, 02-112, is the 112th grader a company has purchased since their founding. This allows for easy recognition of the equipment type and the relevant age.
Track-type
Agricultural tractors
Air-track
Bulldozer
SnowcatTrack skidder
Track-type tractors (Bulldozer)
Tractor
Military engineering vehicles
Grader
Grader
SkidSteerSkid steer loader
Excavator
Compact excavator
Dragline excavator
Dredging
Excavator (wheel)
Excavator (bagger, digger)
Slurry wall excavator
Front shovel
ReclaimerSteam shovel
Suction excavatorTrencher (machine)
Yarder
Backhoe
Backhoe loader, Backhoe
Timber
Feller buncherHarvester
Skidder
Track harvesterWheel forwarder
Wheel skidder
Pipe Layer
Pipe layer
Scraper
Fresno scraper
Scraper
Wheel tractor-scraper
Mining
Construction & mining tractor
Construction & mining trucks
Articulated
Articulated hauler
Articulated truck
Water wagon
Compactor
Wheel dozers – soil compactors
Soil stabilizer
Loader
Loader
Skip loader (skippy)
Wheel loader (front loader, integrated tool carrier)
Track Loader
Track loader
Material Handler
Aerial work platform / Lift tableBoomtruckCherry picker
Crane
Forklift
Knuckleboom loader (trailer mount) &Knuckleboom loader (trailer mount)
Reach stacker
Telescopic handlers
Paving
Asphalt paver
Asphalt plant
Cold planer
Concrete batch plant
Cure rig
PaverPneumatic tire compactor
Roller (road roller or roller compactor)
Slip form paver
Vibratory compactor, Compactor
Stomper: concrete drop hammer
Underground
RoadheaderTunnel boring machine
Underground mining equipment
Hydromatic Tool
Ballast tamper
Attachments
Drilling machine
Pile driver
Rotary tiller (rototiller, rotovator)
Venturi-mixer
Highway
Dump truck
Highway 10 yard rear dump
Highway bottom dump (stiff), pup (belly train), triple
Highway end dump and side dump
Highway transfer, Transfer train
Highway transit-mixer
Lowboy (trailer)
Street sweeper
Images
The Caterpillar D10N bulldozer evolved from tracked-type tractors and is characterized by a steel blade attached to the front that is used to push other equipment and construction materials, such as, earth.
Normally the bucket is pulled toward the excavator to excavate material. The uncommon "thumb" attachment on this Caterpillar enables 'grabbing' objects, for example, during demolition.
The wheel trencher MARAIS  SMC 200 R.
Iron bar reinforced foundation piles are driven with a drilling machine, concrete pump, mixer-truck, and a specialized auger that allows pumping concrete through its axis while withdrawn.
Wheel loader
Grader (plowing snow here)
Landfill compactor (tamping tip)
A wheeled front loader tractor equipped with a large bucket elevated by hydraulic rams.
Reconditioned Caterpillar 825G Soil Compactor
Folded conveyor on a tracked grinder
Military engineering vehicles
The militarized Caterpillar D9 armored bulldozer allows for earthmoving projects in a combat environment. In the picture: IDF Caterpillar D9R.
The militarized  backhoe loader in Poland which is subsidiary of  Liu Gong China
 
Military scraper
Pi Pz Dachs armoured engineering vehicle of the German Army (2008)
Implements and Hydro mechanical Work Tools
auger
backhoe
bale spear
broom
bulldozer blade
clam shell bucket
cold plane
demolition shears
equipment bucket
excavator bucket
forks[disambiguation needed]
grapple
hydraulic hammer, hoe ram
hydraulics
hydraulic tilting bucket (4-in-1)
landscape tiller
material handling arm
mechanical pulverizer, crusher
multi processorpavement removal bucket
pile driver
power take-off (PTO)
quick coupler
rake
ripper
rotating grab
sheep's foot compactor
skeleton bucket
snow blower
stump grinder
stump shear
thumb
tiltrotatortrencher
vibratory plate compactor
wheel saw
Traction: Off-the-road tires and Tracks
Heavy equipment requires specialized tires for various construction applications. While many types of equipment have continuous tracks applicable to more severe service requirements, tires are used where greater speed or mobility is required. An understanding of what equipment will be used for during the life of the tires is required for proper selection. Tire selection can have a significant impact on production and unit cost. There are three types of off-the-road tires, transport for earthmoving machines, work for slow moving earth moving machines, and load and carry for transporting as well as digging. Off-highway tires have six categories of service C compactor, E earthmover, G grader, Lloader, LS log-skidder and ML mining and logging. Within these service categories are various tread types designed for use on hard-packed surface, soft surface and rock. Tires are a large expense on any construction project, careful consideration should be given to prevent excessive wear or damage.
Structure
"This system connects components, transmits loads, provides attachment points for implements, and allows the machine to travel over uneven ground. The machine’s frame, articulation, and steering for wheeled equipment are the major parts of this system."[1]
Powertrain
internal combustion engine
transmission
steering (tracked equipment)
brakes
Control and Information
"The control and information systems. These systems enable the operator to direct and control all the other systems and provide information to guide operations or to monitor the performance and health of the equipment."[1]
Heavy equipment operator
A heavy equipment operator drives and operates heavy equipment used in engineering and construction projects.[3][4] Typically only skilled workers may operate heavy equipment, and there is specialized training for learning to use heavy equipment.
Much publication about heavy equipment operators focuses on improving safety for such workers. The field of occupational medicine researches and makes recommendations about safety for these and other workers in safety-sensitive positions.
Models
Die-cast metal promotional scale models of heavy equipment are often produced for each vehicle to give to prospective customers. These are typically in 1:50 scale. The popular manufacturers of these models are Conrad and NZG in Germany, even for US vehicles.
Notable Manufacturers
The largest manufacturers based on 2011 revenue data as published by KHL Group:[7]
1. Caterpillar Inc. 2. Komatsu  3. Volvo Construction Equipment  4. Hitachi- Hitachi, Ltd.  5.  HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liebherr_Group" \o "Liebherr Group" Liebherr Group 6. SANY Group Company Ltd.  7.  HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zoomlion" \o "Zoomlion" Zoomlion  8. Terex  9. Doosan Infra core (formerly Daewoo Heavy Industries & Machinery) - including Solar brand 10. Deere & Company  11. XCMGOther manufacturers include:
Atlas Copco
Bharat Earth Movers Limited (India)
Bobcat Company
CASE
Chelyabinsk Tractor Plant
CNH Global
DemagDoosan Group
Fiat-Allis
Hyundai Heavy Industries
Ingersoll Rand
JCB
Kubota
KobelcoLiu Gong
Madill
MARAIS
Navistar International Corporation
NCK
New Holland
Track Marshall
Orenstein and Koppel GmbH (O&K)
Paccar
PoclainRototiltShantuiST Kinetics
Takeuchi Manufacturing
Wacker NeusonhidromekReferences
C. B. Tatum et al., J. Constr. Engrg. and Mgmt. 132, 987 (2006)
William R. Haycraft "History of Construction Equipment" Journal of Construction Engineering and Management / Volume 137 / Issue 10, Accepted 14 February 2011; published online 15 September 2011 http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000374
U.S. Department of Labor - Occupational Outlook Handbook
V. J. Davies, Ken Tomasin (1996). Construction Safety Handbook. Thomas Telford. ISBN 0-7277-2519-X.
Peurifoy & Schexnayder "Construction Planning Equipment, and Methods" McGraw Hill 6th edition ISBN 0-07-232176-8, 2002.
Bartholomew, S.H. “Estimating and Bidding for Heavy Construction” CSU Chico, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-13-598327-4, 2000
"Forklift manufacturers lead Yellow Table Top 50". KHL Group.

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