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House SparrowВыполнил Сергеев Антонученик 8 «Б»ГБОУ СОШ №1912Г.Москва
The House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) is a bird of the sparrow family Passeridae, found in most parts of the world. A small bird, it has a typical length of 16 cm (6.3 in) and a weight of 24–39.5 g (0.85–1.39 oz). Females and young birds are coloured pale brown and grey, and males have brighter black, white, and brown markings. One of about 25 species in the genus Passer, the House Sparrow occurs naturally in most of Europe, the Mediterranean region, and much of Asia. Its intentional or accidental introductions to many regions, including parts of Australia, Africa, and the Americas, make it the most widely distributed wild bird. DescriptionThe House Sparrow is a compact bird, typically about 16 cm (6.3 in) long, ranging from 14–18 cm (5.5–7.1 in). It has a large rounded head, and a stout bill with a culmen length of 1.1 to 1.5 cm (0.43 to 0.59 in). It has a short tail, 5.2 to 6.5 cm (2.0 to 2.6 in) long. The wing chord is 6.7 to 8.9 cm (2.6 to 3.5 in), and the tarsus is 1.6 to 2.5 cm (0.63 to 0.98 in). In weight, the House Sparrow ranges from 24–39.5 g (0.85–1.39 oz). Weight varies by sex, with females usually smaller than males. PlumageThe plumage of the House Sparrow is mostly different shades of grey and brown. The sexes differ: the female is mostly buff, and the male has bolder markings and a reddish back. The male has a dark grey crown from the top of its bill to its back, and chestnut brown on the sides of its head. It has black around its bill, on its throat, and on the spaces between its bill and eyes (lores). FeedingAs an adult, the House Sparrow mostly feeds on the seeds of grains and weeds, but it is opportunistic and adaptable, and eats whatever foods are available. It can perform complex and unusual tasks to obtain food, such as opening automatic doors to enter supermarkets, clinging to hotel walls to watch vacationers on their balconies, and nectar robbing kowhai flowers. In common with many other birds, the House Sparrow requires grit to digest the hard seeds it eats. Grit can be either stone, often grains of masonry, or the shells of eggs or snails; oblong and rough grains are preferred. NestingNest sites are varied, though cavities are preferred. Nests are most frequently built in the eaves and other crevices of houses. Holes in cliffs and banks, or in tree hollows are also used. It sometimes excavates its own nests in sandy banks or rotten branches, but more frequently uses the nests of other birds such as those of swallows in banks and cliffs, and old tree cavity nests. It usually uses deserted nests, though sometimes it usurps active ones. Tree hollows are more commonly used in North America than in Europe,[putting the sparrows in competition with bluebirds and other North American cavity nesters, and thereby contributing to their population declines. PredationThe House Sparrow's main predators are cats and birds of prey, but many other animals prey on them, including corvids, squirrels, and even humans, as the House Sparrow has been consumed by humans in many parts of the world, and still is in parts of the Mediterranean. Most species of bird of prey have been recorded preying on the House Sparrow in places where there are extensive records. Accipiters and the Merlin in particular are major predators, though cats are likely to have a greater impact on House Sparrow populations. The House Sparrow is also a common victim of roadkill; on European roads, it is the bird most frequently found dead. The End