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проектная работа по страноведениюHow the Nation Was Formed Объект исследования: процесс обучения предмету «Особенности культуры и истории стран изучаемого языка», предмет: использование ТСО при обучении предмету «Особенности культуры и истории стран изучаемого языка».Актуальность данной работы обусловлена тем, что ТСО редко используется на лекционных занятиях, однако является эффективным средством иллюстрирования подаваемого материала.Цель исследования: развитие социокультурной компетенции.Задачи исследования: систематизирование знаний студентов истории США, увеличение количества и качества фоновых знаний, расширение словарного запаса учащихся.Гипотеза исследования: мы полагаем, что использование ТСО на лекциях повышает эффективность обучения и усвоения материала.Методы исследования: анализ литературы по вопросу, наблюдение, беседа. How the nation was formed I. Pre-colonization period.The first people appeared from 25 to 40,000 years ago.In 16th century there were about 276 Indian tribes and 4 million people.Native Americans:the Apache(s) [q’ pxCI(z)] (апачи)the Hopi [’hqVpI] (хопи)the Navaho [’nxvqhqV] (навахо)the Sioux [su:z] (сиу)& others American tribes The Navaho: Navaho man, Medicine man, the Navaho mask American tribes The Sioux: Sioux warrior, Sioux medicine man. Indian Art II. European colonization. The Vikings - the 1st Europeans to come to North America 500 years before Columbus. 2 holidays:Leif Ericsson’s (Eriksson)’s Day (October, 9) (Лейф Эриксон, Лейф Счастливый) – the Viking who is considered to be the 1st discoverer of the New World.2. Columbus Day (October, 12) – discovered America in 1492. The Pilgrim Fathers (the Pilgrims) were among the 1st settlers. Arrived at Plymouth, Massachusetts, in 1620 on board the ship Mayflower.‘Mayflower Americans’ («мейфлаурские американцы») is the term used to describe the descendants of the Pilgrims. Mayflower Americans are considered to be the most respectable families, a kind of American aristocracy. By the 1730s there were 13 British coloniesalong the Eastern coast of North America. Thelast colony to be established was Georgia.WASP [wosp] – White Anglo-Saxon Protestant (белый протестант англосаксонского происхождения). A WASP is a representative of the ethnic & social group whoconsiders himself to be a ‘Native American’, bcs. his ancestorswere among the first Europeans to settle on the US territory in the17-18th centuries.It is this group, which most of the US business, finance &political elite [e`li:t, `’li:t] belong to. III. Afro-Americans Negroes were brought to the USA from WesternAfrica between the 17th and 19th centuries.From 1619 – 1808 some 500,000 slaves were brought from Africa. The Civil War in the 1860s (1861-1865) between the North (the Union) & the South (the Confederacy [kqn’fed/qsI] ended slavery in the South & established equal rights for black Americans. The Thirteenth Amendment to the US constitution abolished slavery in the USA.The Fifteenth Amendment gave the blacks the right to vote.Jim Crow laws [k/qV] – segregation laws. (Jim Crow – is a nickname for blacks. Jim Crow – an adjective, derog. Unfairly disadvantageous to blacks, for blacks only and usually of poor quality: Jim Crow schools). For a long time segregation was practiced in the South. It is the policy of separating certain groups from the rest of the Community. In the USA, the policy of segregation, esp. in the southern states, denied African Americans their rights and forced them to use separate schools, restaurants, hotels, cinemas, churches, seats on buses from those used by white people. The Ku Klux Klan [` kH - ` kləks- ` klan ] (KKK [,ke` ke` ‘ke`]), asecret organization, was formed to fight against equal treatmentfor Blacks, to intimidate them and prevent them from exercisingtheir rights. Ku Klux Klan (linguistic notes) Membership in the Klan is secret. A member may use the acronym AYAK (Are you a Klansman?) in conversation to surreptitiously identify himself to another potential member. The response AKIA (A Klansman I am) completes the greeting. Throughout its varied history, the Klan has coined many words beginning with "KL" including: * Klabee: treasurers * Kleagle: recruite * Klecktoken: initiation fee * Kligrapp: secretary * Klonvocation: gathering * Kloran: ritual book * Kloreroe: delegate * Kludd: chaplain The civil rights movement. The national campaign by Afro-Americans for equal rights, esp. in the 1950s & 1960s. 1963 a march to Washington led by Martin Luther King. a policy of affirmative action (позитивные действия)‘reverse discrimination (positive discrimination)’ (дискриминация наоборот, дискриминация со знаком плюс).Terms: Negro – of Spanish origin,Nigger – appeared in the 16th century and had no negativeconnotation then, just a phonetic variation of the word “Negro”.Till the 1970s it was a neutral term for the black race.Parallel to it the terms “blacks” and “coloureds” (more polite)were used.In the early 1970s ‘negro’ became a derogatory term and wassubstituted by ‘black’.Now the politically correct term is Afro-Americans. IV. Immigration Waves. The 19th century (1820-1890) - old immigration.The new immigration (1890-1920) brought into the countrymore than 18 mln. people.PIGS: Poles, Italians, Greeks and Slavs. The 1st groups of immigrants denied entry - ‘exclusions’:criminals, prostitutes, beggars, illiterates, Marxists etc. Immigration Acts of the 1920s.The 1960s-1970s - more immigrants from Asia than fromEurope.Hispanic (латино-американский, испаноязычный)immigration from Latin America has also increased sincethe 1970s, esp. from Mexico, Cuba & Puerto Rico. More information on the Internet. 1. About Indians www.sonofthesouth.net/american-indians/ and www.old-picture.com/indians/ 2. About Leif Ericsson www.mariner.org/exploration 3. About KKK www.kkk.bz Литература Peter Bromhead “Life in Modern America”N. Tokareva, Viktor Peppard “What it is like in the USAN. Timanovskaya “Spotlight on English-speaking countries”E. A Ivanyan. “The History of the USA”