Мини — проjецт дисцоверинг анциент цивилисатионс


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Mini – project: Discovering ancient civilisations. Ancient Maya people The work was fulfilled by Sharshin Yevgeniy, student of the 10th ” school In GAVRILOVSKOE2014 Art of ancient Maya reached the development during the classical period (about 250 — 900 years). Wall frescos in Palenka, Kopan and Bonompak are considered as one of the most beautiful. Beauty of the image of people on frescos allows to compare these monuments of culture to monuments of culture of a classical antiquity. Therefore also it is considered to be the period of development of a civilization of the classical Maya. Unfortunately, cultures of majority of monuments didn't reach up to now as were or are destroyed by inquisition, or with time. For art of the Maya who has found expression in a stone sculpture and bas-reliefs, works of small plasticity, lists on walls and ceramics, the religious and mythological subject embodied in stylized grotesque images are characteristics. The main motives of art of the Maya — anthropomorphous deities, snakes and masks; stylistic grace and refinement of lines are peculiar to it. As the main construction material for the Maya was the stone, first of all the limestone was served. The false arches directed up facades and roofs with a crest were for Maya typical in architecture. These massive facades and the roofs crowning palaces and temples, made greit impression of height and grandeur. As basic elements of system of the letter which is known about 800 years ago signs are served. Usually signs look like a square or an oblong oval; one or several signs can settle down together, forming the so-called hieroglyphic block. Many such blocks are located in a certain order in a rectilinear lattice which defined a spatial framework for the majority of known inscriptions. In this lattice hieroglyphic blocks form ranks and the columns which reading submitted to special rules. Also big weight of the pictographic signs representing often in details, had animals, people, parts of a body and household items. The Maya system of the letter created by the people and time notations was exclusive intellectual achievements of a pre-Columbus New World. Hieroglyphs of the Maya served both for ideographic, and for the phonetic letter. Them cut out on a stone, drew on ceramics, they wrote folding books on the local paper, called by codes. These codes are the major source for research of writing of the Maya. In addition to this Maya used “tsolkin" or “tonalamatl’ " — the systems of the account founded on numbers 20 and 13. The system tsolkin, widespread in Central America, wasn’t also very ancient surely invented by the people of the Maya. At Olmec and in culture of Sapotec a formative era was the similar and rather developed notations of time developed even earlier, than at the Maya. However Maya in improvement of numerical system and astronomical supervision promoted much further, than any other indigenous people of Central America. Letter of the Maya Geographical position The territory which was occupied by a civilization of the Maya. The border of culture of the Maya is red, black points the territory where the Mesoamerican civilization is allocated Now (2013) the territory in which there was a development of a civilization of the Maya is a part of the states: Mexico (states Chiapas, Campeche, Yucatan, Quintana-Roo), Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, Honduras (the western part). About 1000 ancient settlements of culture of the Maya (for the beginning of the 80th years of the XX century) are found, but also not all from them (3000 settlements) are dug out or investigated by archeologists. Among ruins of the cities of the Maya constructions of religious character are dominated. As it is supposed, religion together with attendants of temples played a key role in lives of the Maya. During the period since 250 AD to the 900th years AD (the classical period of development of the Maya) at the head of city-states of the region there were governors who comprised if not the highest then very important religious function. Archeological excavations allow to say that representatives of the highest sectors of society also took part in religious rituals. As well as other people occupying Central America of that time, the Maya believed in cyclic character of time and an astrology. For example their calculations of movement of Venus dispersed from modern astronomical data for only some seconds in a year. They imagined the Universe divided into three levels — the underground world, the earth and the sky. Religious rituals and ceremonies were closely connected with natural and astronomical cycles. The repeating phenomena were exposed to systematic supervision then were displayed in different calendars. The task of the religious leader of the Maya consisted thus in interpretation of these cycles.In particular, on an astrology and a calendar of the Maya, "time of the fifth Sun" will end on December 21-25, 2012 (a winter solstice). "The fifth Sun" is known as "the Sun of Movement" because, on representations of Indians, during this era there will be Earth movement from which all will be lost. Doomsday which the next birth of the Universe has to follow. This date causes many modern alarmist pseudo-prophecies and esoteric speculation. Especially this theory is popular in the movement "New Era" where mixes up with Christian anti-pagan idea of the Apocalypse.

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