The British Museum

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The British MuseumМБОУ СОШ №3г.Моздок РСО- Алания учитель английского языка Чинаева Раиса Сергеевна2017 The British Museum is the largest museum in the United KingdomThe British Museum is the largest museum in the United Kingdom with a collection of more than seven million objects. Its collection encompasses artifacts from many civilizations and spans a period of more than two thousand years. The British Museum quickly established itself as one of London's top attractions.The museum was founded in 1753 with the donation of 71,000 objects from the collection of Sir Hans Sloane. The British Museum quickly established itself as one of London's top attractions. The British MuseumToday the museum no longer houses collections of natural history, and the books and manuscripts it once held now form part of the independent British Library. The Museum nevertheless preserves its universality in its collections of artefacts representing the cultures of the world, ancient and modern. The original 1753 collection has grown to over thirteen million objects at the British Museum, 70 million at the Natural History Museum and 150 million at the British Library. Hans Sloane, founder of the British MuseumSir Hans SloaneAlthough today principally a museum of cultural art objects and antiquities, the British Museum was founded as a "universal museum". Its foundations lie in the will of the Irish-born British physician and naturalist Sir Hans Sloane(1660–1753). The Museum BuildingSince 1754, the museum's home has sat at the site of the Montague House in Bloomsbury. It wasn't long before this facility became too small to display and store the museum's large collection and plans were made for additions to the museum. The Townley Gallery for classical sculpture was added first, but was later torn down to make way for the Smirke Building, which is the core of the building visitors see today when they visit the museum. An enviable collection of curiosities During the course of his lifetime Sloane gathered an enviable collection of curiosities and, not wishing to see his collection broken up after death, he bequeathed it to King George II, for the nation, for a sum of £20,000.At that time, Sloane's collection consisted of around 71,000 objects of all kinds[ including some 40,000 printed books, 7,000 manuscripts, extensive natural history specimens including 337 volumes of dried plants, sand drawings including those by Albrecht Dürer and antiquities from Sudan, Egypt, Greece The British Museum LibraryThe Reading Room was officially opened on 2 May 1857 with a 'breakfast' (that included champagne & ice cream) laid out on the catalogue desks. A public viewing was held between 8 and 16 May which attracted over 62,000 visitors. Tickets to it included a plan of the library. The Round Reading RoomThe Round Reading Room, which was designed by the architect Sydney Smirke, opened in 1857. For almost 150 years researchers came here to consult the Museum's vast library. The Reading Room closed in 1997 when the national library (the British Library) moved to a new building at St Pancras. In 2013 the museum received a record 6.7 million visitors, an increase of 20% from the previous year Popular exhibitions including "Life and Death in Pompeii and Herculaneum" and "Ice Age Art" are credited with helping fuel the increase in visitorsThe exterior of the Reading Room, in the Great Court The Reading Room was used by a large number of famous figures. The Reading Room was used by a large number of famous figures, including notably  Karl Marx, Oscar Wilde,  George Bernard Shaw, Mark Twain, H. G. Wells and Sir Arthur Conan Doyle Egyptian antiquities  The British Museum houses the world's largest[ and most comprehensive collection of Egyptian antiquities (with over 100,000pieces) outside the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. A collection of immense importance for its range and quality, it includes objects of all periods from virtually every site of importance in Egypt and the Sudan. Together, they illustrate every aspect of the cultures of the Nile Valley (including Nubia ), from the Predynastic  Neolithic period (c. 10,000 BC) through to the Coptic (Christian) times (12th century AD), a time-span over 11,000 years. Predynastic and Early Dynastic period (c. 6000 BC – c. 2690 BC)Mummy of Ginger from Gebelein, (c. 3400 BC)Flint knife with an ivory handle (known as the Pit-Rivers Knife), Sheikh Hamada, Egypt, (c. 3100 BC)The Battlefield Palette and Hunters Palette, two cosmetic palettes with complex decorative schemes, (c. 3100 BC)Ivory statuette of a king, from the early temple at Abyds, Egypt, (c. 3000 BC) Old Kingdom (2690–2181 BC)Artefacts from the tomb of King Khasekhemwy from the 2nd dynasty, (2690 BC)Granite statue of Ankhwa, the shipbuilder, Saqqara, Egypt, 3rd Dynasty, (around 2650 BC)Several of the original casing stones from the Great Pyramid of Giza, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, (c. 2570 BC)Statue of Nenkheftka from Deshasha, 4th Dynasty, (2500 BC)Limestone false door of Ptahshepses, (2380 BC)Wooden tomb statue of Tjeti, Fifth to Sixth Dynasty, (about 2345–2181 BC) Roman Period (30 BC-641 AD)Schist head of a young man, Alexandria , (after 30 BC)The Meriotic Hamadab Stela  from the Kingdom of Kush  found near the ancient site of Meroë in Sudan, 24 BCLid of the coffin of Soter and Cleopatra from Qurna, Thebes, (early 2nd century AD)Mummy of a youth with a portrait of the deceased, Hawara, (100–200 AD)Bronze lamp and patera from the X-group tombs, Qasr Ibrim, (1st–6th centuries AD)Coptic wall painting of the martyrdom of saints, Wadi S Late Period (664–332 BC)Saite Sarcophagus of Satsobek, the vizier (prime minister) of the northern part of Egypt in the reign of Psammetichus I, (664–610 BC)Bronze figure of Isis and Horus, North Saqqara, Egypt, (600 BC)Sarcophagus of Hapmen, Cairo, 26th Dynasty or later, (600–300 BC)Kneeling statue of Wahibre, from near Lake Mariout, (530 BC)Sarcophagus of Ankhnesneferibre, (525 BC)Obelisks and sarcophagus of Pharaoh Nectanebo II, (360–343 BC) Использованные источники:

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