Муниципальное автономное общеобразовательное учреждение «Гимназия №87»
Are Father Frost and Father Christmas Relatives?
Могут ли быть родственниками русский Дед Мороз и Рождественский Дед?
Работа Плотникова Артема,
ученика 4а класса
Клерикова Ольга Алексеевна
Chapter1 “The Historic Facts of the Relationships”∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙4
Chapter 2 “Faher Frost .” ∙………………………………...5
Chapter4”They are different”…………………………....7 Conclusion∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙ 8
Bibliograhpy and References∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙∙ 9
Every country has its own customs, traditions and national festivals, but there are holidays that are common for many countries. People all over the world celebrate New Year`s Day, Christmas and Easter. Russians like holidays a lot. We usually celebrate each of them with a lot of food and presents and in big groups of relatives and friends. In Russia New Year`s Day is the most popular holiday. It is very popular, especially with children. In every house there is a fur-tree. The people are seeing the New Year in. They are addressing New Year`s greetings and good wishes to one another. In Europe people pay more attention to Christmas.
Great Britain is an old country and it has a lot of holidays and interesting traditions too. For most British families, this is the most important festival of the year, which combines the Christian celebration of the birth of Christ with the festival of winter.
On the other hand in Russia and in many European countries (f. e. Britain), kids wait for the presents which are supposed to be sent by Father Frost or Father Christmas.
So, the aims of my research work are
to acquaint you with the main characters of New Year and Christmas,
to compare Father Frost and Father Christmas,
to investigate the reasons why they can be relatives ;
I want to speak on the theme, because it can help us to realize the exciting history of these two countries, to respect the traditions of them and not to forget our own Russian holidays and traditions.
That`s why I consider the topic under the discussion to be very important and interesting today.
The Historic Facts of the Relationships
Let us start with the history. To begin with the scientists can speak on the beginning of the relationships between Russia and Britain from the 16th century.
In 1553 Richard Chanceller wanted to go to China across the Arctic Ocean. When he reached Archangel his ships had problems. He left it and went to Moscow to meet Ivan 1V.The Russian Tsar was very nice to him. After that Ivan IV and Mary Tudor, the Queen of England wrote letters to each other. When Mary`s sister Elisabeth became Queen of England she also wrote to the Tsar. The first treaty between England and Russia was in 1734.
In the year 1830 King William IV succeeded King George IV, and reigned seven years. Queen Victoria, his niece, the only child of the Duke of Kent, the forth son of George III, came to the throne on June20, 1837. She was married to Prince Albert of Saxe-Goth on February10, 1840. She was very good and much beloved.
Queen Victoria and Prince Albert had nine children. Thanks to their children and grandchildren she is known as ”Grandmother of Europe”. What does it mean? It means that her ancestors were the members of the royal families and British Kings. The Queen`s Daughter Alice (1843-1878) was married to the Prince Ludvig. Alice`s daughter became the mother of Alexandra Feodorovna, the wife of Nicolas II.As you see Alice was the granddaughter of Queen Victoria.
So we came to the conclusion that people from Russia and England were living on different continents but could meet with each other during the long periods of our planet`s history.
Russian people started celebrating New Year in the 19th century.
The Russian Father Christmas is known as Ded Moroz. “Ded Moroz” is translated as “Grandfather Frost” in English, but most English speakers simply call him “Father Frost.” He is a figure associated with Russian Christmas traditions and New Year’s traditions. This tradition comes back to the end of the 19th century. At that time he was called Nicolay Chudotvorets. The tradition was born in Middle Ages. In Russia the tradition came to be followed in the 19th century. In the 1935 the main character of the holiday came to us with the name Ded Moroz. The choice of the name was the influence of the folklore and the poem by Nekrasov”Moroz-Red Nose”. He is often accompanied by a figure from Russian fairy tales, Snegurochka, the Snow Maiden. In the legend of Ded Moroz, she is said to be his granddaughter.
While Ded Moroz is the Russian equivalent of Father Christmas, he is unmistakably Russian in appearance and attitude. Father Christmas often appears as a large man, often around seventy years old. He is typically shown in a long, Russian-style coat in the colours of red, icy blue, silver, gold, or another color appropriate to the season, which is lined or trimmed with white fur. He is dressed in a red suit trimmed with white fur, often girdled with a wide black belt, a matching hat or hood and dark boots. His clothing is sometimes richly decorated with embroidery. He protects his feet from the cold by tall valenki or leather boots. Often he carries a large brown sack filled with toys on his back. Ded Moroz carries a staff.
He officially makes his home at an estate in the Russian town of Veliky Ustyug. From November to March he was the absolute owner of the land. Children can write their letters to Ded Moroz and send them to Veliky Ustyug in hopes of having their holiday wishes granted. Those who visit Veliky Ustyug can have their photo with Ded Moroz, ride in a troika, and enjoy wintertime activities. During the holiday season, Ded Moroz makes appearances in major Russian cities, like Moscow. He often takes part in festivals and parades. The three horses of the Russian troika offer enough power and speed to get Ded Moroz to where he needs to go.
Celebrating of Christmas in England is an ancient tradition, that`s why the decorations and heroes of the holiday have a rich and long history. As for the main character of the event he is connected with some legends. You know Father Christmas is a name which is used in a lot of English-speaking countries. Long ago he could be named Old Father Christmas , Sir Christmas, Lord Christmas. Christmas Day is the most popular holiday. It is celebrated on December 25th.Christmas symbolizes the birth of Jesus Christ. On this day a lot of people go to church, get Christmas presents and make a traditional Christmas dinner. On this day children wait for a special person who will come down the chimney during the night and will bring them presents. It is Father Christmas. However, Santa Claus is used synonymously with Father Christmas. But the English suppose Father Christmas and Santa Claus are absolutely different persons. Children usually hang stockings or socks on their beds and hope that Father Christmas will put his presents in them.
Father Christmas is a magician who is loved by all: adults and children. Kids write him a touching letter with detailed wishes about the gifts.
Father Christmas comes down the chimney to put presents under the Christmas tree or in children’s rooms, in their stockings. He is often said to live at the North Pole.
They Are Different
They are different in appearance, but have the same purpose.
The Russian Christmas is celebrated on the 7th of January. The holiday is connected with the wonderful birth of Jesus Christ as it is described in the Holy Bible. People go to the Church and exchange presents.
Ded Moroz or Grandfather Frost is a Russian counterpart of British Father Christmas. Ded Moroz delivers gifts on New Year’s Eve. Both bring presents and are much expected by the kids, but there're a few things that make them different.
1. Ded Moroz is much taller than British Father Christmas.
2. Ded Moroz has a long beard, British Father Christmas often cuts his beard short.
3. Father Christmas 's coat is always red, while Ded Moroz can wear a red, blue or even white coat.
4. Ded Moroz is dressed much warmer than Father Christmas. He has a warm fur-coat and a fur-hat, mittens and boots while Father Christmas wears a night cap with a bob, a short jacket, gloves and black boots.
5. Ded Moroz holds a staff in his hands. It helps him to walk across snowdrifts.
6. Father Christmas often wears glasses, while Ded Moroz has good eyes despite his age.
7. Ded Moroz is usually accompanied by his granddaughter Snegurochka or Snow Maiden. Father Christmas is known to have a wife but nobody heard of his granddaughter.
8. Ded Moroz walks on foot or travels by Russian Troika (a sleigh hauled by 3 horses), Father Christmas travels by air on a sleigh pulled by reindeers.
9. Ded Moroz walks into a house through a front door, Father Christmas comes through a chimney.
10. Ded Moroz puts presents under a Christmas tree but not inside somebody's sock.
The Snow Maiden is a cute touching character in folk tales. She appears beautiful and a little sad. The Girl enjoys the snow and cold, but is afraid of the sun.The Poetic image of the character inspired poets, writers, composers to devote their works to her.
I would like to add that these persons are different.
After all, they have the same qualities: kindness and attention to people.
Their purpose is to bring joy and fun to people, especially kids.
Every year New Year tree parties are arranged for you. The lights of New Year Trees are switched on everywhere, and Father Frost and Snow Maiden greet all of you. Nowadays it is difficult to avoid celebrating as it`s the most popular holiday of our country. But the problem of the choice of the holiday to celebrate is very important today. I suppose that it is useful and realistic to think of it. The fact is that in recent years there is a tendency to exaggerate the role of foreign history, traditions and habits in the life of Russian people. Summing up I want to stress the importance of the topic under the discussion.
On the other hand during the process of the investigation I have learned a lot of exciting information. You see Father Frost and Father Christmas are very important figures during the celebration. What I`ve to emphasize in my research work is they have much in common, but they are different. I came to the conclusion they could be far relatives as the history of Great Britain and Russia are linked with each other.
Bibliography and References
Гурко В. И. Царь и царица. — Paris, 1927. (И другие издания)
Жильяр П. При дворе Николая 2: Воспоминания наставника цесаревича Алексея: [1905—1918] = Thirteen Years at the Russian Court. — М.: Центрополиграф, 2006. — 219 с.:
Мельник-Боткина Т. Е. Воспоминания о царской семье и её жизни до и после революции. — М.: «Анкор», 1993. — ISBN 5-85664-002-0-2.
Charles Dickens A Child`s History of England Philadelphia, Henry Altemus,1999
The key figure of the Russian New Year is certainly Ded Moroz (Father Frost, or Grandfather Frost, to be more exact. Here is some interesting information about him.
Ded Moroz (Russian: Дед Мороз, diminutive Dedushka Moroz; Ukrainian: Дід Мороз Did Moroz) is a fictional character who in some Slavic cultures plays a role similar to that of Santa Claus. The literal translation of the name would be "Old Man Frost", although the name is often translated as "Father Frost" in light of the modern usage of "ded" to refer to a grandfather. Ded Moroz is said to bring presents to children, however, unlike the secretive Santa Claus, the gifts are often delivered "in person", at New Year's Eve parties and other New Year celebrations .We find the similar character in the cultures of Armenia, Bashkortostan,Belarus, Croatia, Poland, Bulgaria ,8 Romania, Yugoslavia, Slovenia, Tatarstan, Yamal ,Ukraine ,Sakha Republic, Tajikistan, ,Kyrgyzstan .
Jack Frost — In English folklore.Jack Frost appears as an elfish creature who personifies crisp, cold, winter weather; a variant of Father Winter (also known as Old Man Winter.
Ded Moroz is commonly shown accompanied by Snegurochka (Russian: Снегурочка, Ukrainian: Снігуронька, "Snow Maiden"), his granddaughter and helper, who is often depicted in long silver-blue robes and a furry cap or a snowflake-like crown.She is a unique attribute of Ded Moroz.
The official residence of Ded Moroz in Russia is considered to be the town of Veliky Ustyug.The traditional residence of Did Moroz in Ukraine is considered to be the Rivne region.The residence of the Belarusian Ded Moroz (Dzied Maroz in Belarusian) is said to be in Belavezhskaya Pushcha
In Armenia, Ded Moroz is known as Ձմեռ Պապ (Dzmer Pap), which literally means winter grandfather.
In Bashkir, Ded Moroz is known as Ҡыш бабай (Qïš babay, literally: "Winter Old Man"), and Snegurochka is known as Ҡарһылыу (Qarhïlïw, "Snow beauty").
In Belarus Ded Moroz is known as Dzied Maroz. He is not a traditional Belarusian character and is never mentioned in national folklore. The official residence of Dzied Maróz (Belarusian: Дзед Мароз, is considered to be in Biełavieskaja Pušča.
The original traditional Bulgarian Christmas related male figure is Koledari. He later changed with the growing popularity of Santa Claus around the world during the 19-th and the 20-th century. The Bulgarian name of Santa Claus is Дядо Коледа (Dyado Koleda, “Grandfather Christmas “,such as the Estonian Santa Claus (Jõuluvana or "Old man of Christmas"), the Finnish Santa Claus (Joulupukki or "Yule Goat").
Ded Frost is still popular in our country. In November and December 2010, Ded Moroz was one of the candidates in the running for consideration as a mascot for the 2014 Winter Olympics in Sochi, Russia.