2. Этап автоматизации или выработки грамматического навыка.
Russian scientists and engineers.1. Combine 2 sentences into one using Past Perfect Passive.
Example: In 1779 the Russian inventor Ivan Kulibin made a lamp that produced a very bright light. In 1783 the Swiss physicist Argand added the glass chimney to the lamp .(…that…)
In 1783 The Swiss physicist Argand added the glass chimney to the lamp that had been invented by Ivan Kulibin.
1. On November 23, 1802, Russian scientist V. Petrov discovered the electric arc. But his discovery remained unknown in the West. In 1811 Humphry Davy, the British scientist, discovered the arc again and called it the voltaic arc.(By the time…)
2. A young Russian engineer, Alexander Lodygin made the first successful light bulb in 1873. In 1877 Thomas Edison learnt about the lamp, improved and later patented it.(…which…).
3. In 1875 Mendeleyev put forward the idea of building a high –altitude balloon(стратостат). Shortly afterwards, in 1886, Tsiolkovsky designed an all-metal dirigible.( …modified …,the idea of which…)
4. In 1878 Mozhaisky designed the first aeroplane. The aircraft was tested on August 1, 1882. It was only in 1903 that two Americans Orville and Wilbur Wright built an aeroplane like Mozhaisky’s.(By the time…)
5. In 1814 George Stephenson invented the steam locomotive. In 1829 in Russia the Cherepanovs, father and son, invented and built a steam locomotive better than George Stephenson’s.(…improved …which…