КГБ ПОУ «Хабаровский педагогический колледж»
им. Героя Советского союза Д.Л. Калараша
Методическое пособие по Страноведению
для специальностей Дошкольное образование и
Преподавание в начальных классах
Составитель: Понеделко Н.М.
преподаватель английского языка
Пояснительная записка 3
Тематический план 4
Глава 1 Соединенное Королевство Великобритании и Северной Ирландии
Раздел 1 Географические и климатические особенности Великобритании7
Раздел 2 Политическое устройство Соединенного Королевства Великобритании 10
Раздел 3 Промышленность. Сельское хозяйство. Столица и города Великобритании 13
Раздел 4 Система образования Великобритании 19
Раздел 5 Традиции и праздники Великобритании 22
Раздел 6 Искусство и культура Великобритании 24
Глава 2 Соединенные Штаты Америки
Раздел 1Географические и климатические особенности США 33
Раздел 2 Политическое устройство США 34
Раздел 3Промышленность. Сельское хозяйство. Столица и города США 36
Раздел 4Система образования США 39
Раздел 5Искусство и культура США 50
Данное пособие предназначено для студентов, желающих расширить свои знания о культуре, менталитете и национальных особенностях британского и американского народа. Тематика курса обширна: в нее включены не только темы об истории и политике Соединенного Королевства и США, но и темы, повествующие о стиле жизни британцев и американцев, о культуре, промышленности и городах, о любимых праздниках и хобби, об известных ученых, писателях, музыкантах и многом другом.
Упражнения и задания, которые следуют за лекциями, помогают преподавателю закрепить и проконтролировать знания студентов по изученной теме.Данный курс заканчивается тестированием по страноведению, которое поможет преподавателю закрепить и проконтролировать знания студентов по всему курсу. Курс рассчитан на 27часов для специальности Преподавание в начальных классах и на 144 часа для специальности Дошкольное образование.
Предмет изучения: страноведение Великобритании и США.
Целькурса: совершенствовать лингвистическую и социокультурную компетенцию студентов, формировать у них системное представление о географии Великобритании и США, важнейших этапах истории, политико-экономическом устройстве, традициях, праздниках, основных особенностях их образа жизни.
* познакомить учащихся с историей, культурой и образом жизни британского и американского народа;
* развить способность к правильной интерпретации конкретных культурных, исторических и языковых явлений и различий народа
* способствовать воспитанию у студентов понимания и уважения к другой культуре.
Используемые методики и педтехнологии:
* метод проектов
* обучение в сотрудничестве (co-operative learning)
\* информационные технологии (использование интернет ресурсов и мультимедиа)
Методы проверки результатов: подготовка и проведение викторины по страноведению “What, where, when?”; подготовка студентами собственных проектов, презентаций, докладов; тестирование.
По итогам курса студенты смогут:
* познакомиться с культурой и историей американского и британского народа;
* работать со справочной литературой страноведческого характера, а также систематизировать и интерпретировать культуроведческую информацию при аудировании, письме и говорении на английском языке;
* вести социокультурные наблюдения при работе с видеоматериалами;
* готовить устные выступления согласно тематике курса.
Учебно-тематический план для специальности Преподавание в начальных классах
часов Тематический раздел №
2 Geographical Position. Географические и климатические особенности страны. Англия. Шотландия. Уэльс. Северная Ирландия. Население.
Самостоятельная работа: проект «Ландшафт Великобритании» подборка иллюстраций и подготовка мини-сообщения 1
2 Political System Политическая система.
Самостоятельная работа: проект «Британская монархия» или «Британский парламент» 2
2 Основные отрасли промышленности.
Система коммуникации 3
4 Столица Англии, Шотландии, Уэльса, Северной Ирландии.
Крупные города и их достопримечательности.
Самостоятельная работа: проект «Достопримечательности Лондона.» Подготовка переводов, описания иллюстраций. 4
4 Школы. Колледжи. Университеты.
Самостоятельная работа: устное сообщение «Детские организации (Бойскауты и др.)» 5
6 Театр. Кино. Живопись. Музыка.
Самостоятельная работа: эссе по теме «Мой любимый киноактер, (певец, композитор, писатель)», подготовка викторины (тестов) 6
2 Выдающиеся ученые, изобретатели. Научные открытия.
4 Традиции и обычаи. Особенности быта. Формы досуга. Хобби.
Самостоятельная работа: устные сообщения «Национальные виды спорта» «Английский характер»,
1 Викторина «What, where, when?» Тестирование. 9
Учебно-тематический план для специальности Дошкольное образование
часов Тематический раздел №
8 Geographical Position. Географические и климатические особенности страны. Англия. Шотландия. Уэльс. Северная Ирландия. Население.
Самостоятельная работа: проект «Ландшафт Великобритании» подборка иллюстраций и подготовка мини-сообщения 1
2 Political System Политическая система Великобритании..Символика.
Самостоятельная работа: проект «Британская монархия» или «Британский парламент» 2
6 Основные отрасли промышленности Великобритании.
Сельское хозяйство. 3
10 Столица Англии, Шотландии, Уэльса, Северной Ирландии.
Крупные города и их достопримечательности.
Самостоятельная работа: проект «Достопримечательности Лондона.» Подготовка переводов, описания иллюстраций. 4
19 Школы. Колледжи. Университеты Великобритании.
Самостоятельная работа: устное сообщение «Детские организации (Бойскауты и др.)» 5
24 Театр. Кино. Живопись. Музыка Великобритании.
Самостоятельная работа: эссе по теме «Мой любимый киноактер, (певец, композитор, писатель)», подготовка викторины (тестов) 6
8 Выдающиеся ученые, изобретатели Великобритании. Научные открытия.
8 Традиции и обычаи. Особенности быта. Формы досуга. Хобби британцев.
Самостоятельная работа: устные сообщения «Национальные виды спорта» «Английский характер»,
8 Географическое положение США.
Климат. Ландшафт. 9
14 Политическое устройство. Символика.
Столица. Города США.
Самостоятельная работа: презентации о городах Америки.
8 Отрасли промышленности, сельское хозяйство, транспорт США. 11
6 Система образования США. Школы. Университеты США.
8 Наука и ее роль в жизни США. Великие ученые, изобретатели.
Самостоятельная работа: проект об известном ученом 13
14 Музыка, актеры театра и кино, писатели.
Самостоятельная работа: подготовка проектов об известных актерах, музыкантах.
1 Викторина «What, where, when?» Тестирование. 15
Соединенное Королевство Великобритании и Северной Ирландии
Географические и климатические особенности Великобритании.
Read and translate the text. Be ready to answer the questions.
England includes the central and southern two-thirds of the island of Great Britain It is bordered by two other countries of the United Kingdom—to the north by Scotland and to the west by Wales. It is separated from France by a 34-kilometre (21 mi) sea gap, though the two countries are connected by the Channel Tunnel
The ports of London, Liverpool, and Newcastle lie on the tidal rivers Thames, Mersey and Tyne However, the longest river entirely in England is the Thames, which is 346 kilometres (215 mi) in length. There are many lakes in England; the largest is Windermere, within the aptly named Lake District.
The Pennines, known as the "backbone of England", are the oldest range of mountains in the country,straddling the border between England and Scotland are the Cheviot Hills. The English Lowlands are to the south of the Pennines, consisting of green rolling hills.
England has a temperate maritime climate: it is mild with temperatures not much lower than 0 °C (32 °F) in winter and not much higher than 32 °C (90 °F) in summer. The weather is damp and changeable. The coldest months are January and February, while July is normally the warmest month. Months with mild to warm weather are May, June, September and October. Rainfall is higher in the west, and parts of the Lake District receive more rain than anywhere else in the country.
The red rose became the emblem of England after the War of the Roses (1455-1485) which was the war for the English throne.
The red cross of St. George on a white ground is the English flag. As the legend says: ‘Saint George was a soldier in the Roman army who saved a princess, killed a dragon’.
While England does not have an official national anthem, there are many songs which are considered to fill such a role. In most of the national sporting fixtures 'God Save the Queen' is used.
Canterbury is a town in Kent, the religious capital of England because its cathedral is the seat of the Archbishop of Canterbury who is a head of the Church of England. (The Southeast)
Every year, in summer, thousands of folk music fans arrive in Cambridge for one of the biggest festivals of folk music in England. The festival is held in the grounds of an old house, where there are a lot of rooms for people to put up their tents if they want to stay overnight. (East Anglia)
On Wednesday 24th October 1962, Love Me Do, entered the British Top Thirty. It was the first single by an unknown group from Liverpool called The Beatles. (The Midlands)
There are a lot of local legends about Stonehenge. Here is one. Stonehenge was built by the devil in a single night. He flew backwards and forwards between Ireland and Salisbury Plain carrying the stones one by one and setting them in place. As he worked, he laughed to himself. “That will make people think. They’ll never know how the stones came here!” (The Southwest)
Yorvik was the capital of a Viking Kingdom. In Mediaeval times, York was the second city of the land. Georgian York was the social centre. Victorian York was an important railway centre, and 20th century York is the home of world-famous chocolate. (The North of England)
(Scottish Gaelic: Alba) is a country which is a part of the United Kingdom.
It is the northern half of the island of Great Britain, with a population of about five million. Scotland shares a border with England. Scotland has coasts on the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Irish Sea to the south-west.
Scotland was once an independent country with its own monarch, but is now one of the four countries that make up the United Kingdom. In 1603, the King of Scotland, James VI, became King of England too, because Queen Elizabeth I of England had no children and James was her nearest relative.
In 1707, the parliament of Scotland joined with the parliament of England to become the parliament of Great Britain, and in 1801 Great Britain joined with Ireland to become United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Even though Scotland is not independent, throughout history it has had its own legal system and culture. Since 1999, Scotland has had its own parliament, but it is not as powerful as the British parliament in Westminster. Many things are still controlled by the United Kingdom parliament.
The Scottish flag is blue with two white diagonal crosses (called a saltire). This is the cross of Saint Andrew, who is the patron saint of Scotland. Some other symbols used for Scotland are a thistle, and a lion rampant.
The north of Scotland has many mountains, and few people live there. Most people live in the lowlands (Edinburgh, Glasgow, Aberdeen and Dundee), or around the coast. South of the central belt are the Southern Uplands, another hilly place. On the west coast and in the north are a lot of islands. The tallest mountain in Scotland is Ben Nevis, which is also the tallest mountain in the British Isles.
The capital city of Scotland is the city of Edinburgh, on the east coast. The biggest city is Glasgow. Other cities in Scotland are Aberdeen, Dundee, Inverness and Stirling.
Wales is a part of the United Kingdom and is located on the wide peninsula in the western portion of the island of Great Britain. Wales is surrounded by water on three sides: to the north, the Irish Sea; to the south, the Bristol Channel; and to the west, Saint George's Channel and Cardigan Bay. Wales is very mountainous. Snowdon is the highest mountain in Wales and England. The Dee River, with its headwaters in Bala Lake, the largest natural lake in Wales, flows through northern Wales into England. Numerous smaller rivers cover the south, including the Usk, Wye and Towy.
The Romans settled in Cardiff in 55AD and built a military fort on the site of Cardiff Castle has been transformed into a sporting capital since the completion of the Millennium Stadium hosting events such as the Six Nations, the FA Cup and the Wales Rally GB. Cardiff became a city in 1905 and was crowned the capital of Wales in 1955.Today Cardiff has a population of 328,000 and attracts more than 12 million visitors a year.
St. David is the patron saint of Wales. He was a monk who lived on bread, water, herbs and leeks and died on March 1, 589 A. D.
The leek had been recognized as the emblem of Wales since the middle of the 16th century. It was decided that from 1984, British £1 coins would feature different reverse designs for each of the four parts of the United Kingdom. All £1 coins dated 1985 feature on the reverse the Welsh Leek. The daffodil is also a Welsh national emblem because its Welsh name is translated as a type of leek. The Red Dragon of Wales, although perhaps of Chinese origin, was introduced to Britain by the Romans some eighteen hundred years ago.
A favourite souvenir for the tourists is a Welsh love spoon. They are made of wood and are carved very beautifully. Originally, they were made by young men as a love token for their sweethearts. There are many different designs demonstrating the skill and love of the hopefulsuitor. If the girl kept this present, all was well, but if she sent it back, she did not want him.English and Welsh are the two official languages of Wales. English is the most widely spoken language. Just over 3 million people live in Wales. The majority of people that live in Wales ,live in Southern Wales, while the remaining population lives in Northern Wales.
Wales has always been known as a country of music and song.
Since the 12th century we have records of an annual competition (or Eisteddfod [ais'tedvad] in Welsh), which was held to find the best poets, writers and musicians in the country. Originally only professionals took part, but now the Eisteddfod is open to the public and, because all the events are in Welsh, it encourages a strong interest in the Welsh arts.
Northern Ireland was created in 1921, when Ireland was partitioned between Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland by an act of the British parliament. As of 2011, its population was 1 810 863 constituting about 30% of the island's total population and about 3% of the population of the United Kingdom. The whole of Northern Ireland has a temperate maritime climate, rather wetter in the west than the east, although cloud cover is persistent across the region. The weather is unpredictable at all times of the year.
Northern Ireland consists of six historic counties. Most districts are based around large towns. English is the sole official language.
Unlike the Republic of Ireland, Northern Ireland does not encourage the use of the Gaelic language. The capital and the largest city of Northern Ireland is Belfast (population, 1991 preliminary, 279,237), which is surrounded by heavy industries including shipbuilding and textiles. The other major city in Northern Ireland is Londonderry (72,334). Northern Ireland is a very beautiful place. It is a land of mountains, rivers and lakes. It has a rugged coastline and one is never more than half an hour away from the coast by car.
The history of Ireland is a tragic one. For centuries the English had tried to gain control of Ireland. Until the 16-th century, England controlled only a small area of Ireland around Dublin. English rulers, including King Henry VIII, Queen Elizabeth I and Oliver Cromwell gradually conquered, the whole of Ireland. The last area to resist the English was the province of Ulster, in the north of Ireland, but in the end the Irish were defeated.
In 1910 Home Rule was offered to Ireland. As a reaction the Irish patriots formed military organizations of the Irish Volunteers. The Labour Party in Ireland set up the Irish Citizen Army. In 1916 the Volunteers and the Irish Citizen Army organized an uprising which although a failure, laid the foundation for another stage of the fight for freedom. In 1921, an independent Irish state was established, that is the Republic of Ireland.
The people of Ireland have always been known for their stories and myths. They say that giants used to live on the Antrim coast, north of Belfast. One giant, Finn McCool, the commander of the king of Ireland's army, fell in love with a woman giant in Scotland. He wanted her to come to Ulster so he started to build a bridge, the Giant's Causeway, so that she could walk across the sea.
Политическое устройство Соединенного Королевства Великобритании
Read the text and test yourself.
The political system of the UK
There is a scheme of the political system of the UK. Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a constitutional monarchy.
This means that Great Britain is governed by the Parliament and the Queen is the head of the State.
The British Parliament consists of two chambers: the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The House of Lords is composed of hereditary and life peers. The members of the House of Commons are elected by the people. The House of Commons is the real governing body of the UK.
The government is usually formed by the political party which is supported by the majority in the House of Commons. Prime minister is the majority party leader and is appointed by the Queen. Prime Minister chooses a team of ministers; 20 of the ministers are in the Cabinet.
The second largest party becomes the official opposition with its own leader and the Shadow Cabinet.
The monarch is the official head of state and an integral part of Parliament in her constitutional role. The present monarch is the Queen Elizabeth. She has mostly representative function. Everything today is done in the Queen’s name. It’s her government, her forces, her law courts and so on. She appoints all the Ministers, including the Prime Minister. She also gives the royal assent to the bills passed by the House of Commons and the House of Lords. Everything is done however on the advice of the elected Government, and the monarch takes no part in the decision-making process.
The Prime Minister is the head of government. He is the leader of the party with the majority seats in the House of Commons. The Prime Minister chooses about 20 MPs from his or her party to become the Cabinet of Ministers. It determines government policies and coordinates government departments. Each minister is responsible for a particular area of the government. The second largest party becomes the official opposition with its own leader and “Shadow cabinet”.
The British Parliament consists of the House of Lords and the House of Commons. The House of Commons plays the major role in law-making. It consists of 650 elected Members of Parliament, each of whom represents an area in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The House of Commons is presided over by the Speaker.
The House of Lords has more than 1000 members, but only about 250 take an active part in the work of the House. This House consists of hereditary and life peers. The chairman of the House of Lords is the Lord Chancellor and he sits on a special seat called the Woolsack.
The members of the House of Lords debate a bill after it has been passed by the House of Commons. They can delay bills for one year.
1. A. The Queen votes on the bills.
B. The Queen signs the bills.
2. A. The Queen has mostly representative functions.
B. The Queen rules the country in fact.
3. A. The government represents the legislative branch of power.
B. The government represents the executive branch of power.
4. A. The Cabinet is responsible for government policies.
B. The Cabinet Ministers revise bills from Parliament.
5. A. Parliament represents the legislative branch of power.
B. Parliament represents the executive branch of power.
6. A. The House of Commons controls the government.
B. The government controls the House of Commons.
7. A. The House of Lords has the power to delay bills for one year.
B. The House of Lords opposes the decisions of the House of Commons.
8. A. The Cabinet coordinates the work of the government departments.
B. The Cabinet makes laws.
The Houses of Parliament
Welcome to the Palace of Westminster. It consists of three parts: the Royal Apartments where the color is gold, the House of Lords where the seats are red and the House of Commons where the seats are green.
We are now in the Chamber of the House of Lords. Please be quiet and don't sit on these red benches.
The Chamber of the House of Lords is also called the Parliament Chamber, because every year when the Queen comes to open Parliament, all three parts of Parliament come together here for the Queen's Speech. In fact, it's not really the Queen's Speech, because she doesn't write it. The Government writes it for her. In the speech the Queen tells Parliament about the Government's plans for the next year. When she gives her speech, she sits on the throne over there. Can you all see it? Yes, it's that big chair behind the big red cushion.
Oh, and that cushion is, actually, the famous Woolsack. And yes, there is wool inside it. It's a part of a very old tradition which started in the 14th century. It was put in Parliament to symbolize the importance of wool to the British economy at that time.
The person who usually sits on the Woolsack is the Lord Chancellor. He presides over the House of Lords.
Now we are going through into the House of Commons, where MPs make decisions on new laws. Let's walk through this beautiful arch. There are two statues, one on each side of the arch. Both of these two men were Prime Ministers. One is David Lloyd George, and the other - Sir Winston Churchill. They represent the two main British political parties - the Labor Party and the Conservative Party. We have a tradition: if you're a Conservative, touch Churchill's shoe, and if you're Labor, touch Lloyd George's shoe. Have you touched a shoe? Now let's turn right.
Do you see two long narrow corridors on your left and on your right? These are very important for the whole country because MPs come here to vote on bills for new laws. On the left there is the "aye", or yes, lobby. MPs who agree with a bill go there. On the right there is the "no" lobby for MPs who want to vote against the bill. Then the officials count the "ayes" and the "nose" to get the results. So in the British Parliament MPs don't vote by pushing a button; they vote with their feet.
Let's go through the "no" lobby and into the House of Commons, where you'll see that the benches are green. The chamber here isn't very big. In fact, there are only places for 437 people on the benches, but there are 650 MPs, so sometimes they have to sit on the steps when the House is full. Now we're standing behind the Speaker's chair. The Speaker is the person who presides over the House of Commons.
Now look at the floor. Can you see two red lines in front of the benches on each side of the chamber? That's part of a tradition too. The distance between these two lines is two swords' lengths. In the old days when MPs used to carry swords, it was dangerous if they got angry with each other. So these two lines are here to remind MPs that they shouldn't start a fight, and they can't go over this line when they are speaking in a debate.
Today there's nobody here, so you won't see the Mace, which is put on this table when the House of Commons is sitting. The Mace is the symbol of the power which Parliament won from the King a long time ago, and MPs have a lot of respect for it. It even has its own guard, who has a very big sword.
Now let's leave the House of Commons and go to Westminster Hall. This is the oldest part of the Palace of Westminster, and it's more than a thousand years old. The son of William the Conqueror... Do you remember the Norman leader who won the Battle of Hastings? Well, it was his son who started the building of the hall. This building has seen a lot of famous events. In 1605 Guy Fawkes tried to blow up the Houses of Parliament, and in World War II bombs fell on it.
1. How many parts does the Palace of Westminster consist of?
2. What are the main colours of the Houses of Parliament?
a) gold, red and blue
b) gold, green and red
c) red and green
3. Who writes the Queen's Speech?
a) the Queen
b) the Government
c) the Lord Chancellor
4. Which are Britain's two main political parties?
a) Democratic, Republican and Conservative
b) Conservative and Democratic
c) Labour and Conservative
5. Whose shoe should a Conservative touch?
a) David Lloyd George's
b) Winston Churchill's
c) The Queen's6. Why do MPs sometimes sit on the steps?
a) There are more MPs than seats in the House of Commons,
b) It's a part of an old tradition,
c) It's a punishment for those who are late.
7. When can you see the Mace in the House of Commons?
a) It's always there,
b) Only when the Queen comes,
c) When the House is debating.
8. How old is Westminster Hall?
a) more than a thousand years old
b) more than a hundred years old
c) more than four hundred years old
Промышленность, сельское хозяйство
Столица и города Великобритании
Read and discuss the text with your partner.
INDUSTRIAL AND AGRICULTURAL DISTRICTS IN GREAT BRITAIN
England is a highly developed industrial country. London is the biggest city. It is important for products of all kinds including food, instrument engineering, electrical and electronic engineering, clothing, furniture and printing. It has some heavy engineering plants and several leading research establishments. London is a great port with many docks. It is also the centre of commerce.
North-west of London, in the midland counties (the Midlands) is a very important industrial district which is known as the “Black country”. In Birmingham, the centre of this area, and in the manufacturing towns nearby, various goods are produced: machine tools, tubes, domestic metalware, rubber products, etc. The largest coal and iron fields in Britain are located in the Midlands.
Further north is Manchester, one of the main centres for electrical and heavy engineering and for the production of a wide range of goods including computers, electronic equipment, petrochemicals, dye-stuffs and pharmaceuticals. The Manchester Ship Canal links Manchester with Liverpool, one of Britain’s leading seaports. East of Manchester is the city of Sheffield, well-known for its manufacture of high quality steels, tools and cutlery. A short railway journey to the north-east will take you from Manchester to Bradford, the commercial centre of the wool trade.
Further north is Newcastle situated on the North Sea coast, a city famous for its shipbuilding yards and its export of coal. In Scotland, the richest part is that of the Lowlands. Here there are coal and iron fields. Glasgow is the largest city, seaport and trading centre of Scotland. North-east Scotland is now the centre of off-shore oil and gas industries.
Although Britain is a densely populated, industrialized country, agriculture is still one of its most important industries. Dairying is most common in the west of England, where the wetter climate encourages the growth of good grass. Sheep and cattle are reared in the hilly and moorland areas of northern and south-western England. Its best farmland lies in the south-eastern plains. The south of England is rural, with many fertile valleys and numerous hedges’ dividing the well-cultivated fields and pastures.
The south-eastern coast is well-known for its picturesque scenery and mild climate and a number of popular resorts. On the southern coast of England there are many large ports, among them: Southampton, Portsmouth, Plymouth.
London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic and cultural centre. It’s one of the largest cities in the world. Its population is more than 9 million people. London is situated on the river Thames. It was founded more than two thousand years ago.
London is an ancient city. It appeared at the place where the Roman invaders decided to build a bridge over the Thames. There are four parts in London: West End, East End, the City and Westminster.
The City is the oldest part of London, its financial and business centre. There are many offices, companies and banks in this part of the capital. The heart of the City is the Stock Exchange. The Tower of London and St Paul’s Cathedral are situated in the City.
Westminster is also important part of the capital. It’s the administrative centre of London. The Houses of Parliament, the seat of the British Government, are there. Opposite the Houses of Parliament is Westminster Abbey where kings and queens have been crowned and many famous people were buried. The Houses of Parliament are often referred to as the Palace of Westminster.
The Towers of the Houses of Parliament stand high above the city. On the highest tower there is the largest clock in the country, Big Ben. Big Ben strikes every quarter of an hour.
To the west of Westminster is West End, the richest part of London. It is full of luxury hotels, super-markets, cinemas and concert-halls. In the centre of the West End the Trafalgar Square is situated with the famous statue of Lord Nelson.
To the east of Westminster is East End, an industrial district of the capital. Most of plants and factories are situated there.
The official London residence of the Queen is Buckingham Palace. The palace was built in 1703 by the Duke Buckingham. The daily ceremony of the Changing of the Guard takes place in its courtyard.
There are many museums in London. For example, the British Museum, the Natural History Museum, the Science Museum. The British Museum is the biggest museum in London. The museum is famous for its library — one of the richest in the world.
There are many beautiful parks in London. St James’s Park, Green Park, Hyde Park, and Kensington Gardens are linked together and form above 300 hectares of parkland in the heart of London.
Exercise 1. Answer the following questions on the text:
1. What do you know about Big Ben?
2. Who presides over the assembly of The House of Lords?
3. What can you tell about The State Opening of Parliament?
4. What is Whitehall famous for?
5. How did Oliver Cromwell use the Banqueting Hall?
6. When do Trooping the Colour and Changing the Guard take place?
7. Who lives on Downing Street?
Exercise 2. Find some more information about other sights of Britain and make a short report.
Britain's second largest city, after London, is often thought of as a busy industrial center with little to offer visitors. Thousands of trades flourished, especially in metalworking and Birmingham soon made everything from jewellery to pins, buttons and steam engines. Products stamped "Made in Birmingham" became known in nearly every country in the world.
The Council House and adjoining Museum and Art Gallery, located in the city centre, was built during the 19th century, in the Italian Renaissance style. Its clock tower, shown left, has affectionately been given the name 'Big Brum' by local residents - Birmingham's own answer to Big Ben.
In the centre of the city is the Bull Ring, a market that has been held since the 12th century. The current Indoor Market opened in October 2000, replacing the old Bull Ring Market Hall.
Birmingham has more miles of waterways than Venice. Its 18/19th century canal system was built to bring water transport into the heart of the city, which comprises several converging waterways; the Birmingham Canal, Worcester-Birmingham Canal, Birmingham-Fazeley Canal and the Grand Union that runs up from London to the Birmingham-Fazeley. These waterways have been carefully preserved to this day. Narrow-boats and cabin cruisers can moor within the city centre. The most popular mooring being the Gas Street Basin, with its many waterside pubs and brightly painted narrow boats.
Boat trips on the canals run daily all year round from the Gas Street Basin and from Kingston Row. There are many canal-side walks to enjoy, such as Brindley Walk, Summer Row and Kingston Row. The picture on the left shows a view of the canal from Broad Street bridge, where it passes by the Birmingham Symphony Hall. The white facade of the National Indoor Arena can also be seen in the background.
Birmingham has 6,000 acres of open spaces, including 200 parks. The largest is at Cannon Hill along aside the River Lea, which includes a nature centre that covers 6.5 acres, in which plants and animals can be studied in their natural surroundings.
If you enjoy shopping there are many excellent shopping centres in the city, including Broad Street, Western Arcade, Pavillion, Pallasades and the Bullring shopping centre.
St Philip's, in Colmore Row, is Birmingham's Anglican Cathedral. The Church was consecrated in 1715 and become a cathedral in 1905. The designer Thomas Archer spent many years in Rome and the Baroque style of the building reflects his Italian influence. However, the most famous church in the city is St Martin's in the Bull Ring, which dates from the 13th century.
The oldest building in the city centre (other than St Martin's) is the Old Crown House in High Street, Deritend. It is a half-timbered building of the late 14th century, which was originally a manor house. It is said that Queen Elizabeth I stayed there overnight in 1575.
Cities and Towns of Great Britain
Great Britain is a highly developed industrial country, and most of the people live in large cities.
Naturally, the capital comes first among the biggest industrial cities of the country. Lots of things such as clothes, food, planes and cars are made in London.
Birmingham is the biggest town in the centre of England. Machines, cars and lorries are made here. TV- and radio-sets are also produced in Birmingham.
Manchester is an industrial capital of the North of England. It is a very old city. It is the centre of cotton industry. Manchester was the first city in Great Britain to build an airport in 1929. Manchester has many libraries, museums, art galleries and theatres.
Edinburgh is the capital of Scotland. It is one of the most beautiful cities in Europe. Its main attractions are the Floral clock made of growing flowers, and the Edinburgh Art Festivals, the annual summer performances of operas, dancing, music and drama.
Glasgow is another great Scottish city. It is famous for its shipyards. Glasgow is a great industrial city and also the centre of Scottish culture.
Cardiff is the capital of Wales. It is a big port and ships come here from all over the world.
Cambridge and Oxford are the oldest university towns in Great Britain. Many great men studied in these universities: Cromwell, Newton, Byron, Darwin and others.
Brighton is a dynamic seaside town situated on the Sussex coast, within easy reach of London, just an hour on the train from Victoria station. Also easily accessible by car via the M25 and M23 motorways. Once there you can easily walk everywhere and you will find the sea air very exhilarating.
Brighton is a good place to shop and its central location on the south coast makes it a useful touring base.
The town has a long history with many splendid houses and hotels that indicate all the glories of its early decorative architecture. A visit to Brighton would not be complete without a stroll on the Victorian pier with its many amusements and shows.
The Lanes, just off the seafront, is a fascinating area of winding alleys and hidden squares and passages. Here you will find stylish boutiques plus souvenir, antique and music shops. The Lanes is a popular celebrity choice for jewellery. There are also plenty of cafés, restaurants and traditional pubs. Near to the Lanes are many cultural activities such as the museum and art gallery.
The exotic, multi-towered Royal Pavilion, a creation of the eccentric Prince Regent in 1787, is one of Britain's most remarkable buildings. Inside it has the most extravagant décor and is the venue for much lavish entertainment.
If you love the sea go to Brighton Marina, just along the sea front in Kemp Town where you can enjoy a view of the boats and yachts from the water side. Also try to visit the Sea Life Centre on marine parade where the aquarium houses a fascinating selection of sea creatures.
Another interesting shopping experience is the North Lane area close to the station where you will find many vintage shops and crafts studios.
Brighton provides water sports during the day and a varied and vibrant night life. Its selection of nightclubs and discos are well worth a visit and the Regency Theatre will take you back to a bygone elegant era and then bring you back into the 21st century as this town has managed to do.
Liverpool is a modern cosmopolitan city on the banks of the River Mersey, famous for its restored waterfront, modern musical roots and rich culture. It is the fourth largest city in the United Kingdom and with 7 miles of docks, it is the second largest port after London. The city originates from a small 1st century fishing settlement on the north bank of the Mersey
Three landmarks dominate Liverpool's Pier Head (now a World Heritage site), next to Albert Dock On each of the Royal Liver Building's twin towers perches a legendary Liver-bird, looking out over the city it symbolises. A stone memorial located on the end of Pier Head commemorates the engine-room staff of the Titanic, and other brave engineers lost at sea since it sank in 1912.
During the early 60s a popular night club in Liverpool was the Cavern, where four local lads introduced a new beat, which was to have one of the greatest influences on modern music. A reconstruction of the original Cavern Club now stands on Mathew Street. Today, over 40 years after the group split-up they have become a bigger attraction than ever - testified by the popularity of The Beatles Story attraction in Albert Dock. Paul McCartney's 1950s family home (20 Forthlin Road) were the Beatles met and wrote many of their early songs, has been restored by the National Trust, and is also open to the public.
The city is not just known for Beatles mania and 60s pop music but is also home to the acclaimed Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra.
Liverpool has two impressive cathedrals; the traditional Anglican Cathedral of St James and the metropolitan Roman Catholic Cathedral of Christ the King.
Other buildings of architectural merit include: Liverpool Town Hall, completed in 1754 by John Wood (also contemporary architect for the city of Bath).
Things to do in Liverpool
Some of the best areas for shopping in Liverpool are the Cavern Walks on Mathew Street, Clayton Square Shopping Centre (L1 1QR) and the nearby St John's centre.
Liverpool has a wide range of cinemas and a lively theatre culture, such as, the Unity Theatre, the Philharmonic Hall, the home of the Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra.
A riverside walk offers sights of the Mersey ferries, shipyard cranes. For a more relaxed view of the riverside, take a trip on one of the Famous Mersey Ferries. Beautifully restored boats from Europe's oldest ferry service provide the best view of the city's 7 miles of waterfront. Cruises depart hourly.
Places of interest to visit in Liverpool
The Beatles Story
A modern exhibition totally dedicated to the remarkable tale of the four famous Liverpudlians who took the world by storm changing the face of popular music for ever. Exhibits include George Harrison's first guitar and reconstructions of The Cavern Club, Abbey Road recording studios and the Yellow Submarine. Walk-through sight and sound experience with audio tour guide narrated by John Lennon's sister, Julia.
Located in the Picton, Hornby and Brown buildings, the library is one of the country's largest and most significant County Record offices. Permanent exhibitions include rare books and works of art, as well as documents autographed by such notables as Elizabeth I, Nelson and Napoleon.
Designed by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott and built in Gothic style from red sandstone. It also contains the world's largest church pipe organ.
Wide variety of exhibits ranging from dinosaurs to space exploration. Other exhibits include military and transport galleries, planetarium, aquarium and natural history room.
National Wildflower Centre
The extensive grounds at Court Hey Park, located on the outskirts of the city. The centre provides wildflower seeds, educational materials and interactive learning facilities via its many demonstration areas.
Located in the Liverpool suburb of Mossley Hill, Sudley House is the former home of the rich merchant George Holt. Displays Holt's private collection of British paintings including Gainsborough, Turner, Reynolds
Walker Art Gallery
Contains the largest collection of paintings in the UK, outside London. Among the famous works on display are: works by Turner, Hogarth, Reynolds and George Srubbs, who was born in Liverpool. Also on view are sculptures by Rodin, Renoir and Epsrein.
Manchester is a modern city with much of interest to see and do. The city's ancient cotton mills and docks have left behind a grand architectural heritage, and despite widespread destruction during wartime bombing, many outstanding buildings still remain.
Manchester contains a wealth of art galleries, museums and theatres, enough to rival any great European city. The city centre is also a mecca for shopping, with a wide variety of shopping areas, restaurants and nightclubs.
Town Hall, which stands facing Albert Square in the centre of town, is one of Manchester's most impressive buildings. The hall was completed in 1877, in a true Gothic style, by Alfred Waterhouse (who also designed the Natural History Museum in London). The exterior is reminiscent of a church with a clock tower of similar appearance to Big Ben. Inside the main hall are statues of people who have played an important role in Manchester's history
Manchester also has its fair share of green open spaces. Spacious grounds surround both Heaton and Wythenshawe Halls, with children's play areas, landscaped gardens, lawns and woodlands. The extensive Platt Fields Park, adjoining Platt Hall, was once noted for its public orators, the northwest's equivalent of London's Speakers' Corner.
The city is also renowned for its sporting excellence. Manchester was host to the Commonwealth Games in 2002 and supports two of the nations’ Premier League football teams - Manchester City and Manchester United.
The History of Manchester
As with all place names ending with the term 'chester' (meaning "camp of soldiers"), Manchester's roots date back to the Roman invasion of Britain, when in 79 AD Over half a century later, the 36 mile (55 km) long Ship Canal was built to link the city's textile industry with the sea, which then opened the way for the growth of other industries. Today the port is still one of the busiest in Britain, bringing raw materials to the factories and exporting goods.
Places of interest to visit in Manchester
John Rylands Library
Britain's first free library, situated in Gothic-style building in Deansgate, with notable watermarking of the red sandstone in entrance hall. Contains some of the earliest examples of printed works, in more than 50 languages, dating from 3000 BC, including a block-print document dated 1423.
Royal Exchange building
A new and revolutionary theatre located in the old colonnaded cotton exchange building, parts of which date from 1874. Its main hall boasts an acre of floor space, once accommodating thousands of cotton traders. The theatre is housed in futuristic glass and steel structure inside. It also contains a craft centre and gallery. St Ann's Square, Manchester.
Originally the church of St Mary, St Denys and St George, it was raised to cathedral status in 1847. Heavily bombed during the war, it has now been fully restored. The perpendicular style building has side chapels The Victoria porch, at foot of the tower, commemorates Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee of 1897. Wall posts are supported by finely carved angels playing bagpipes, trumpets and harps. Its treasures include three royal charters and many unusual stone carvings.
Manchester Art Gallery
Situated in Mosley Street, it was originally the headquarters of the Royal Manchester Institution for the promotion of Literature. The stunning Victorian building was designed by Sir Charles Barry (architect to the Houses of Parliament) and opened in 1829. It contains a varied and fine collection of English paintings, from the 16th century to the present day. There is also some excellent 19th-century French Impressionist paintings and Pre-Raphaelite works, plus some early Italian, Dutch and Flemish work and several sculptures,contains displays of ceramics, silver and glassware.
The Manchester Museum
Part of the Manchester university, specialising in natural history and archaeological. Exhibits include a renowned collection of Egyptian mummies, and Greek and Roman coins. Natural history section contains fossils and plants and a special Japanese section.
The Museum of Science and Industry
A large comprehensive museum of science and technology, which opened in 1969 on the site of world's first passenger railway station. Much of the museum is devoted to the textile industry, with emphasis on cotton weaving, and associated trades such as dyeing and printing. The development of steam power is well represented by both models and full scale examples of steam engines of all types.
Museum of Costume
Housed in Platt Hall, a fine Georgian mansion, it comprises one of the most comprehensive costume collections in Great Britain. Exchanging exhibits cover the various styles of fashion and accessories over the last 400 years.
Manchester United Museum & Tour Centre
The first purpose-built football museum in Britain. Words, pictures and multimedia presentations explore the 130 year history of the Manchester United football club.
Whitworth Art Gallery
Houses fine collection of English watercolours, from the 18th century to the present day. Also a superb section on ancient textiles including Coptic robes and cloths.
Система образования Великобритании.
BritishEducationMany British children start school at the age of 3 or 4 if there is a play school near their house.
These schools are nursery and they are not compulsory. Children are taught to sing, draw, they play different creative games.
Compulsory education begins at the age of 5, when children go to primary school. All children start primary school by the age of 5. Primary education lasts for six years.
They attend the infant school from 5 to 7 and then junior school until they are 11.
Some parents pay for their children to attend a privateschool but all children have the right to go to a state school which is free.
Private schools are called public schools. Most of them are boarding schools.
More than 90% of British children attend state schools.
In English schools pupils have to address men teachers “Sir” and women teachers “Miss” or “Mrs”.
The most famous public schools in Britain are Eton, Harrow, Winchester.
A year at Eton costs 17,000 pounds. It is very old, and a lot of important people used to be students there. It is an all-boys school.
Prince William, the Queen’s grandson, went to Eton too.
Compulsory education begins at 5 when children in England & Wales go to infant schools or departments; at 7 many go on to junior schools or departments. In some areas of England there are nursery schools for children under 5 years of age. Some children between 2 & 5 receive education in nursery classes or in infant’s classes in primary schools. Many children attend informal pre-school play-groups organized by parents in private homes. Nursery schools are staffed with teachers and students in training. There are all kinds of toys to keep the children busy from 9 o'clock till 4 o'clock p.m. - while their parents are at work here the babies play, lunch & sleep. They can run about and play in safety with someone keeping an eye on them. For day nurseries which remain open all the year round the parents pay according to their income.
Most children start school at 5 in a primary school. A primary school may be divided into two parts- infants & juniors. At infants schools reading, writing & arithmetic are taught for about 20 minutes a day during the first year, gradually increasing to about 2 hours in their last year. There is usually no written timetable. Much time is spent in modeling from clay or drawing, reading and singing.
By the time children are ready for the junior school they will be able to read & write, do simple addition and subtraction of numbers. At 7 children go from the infants school to the junior school. This marks the transition from play to 'real work'. The children have set periods of arithmetic, reading and composition which are all Eleven-Plus subjects. History, Geography, Nature Study, Art & Music, PE, Swimming are also on the timetable.
Pupils are streamed, according to their ability to learn, into A,B,C & D streams. The least gifted are in the D streams. Formerly towards the end of their fourth year the pupils wrote their 11-Plus Exams. The hated 11+ was a selective procedure on which not only the pupils' future schooling but their careers depended. The abolition of selection at 11+ brought to life comprehensive schools where pupils can get secondary education.
As you have already guessed the usual age of transfer from primary to secondary school is 11. Most primary schools are state- funded although many of them are run by churches and the child is taught in order with the National Curriculum. Independent fee-paying schools which are called preparatory schools, prepare children for the Common Entrance Examination set by the independent secondary schools. Usually parents prefer state primary schools -95 % and only 5% prefer independent.
SECONDARY EDUCATIONAfter six years of primary education children take exams in core subjects and go to a secondary school.
Children study compulsory (core) subjects:
IT (information technology)
and optional courses:
one foreign language
one science subject
one art subject
PE (physical education)
Design and Technology
SCHOOL UNIFORMA lot of people think that school uniforms in England are for the children from rich families at the country’s best schools.
But it isn’t always true .In fact, uniforms first came to schools for poor because they were cheaper.
Today a lot of British schools have uniforms. Usually they differ only in colours but include a blazer, a pullover, a shirt (a blouse), trousers (a skirt), tights or socks, shoes and boots, a scarf and gloves of a certain colour, a cap or a hat. School badge is on a cap and on a blazer’s pocket.
One of the most important elements of the uniform is a school tie.
School tie – у англичан есть выражение ”To be true to you school tie”- “Быть верным своему школьному галстуку”.Это означает, что и через много лет выпускники сохраняют верность своим школьным друзьям и всегда готовы помочь им.
Для выпускников престижных частных школ такой галстук является не только символом дружбы и взаимопомощи, но и пропуском в общество самых известных и влиятельных людей страны.
After five years of secondary education, pupils take GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) examination.
Compulsory education ends at 16. Some people leave secondary school and go to colleges for further education. Some choose to stay at secondary school for two years more and prepare for a university.
M A R K S & SCHOOL RULES
EVERY BRITISH SCHOOL HAS ITS RULES,
Say hello when you see a teacher
Come to school on time
Stand up when a teacher comes into the class
Wear your school uniform
Don’t eat or drink in the classroom
Don’t run in the corridors
Don’t bring mobile phones to class
Don’t talk to people in lessons
Higher education begins at 18 and usually lasts three or four years.
Students go to universities, polytechnics or colleges of higher education.
There are now about 80 universities in Great Britain.
The academic year is divided into three terms.
Terminal examinations are held at the end of autumn, spring and summer terms. Only two reexaminations are allowed.
British universities usually keep to the customs of the past. Upon graduation all the students have to wear long black gowns and “students caps”.
OXFORD AND CAMBRIDGE
Oxford University is the oldest and most famous in Britain. It was founded in the 12-th century and is a collection of colleges with more then 12,000 students and 1,000 teachers.
Cambridge is the second oldest. It was founded in the 13-th century and has 27 colleges.
They both have a reputation of privileged schools. Many prominent people studied there.
The tutorial system is one of the ways in which these universities differ from all other. Every student has a tutor who plans his work.
Традиции, праздникиВеликобританииBritish Traditions
British nation is considered to be the most conservative in Europe. It is not a secret that every nation and every country has its own customs and traditions. In Great Britain people attach greater importance to traditions and customs than in other European countries. Englishmen are proud of their traditions and carefully keep them up. The best examples are their queen, money system, their weights and measures.
There are many customs and some of them are very old. There is, for example, the Marble Championship, where the British Champion is crowned; he wins a silver cup known among folk dancers as Morris Dancing. Morris Dancing is an event where people, worn in beautiful clothes with ribbons and bells, dance with handkerchiefs or big sticks in their hands, while traditional music sounds.
Another example is the Boat Race, which takes place on the river Thames, often on Easter Sunday. A boat with a team from Oxford University and one with a team from Cambridge University hold a race.
British people think that the Grand National horse race is the most exciting horse race in the world. It takes place near Liverpool every year. Sometimes it happens the same day as the Boat Race takes place, sometimes a week later. Amateur riders as well as professional jockeys can participate. It is a very famous event.
A popular Scottish event is the Edinburgh Festival of music and drama, which takes place every year. A truly Welsh event is the Eisteddfod, a national festival of traditional poetry and music, with a competition for the best new poem in Welsh.
If we look at English weights and measures, we can be convinced that the British are very conservative people. They do not use the internationally accepted measurements. They have conserved their old measures. There are nine essential measures. For general use, the smallest weight is one ounce, then 16 ounce is equal to a pound. Fourteen pounds is one stone.
The English always give people's weight in pounds and stones. Liquids they measure in pints, quarts and gallons. There are two pints in a quart and four quarts or eight pints are in one gallon. For length, they have inches» foot, yards and miles.
If we have always been used to the metric system therefore the English monetary system could be found rather difficult for us. They have a pound sterling, which is divided into twenty shillings, half-crown is cost two shillings and sixpence, shilling is worth twelve pennies and one penny could be changed by two halfpennies.
Speaking about British food we normally remember such kinds as the sandwich, fish and chips, a pudding, porridge, some pies, steaks, eggs and bacon for breakfast and tea of course. You may be surprised but the most popular dish today is curry.
As most things in Britain, its traditional cuisine goes back to the ancient time, so they ate bread and cheese, roasted and stewed meat and pies many centuries ago. Such meals as fish and chips, sausages with mashed potatoes and onions were once urban street food. Now fish and chips have almost become a face of British pubs. Of course, the cuisine has had a great influence of Chinese, Thai and Indian culture of cooking.
Kissing is not common as a form of greeting unless you know someone well. It is especially unusual between men, who usually shake hands or just say hello without touching . People usually kiss on one cheek only. Unless you know someone well, it is impolite to ask them how much they earn, or how much they paid for something. In shops and at bus stops, go to the back of the queue and wait. If you jump a queue , other people will angrily tell you to wait your turn. Punctuality is important. If you arrange a meeting , try to not be more than a few minutes late. On trains, especially underground trains, people tend to sit in the silence and read. If you try to start a conversation with the person next to you , do not be surprised if you do not get much of a response. They rather want to be alone than talk with you – but of course it is a question how charming, pretty or handsome you are.
1. What nation is considered to be the most conservative in Europe?
2. What are the best examples of their conservatism?
3. What are the most popular English traditions?
4. What is the original name of Halloween?
5. What is a popular Scottish event?
6. What is the Eisteddfod?
7. What peculiarities of the English monetary system do you know?
to be considered — считаться, рассматриватьсякакcustoms — традиции
to attach — уделять
proud — гордый
to keep (past kept, p.p. kept) up — поддерживать, хранить
to crown — короновать
folk — народный (относящийся к обычаям, традициям простого народа)
to wear (past wore, p.p. worn) — одевать, носить
ribbon — лента, ленточка; тесьма
handkerchief — носовой платок
Boat Race — лодочные гонки
Easter Sunday — Пасхальное Воскресенье
exciting — возбуждающий, волнующий
amateur — любитель; поклонник; любительский
rider — всадник, наездник; жокей
event — событие
countryside — сельская местность
Celtic — кельтский
origin — происхождение; начало
Eisteddfod — ежегодный фестиваль бардов (в Уэльсе)
competition — соревнование
to convince - убеждать, уверять
essential — важнейший; необходимый; основной
ounce — унция (- 28,3 г)
pound — фунт (современная мера веса, используемая в англоговорящих странах; = 453,6 г)
stone — мн. обыкн. неизм. стоун (мера веса, равен 14 фунтам, или 6,34 кг)
pint — пинта (мера емкости; в Англии = 0,57 л; в США = = 0,47 л для жидкостей)
quart — кварта (единица измерения объема жидкости; равняется а/4 галлона — 2 пинтам)
gallon — галлон (мера жидких и сыпучих тел = 4,54 л)
inch — дюйм (= 2,5 см)
foot — мн. ч. неизм. фут (мера длины, равная 30,48 см)
yard — ярд (мера длины, равная 3 футам или 914,4 мм)
mile — английская миля (*= 1609 м)
metric system — метрическая система
pound sterling — фунт стерлингов (денежная единица Великобритании, равнялась 20 шиллингам, или 240 пенсам; с 1971 г. = 100 пенсам)
shilling — шиллинг (англ. серебряная монета = 1/20 фунта стерлингов — 12 пенсам)
penny — мн. репсе, pennies (об отдельных монетах) пенни, пенс
half-crown — полкроны (монета в 2 шиллинга 6 пенсов)
halfpenny — полпенни
Искусство и культура Великобритании.
Artistic and cultural life in Great Britain.
Artistic and cultural life in Britain is rather rich. It passed several main stages in its development.
The Saxon King Alfred encouraged the arts and culture. The chief debt owed to him by English literature is for his translations of and commentaries on Latin works. Art, culture and literature flowered during the Elizabethan age, during the reign of Elizabeth I; it was the period of English domination of the oceans.
It was at this time that William Shakespeare lived.The empire, which was very powerful under Queen Victoria, saw another cultural and artistic hey-day as a result of industrialisation and the expansion of international trade.
But German air raids caused much damage in the First World War and then during the Second World War. The madness of the wars briefly interrupted the development of culture.
Immigrants who have arrived from all parts of the Commonwealth since 1945 have not only created a mixture of nations, but have also brought their cultures and habits with them. Monuments and traces of past greatness are everywhere. There are buildings of all styles and periods. A great number of museums and galleries display precious and interesting finds from all parts of the world and from all stage in the development of nature, man and art. London is one of the leading world centres for music, drama, opera and dance. Festivals held in towns and cities throughout the country attract much interest. Many British playwrights, composers, sculptors, painters, writers, actors, singers and dancers are known all over the world.
Inigo Jones and Christopher Wren
Inigo Jones was the first man to bring the Italian Renaissance style to Great Britain. He had studied in Italy for some years, and in 1615 became Surveyor-General of the works.
The style he built in was pure Italian with as few modifications as possible. His buildings were very un-English in character, with regularly spaced columns along the front His two most revolutionary designs were the Banqueting House in Whitehall and the Queen's House at Greenwich. The plan of the latter, completely symmetrical, with its strict classical details and the principal rooms on the first floor, influenced architecture in Britain. But not during the lifetime of Inigo Jones. All those who followed him had to adapt this new foreign building technique to English ways and English climate, English building materials and English craftsmen.
Christopher Wren was the man who did it. He was a mathematician, an astronomer and, above all, an inventor. He invented new ways of using traditional English building materials, brick and ordinary roofing tiles, to keep within the limits of classical design. He, like Inigo Jones, was appointed Surveyor-General to the Crown when he was about thirty years old, and almost immediately he started rebuilding the churches of London, burnt down in the Great Fire of 1666. Wren's churches are chiefly known by their beautiful spires, which show in their structure the greatest engineering cunning.But Ch. Wren also influenced the design of houses, both in town and in the country.The best-known buildings designed by Ch. Wren are St. Paul's Cathedral in London and the Sheldonion Theatre in Oxford.
The period of the Industrial Revolution had no natural style of its own. Businessmen wanted art for their money. The architect was to provide a facade in the Gothic style, or he was to turn the building into something like a Norman castle, or a Renaissance palace, or even an Oriental mosque. For theatres and opera houses the theatrical Baroque style was often most suitable. Churches were more often than not built in the Gothic style. The twentieth century has seen great changes in Britain's architecture.
St. Paul’s Cathedral
It is safe to say that the three most famous buildings in England are Westminster Abbey, the Tower of London and St. Paul's Cathedral.St. Paul's Cathedral is the work of the famous architect Sir Christopher Wren. It is said to be one of the finest pieces of architecture in Europe. Work on Wren's masterpiece began in 1675 after a Norman church, old St. Paul's, was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666. For 35 years the building of St. Paul's Cathedral went on, and Wren was an old mall before it was finished.
From far away you can see the huge dome with a golden ball and cross on the top. The interior of the Cathedral is very beautiful. It is fall of monuments. The most important, perhaps, is the one dedicated to the Duke of Wellington. After looking round you can climb 263 steps to the Whispering Gallery, which runs round the dome. It is called so, because if someone whispers close to the wall on one side, a person with his ear close to the wall on the other side can hear what is said. But if you want to reach the foot of the ball, you have to climb 637 steps. As for Christopher Wren, who is now known as ‘the architect of London’, he found his fame only after his death. He was buried in the Cathedral. Buried here are Nelson, Wellington and Sir Joshua Reynolds.
Those who are interested in English architecture can study all the architectural styles of the past 500 or 600 years in Cambridge. The Chapel of King’s College is the most beautiful building in Cambridge and one of the greatest Gothic buildings in Europe. It is built in the Perpendicular style. Its foundation stone was laid in 1446, but it was completed sixty-nine years later. The interior of the Chapel is a single lofty aisle and the stonework of the walls is like lace. The Chapel has a wonderful fan-vaulting which is typical of the churches of that time. We admire the skill of the architects and crafts men who created all these wonderful buildings.
Westminster Abbey is a fine Gothic building, which stands opposite the Houses of Parliament. It is the work of many hands and different ages. The oldest part of the building dates from the eighth century. It was a monastery - the West Minster. In the 11th century Edward the Confessor afteryears spent in France founded a great Norman Abbey. In 200 years Henry III decided to pull down the Norman Abbeyand build a more beautiful one after the style then balling in France. Since then the Abbey remains the most French of all English Gothic churches, higher than any otherEnglish church (103 feet) and much narrower. The towers were built in 1735-1740. One of the greater glories of the Abbey is the Chapel of Henry VII, with its delicate fan-vaulting. The Chapel is of stone and glass, so wonderfully cut and sculptured that it seems unreal. It contains an interesting collection of swords and standards of the ‘Knights of the Bath’. The Abbey is famous for its stained glass.
Since the far-off time of William the Conqueror Westminster Abbey has been the crowning place of the kings and queens of England. The Abbey is sometimes compared with a mausoleum, because there are tombs and memorials of almost all English monarchs, many statesmen, famous scientists, writers and musicians.
If you go past the magnificent tombstones of kings and queens, some made of gold and precious stones, past the gold-and-silver banners of the Order of the Garter, which are hanging from the ceiling, you will come to Poets’ Corner. There many of the greatest writers are buried: Geoffrey Chaucer, Samuel Johnson, Charles Dickens, Alfred Tennyson, Thomas Hardy and Rudyard Kipling. Here too, though these writers are not buried in Westminster Abbey, are memorials to William Shakespeare and John Milton, Burns and Byron, Walter Scott, William Makepeace Thackeray and the great American poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow.
Here in the Abbey there is also the Tomb of the Unknown Warrior, a symbol of the nation’s grief. The inscription on the tomb reads: ‘Beneath this stone rests the body of a British Warrior unknown by name or rank brought from France to lie among the most illustrious of the land...’
In the Royal Air Force Chapel there is a monument to those who died during the Battle of Britain, the famous and decisive air battle over the territory of Britain in the Second World War.
The Tower of London
The Tower on the north bank of the Thames is one of the most ancient buildings of London. It was founded in the 11th century by William the Conqueror. But each monarch left some kind of personal mark on it. For many centuries the Tower has been a fortress, a palace, a prison and royaltreasury. It is now a museum of arms and armour and as one of the strongest fortresses in Britain, it has the Crown Jewels.
The grey stones of the Tower could tell terrible stories of violence and injustice. Many sad and cruel events took place within the walls of the Tower. It was here that Thomas More, the great humanist, was falsely accused and executed. Among famous prisoners executed at the Tower were Henry VIII's wives Ann Boleyn and Catherine Howard.
When Queen Elizabeth was a princess, she was sent to the Tower by Mary Tudor (‘Bloody Mary’) and kept prisoner for some time.
The ravens whose forefathers used to find food in the Tower still live here as part of its history. There is a legend that if the ravens disappear the Tower will fall. That is why the birds are carefully guarded.
The White Tower was built by William the Conquerorto protect and control the City of London. It is the oldest and the most important building, surrounded by other towers, which all have different names.
The Tower is guarded by the Yeomen Warders, popularly called ‘Beefeaters’. There are two letters, E.R., on the frontof their tunics. They stand for the Queen's name ElizabethRegina. The uniform is as it used to be in Tudor times.
Their everyday uniform is black and red, but on state occasions they wear a ceremonial dress: fine red state uniforms with the golden and black stripes and the wide lace collar, which were in fashion in the 16th century.
Every night at 10 p.m. at the Tower of London the Ceremony of the Keys or locking up of the Tower for the nigh takes place. It goes back to the Middle Ages. Five minutes before the hour the Headwarder comes out with a bunch of keys and an old lantern. He goes to the guardhouse and cries: ‘Escort for the keys’. Then he closes the three gates and goes to the sentry, who calls: ‘Halt, who comes there?’Headwarder replies: ‘The Keys’. ‘Whose Keys?’ demands the sentry. ‘Queen Elizabeth's Keys’, comes the answer. ‘Advance Queen Elizabeth's Keys. All's well’. The keys are finally carried to the Queen's House where they are safe for the night. After the ceremony everyone who approaches the gate must give the password or turn away.
1. What is the oldest building in London?
2. What time is it dating from?
3. What purposes has the Tower served?
4. How long was the Tower of London the chief arsenal?
5. What galleries are represented in the Tower of London?
6. What Crown Jewels can you think of?
7. Who are the Yeoman Warders?
8. What do you know about the Ceremony of the Keys?
Festivals of Music and Drama
Post-war years have witnessed a significant increase in the number of festivals of music and drama though not enough has been done to involve the general public in these activities. Some of the festivals, however, are widely popular and it is with these that the book deals. A number of other festivals of music and drama, less well known but sufficiently important to be mentioned, are also included in the list below.
The Bath Festival
The number of festivals held in Britain every summer goes on and on increasing but few are as well established or highly thought of, particularly in the wider European scene, as the Bath Festival.
In June when the city is at its most beautiful the festival attracts some of the finest musicians in the world to Bath, as well as thousands of visitors from Britain and abroad.
Under the artistic direction of Sir Michael Tippett, composer, conductor and one of the greatest minds in British music today, the festival presents a programme of orchestral and choral concerts, song and instrumental recitals and chamber music, so well suited to the beautiful 18th - century halls of Bath. The range of music included is wide and young performers are given opportunities to work with some of the leading names in their fields.
But the festival is not all music. The programme usually includes lectures and exhibitions, sometimes ballet, opera, drama, or films, as well as tours of Bath and the surrounding area and houses not normally open to the public, often a costume ball, maybe poetry - the variety is endless.
Much goes on in the city at festival time and many organisations produce a bewildering complexity of events to cater for all tastes from bicycle races and beer gardens to a mammoth one day festival of folk and blues.
The Chichester Theatre Festival
The fame achieved by the Edinburgh Festival, to say nothing of the large number of visitors that it brings every year to the Scottish capital, has encouraged many other towns in Britain to organise similar festivals. Those at Bath, Cheltenham and Aldeburgh have all become considerable artistic successes, even if they haven't brought as much business to these towns as the local shopkeepers had hoped for.
The latest festival town to join the list is Chichester, which has earned a great deal of prestige by building, in record time, a large theatre holding over one thousand five hundred people. Here will be held each year a theatre festival in which many stars from the London stage will be eager to participate.
The first season scored a considerable success. The repertoire consisted of an old English comedy, a sixteenth- century tragedy and a production of Chekhov's “UncleVanya”in which every part was taken by a top star.
But the chief interest of the Chichester Festival is the new theatre itself, which has an apron stage. Most of you will know that the apron stage, which was common in Shakespeare's day, projects out into the auditorium. With an apron stage there is no proscenium arch, or stage sets of the kind we are used to in the modern theatre. This calls for the use of an entirely different technique on the part both of the players, who have their audience on three sides of them instead of just in front, and the producer. The players must make proper use of their voices, which, to a generation accustomed to mumbling into microphones, is not easy.
Chichester itself is a small country town in the heart of Sussex, and the theatre stands on the edge of a beautiful park. Unlike Glyndebourne where the entire audience wears evening dress, the clothes worn by the audience at Chichester are much less formal; but as the festival is held in the summer the pretty frocks of the women make an attractive picture as they stand and gossip outside the theatre during the intervals, or snatch hasty refreshments from their cars in the park.
The Welsh Eisteddfod
No country in the world has a greater love of music and poetry than the people of Wales. Today, Eisteddfod is held at scores of places throughout Wales, particularly from May to early November. The habit of holding similar events dates back to early history and there are records of competitions for Welsh poets and musicians in the twelfth century. The Eisteddfod sprang from the Gorsedd, or National Assembly of Bards. It was held occasionally up to 1819, but since then has become an annual event for the encouragement of Welsh literature and music and the preservation of the Welsh language and ancient national customs.
The Royal National Eisteddfod of Wales is held annually early in August, in North and South Wales alternately, its actual venue varying from year to year. It attracts Welsh people from all over the world. The programme includes male and mixed choirs, brass-band concerts, many children's events, drama, arts and crafts and, of course, the ceremony of the Crowning of the Bard.
Next in importance is the great Llangollen International Music Eisteddfod, held early in July and attended by competitors from many countries, all wearing their picturesque and often colourful national costumes. It is an event probably without parallel anywhere in the world. There are at least twenty-five other major Eisteddfods from May to November.
In addition to the Eisteddfod, about thirty major Welsh Singing Festivals are held throughout Wales from May until early November.
The Edinburgh Festival
It is a good thing that the Edinburgh Festival hits the Scottish Capital outside term time. Not so much because the University hostels - and students’digs - are needed of provide accommodation for Festival visitors but because this most exhilarating occasion allows no time for anything mundane. It gives intelligent diversion for most of the twenty - four hours each weekday in its three weeks (it is not tactful to ask about Sundays - you explore the surrounding terrain then). The programmes always include some of the finest chamber music ensemble and soloists in the world. There are plenty of matinees; evening concerts, opera, drama and ballet performances usually take place at conventional times - but the floodlit Military Tattoo at Edinburgh Castle obviously doesn't start till after dusk, and late night entertainments and the Festival Club can take you into the early hours of the morning.
In recent years, about 90,000 people have flocked into Edinburgh every year during the three weeks at the end of August and early September. The 90,000, of course, does not include the very large numbers of people who discover pressing reasons for visiting their Edinburgh relations about this time, nor the many thousands who come into the city on day trips from all over the country.
They wouldn't all come, year after year, to a city bursting to capacity if they didn't find the journey eminently worth-while. They find in Edinburgh Festival the great orchestras and soloists of the world, with top-class opera thrown in; famous ballet companies, art exhibitions and leading drama; the Tattoo, whose dramatic colour inspires many a hurried claim to Scottish ancestry.
Since the Festival started in 1947 as a gesture of the Scottish renaissance against post-war austerity, much has blossomed around it. Every hall in the city is occupied by some diversion: and you may find Shakespeare by penetrating an ancient close off the Royal Mile, or plain-song in a local church. "Fringe" events bring performing bodies from all over Britain and beyond, and student groups are always prominent among them, responsible often for interesting experiments in the drama. Then there is the International Film Festival, bringing documentaries from perhaps 30 countries; Highland Games, and all sorts of other ploys from puppet to photo shows.
The National Musical Instrument of the Scots
The bagpipewas known to the ancient civilisations of the Near East. It was probably introduced into Britain by the Romans. Carvings of bagpipe players on churches and a few words about them in the works of Chaucer and other writers show that it was popular all over the country in the Middle Ages. Now bagpipes can be seen and head only in the northern counties of England, in Ireland and in Scotland where it was introduced much later. Bagpipes have been used ill most European countries. It is also native to India and China.In Scotland the bagpipe is first recorded in the 16th century during the reign of James I, who was a very good player, and probably did much to make it popular. For long it has been considered a national Scottish instrument. The sound of the bagpipes is very stirring. The old Highland clans and later the Highland regiments used to go into battle to the sound of the bagpipes.
The bagpipe consists of a reed pipe, the ‘chanter’, and a windbag, which provides a regular supply of air to the pipe. The windpipe is filled either from the mouth or by a bellows, which the player works with his arm. The chanter has a number of holes or keys by means of which the tune is played.
Music and Musicians
The peopleliving in the British Isles are very fond of music, and it is quite natural that concerts of the leading symphony orchestras, numerous folic groups and pop music are very popular.
The Promenade concerts are probably the most famous. They were first held in 1840 in the Queen's Hall, and later were directed by Sir Henry Wood. They still continue today in the Royal Albert Hall. They take place every night for about three months in the summer, and the programmes include new and contemporary works, as well as classics. Among them are symphonies and other pieces of music composed by Benjamin Britten, the famous English musician.
Usually, there is a short winter season lasting for about a fortnight. The audience may either listen to the music from a seat or from the ‘promenade’, where they can stand or stroll about, or, if there is room, sit down on the floor. Concerts are rarely given out-of-doors today except for concerts by brass bands and military bands that play in the parks and at seaside resorts during the summer.
Folk music is still very much alive. There are many foul groups. Their harmony singing and good humour win them friends everywhere. Rock and pop music is extremely popular, especially among younger people. In the 60s and 70s groups such as the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, the Who, Led Zeppelin and Pink Floyd became very popular and successful. The Beatles, with their style of singing new and exciting, their wonderful sense of humour became the most successful pop group the world has ever known. Many of the famous songs written by John Lennon and Paul McCartney are still popular. Some of the more recent rock groups are Eurhythmics, Dire Straits, and Black Sabbath.
British groups often set new trends in music. New staff and styles continue to appear. One of the most popular contemporary musicians and composers is Andrew Lloyd Webber. The musicals and rock operas by A. L. Webber have been a great success both in Britain and overseas.
The famous English composer of the 19th century was Arthur Sullivan. Together with William Gilbert, the writer of the texts, he created fourteen operettas of which eleven are regularly performed today. In these operettas the English so successfully laugh at themselves and at what they nowcall the Establishment that W. S. Gilbert and A. Sullivan will always be remembered.
ArtGalleriesIf you stand inTrafalgar Square with your back to Nelson's Column, you will see a wide horizontal front in a classical style. It is the National Gallery. It has been in this building since 1838 which was built as the National Gallery to house the collection of Old Masters Paintings (38 paintings) offered to the nation by an English Private collector, Sir George Beamount.Today the picture galleries of theNational Gallery of Art exhibit works of all the European schools of painting, which existed between the 13th and 19th centuries. The most famous works among them are‘Venus and Cupid’ by Diego Velazquez, ‘Adoration of the Shepherds’ by Nicolas Poussin, ‘A Woman Bathing’ by Harmensz van Rijn Rembrandt, ‘Lord Heathfield’ by Joshua Reynolds, ‘Mrs Siddons’ by Thomas Gainsborough and many others.
In 1897 the Tate Gallery was opened to house the more modern British paintings. Most of the National Gallery collections of British paintings were transferred to the Tate, and only a small collection of a few masterpieces is now exhibited at Trafalgar Square. Thus, the Tate Gallery exhibits a number of interesting collections of British and foreign modern painting and also modern sculpture.
The collection of Turner’s paintings at the Tate includes about 300 oils and 19,000 watercolours and drawings. He was the most traditional artist of his time as well as the most original: traditional in his devotion to the Old Masters and original in his creation of new styles. It is sometimes said that he prepared the way for the Impressionists.
The modern collection includes the paintings of Henri Matisse and Pablo Picasso, Marc Chagall and Salvador Dali, Francis Bacon and Graham Sutherland, Peter Blake and Richard Hamilton, the chief pioneers of pop art in Great Britain. Henry Moore is a famous British sculptor whose works are exhibited at the Tatetoo. One of the sculptor's masterpieces - the ‘Reclining Figure’ - is at fees Headquarters of UNESCO in Paris.
The Art of Acting
From the fall of the Roman Empire until the 10th century, acting hardly existed as an art in Western Europe; only the wandering minstrels gave entertainment in castles and at fairs. In England, the first real actors were amateurs who performed Miracle and Morality plays, which were religious in character. In the Elizabethan age, the first professional theatres were opened. At the time of Shakespeare there were at least six companies of actors. Shakespeare himself joined the Earl of Leisester's company, which under James I became known as the ‘King's Men’. There were also companies of boy actors. All the women's parts were played by boys. It was very difficult for most actors to earn a living on the stage, even in a London company, and many of them fell into debt. When Shakespeare arrived in London in 1586, the acting was very crude and conventional. There was almost no scenery, and the actors were dressed in the costumes of their day. But when ‘The Globe’ was opened to the public in 1599, it started the golden age of the theatre in England. In the first half of the 17th century the influence of the Puritans was bad for the popular theatre, and it was not before the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 that theatre going again became a popular habit. The most popular plays were comedies. The first part played by an actress was that of Desdemona. Nell Gwynn was the first English actress. By the beginning of the 18th century the most popular type of play was the sentimental comedy. The acting was artificial probably due to the influence of French actors.
But, later, under the influence of David Garrick and some other actors, acting became much more naturalistic. David Garrick was one of the greatest actors known. But even at his time acting was not very popular. An actor whose acting had offended the audience had to ask pardon on his knees before a full house before he could continue in his profession. During the 19th century acting became more and more naturalistic. Like in Shakespeare's time, the best actors understood the importance of the teamwork of the company. One of the most famous actors of that time was Henry Irving. He was the first actor to be knighted. By the 1920s naturalistic acting reached a peak in the performance of Sir Gerald Du Maurier. He hardly appeared to be acting at all. At present most acting still continues to be naturalistic. Designers make the settings as realistic as possible. Modern producers and directors Peter Hall, Peter Brook and others are trying out new styles of acting. Some go back to Greek methods, with a revival of the chorus; others are making use of the audience in helping to interpret the play.
British Drama Theatre Today
Britain is now one of the world's major theatres centres. Many British actors and actresses are known all over the world. They are Dame Peggy Ashcroft, Glenda Jackson, Laurence Olivier,John Gielgud and others. Drama is so popular with people of all ages that there are several thousand amateur dramatic societies. NowBritain has about 300 professional theatres. Some of them are privately owned. The tickets are not hard to get, but they are very expensive. Regular seasons of opera and ballet are given at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden inLondon. The National Theatre stages modern and classical plays, the Royal Shakespeare Company produces plays mainly by Shakespeare and his contemporaries when it performs in Stratford-on-Avon, and modern plays in its two auditoria in the City's Barbican Centre. Shakespeare's Globe Playhouse, about which you have probably read, was reconstructed on its original site. Many other cities and large towns have at least one theatre.
There are many theatres and theatre companies for young people: the National Youth Theatre and the Young Vic Company in London, the Scottish Youth Theatre in Edinburgh. The National Youth Theatre, which stages classical plays mainly by Shakespeare and modern plays about youth, was on tour in Russian in 1989. The theatre-goers warmly received the production of Thomas Stearns Eliot’s play ‘Murder in the Cathedral’. Many famous English actors started their careers in the National Youth Theatre. Among them Timothy Dalton, the actor who did the part of Rochester in ‘ Jane Eyre’ shown on TV in our country.
Theatres in London
Many of the shows which go on the West End are light comedies, but some theatres put on more serious plays. One of England’s leading companies is the Royal Shakespeare Company; there they put on new and old plays, and some Shakespearian plays. The National Theatre is also one of London’s most famous theatres. The building is modern, and the plays are classics and new productions. As you have read, the theatres are mainly concentrated in London. Outside London, large towns have theatres too. Plays are performed there either before opening in London or after they have been shown in the capital.
The first theatre in England “The Black fries” build in 1576, and “The Globe” build in 1599, which is closely connected with William Shakespeare. Speaking about our times we should first of all mention “The English National theatre”,”The Royal Shakespeare company” and “Covent Garden”.
“Covent Garden” used to be a fashionable promenade – it was, before then, a convent garden – but when it became overrun with flower-sellers, orange-vendors and vegetable-growers, the people moved to more exclusive surroundings farther west, such as “St. Jame’s Square”.
The first “Covent Garden theatre” was build in 1732. It was burnt down in 1808 and rebuild exactly a year after. It opened in September 1809, with Shakespeare’s “Macbeth”. Since the middle of the last century “Covent Garden” became exclusively devoted to opera.
Now “Covent Garden” in busier than ever, it is one of the few well-known opera houses open for 11 months of the year and it employs over 600 people both of the Opera company and the Royal Ballet.
THE NATIONAL THEATRE
It took over the hundred years to establish a national theatre company. It’s first director from 1962 was Lawrence Olivier. This is the first state theatre Britain has ever had. A special building for it was opened in 1976. It has three theatres in one: “The Oliver theatre”, the biggest is for the main classical repertoire; “The Lyttilton”, a bit smaller is for new writing and for visiting foreign countries and “The Cottesloe theatre”, the smallest is used for experimental writing and productions. “The Royal Shakespeare Company” are divided between the country and the capital and it’s produces plays mainly by Shakespeare and his contemporaries when it performs is “Stratford -on-Avon”, and modern plays in its two auditoria in the Cities, Barbican Centre.
The Royal Opera House, or Covent Garden as it is usually known, stands not far from one of the most famous of London streets, the Strand, and you ought to go there at least once during the season if you can. A visitor of London is always surprised when he sees the Opera house standing almost inside the flower and vegetable market which gives a distinct smell to the whole quarter.
Now Covent Garden is one of the few well – known opera houses open for eleven months of the year and it employs over 600 people both of the Opera Company and the Royal Ballet. At the Royal Opera House you get the best of everything – a first – rate orchestra, famous conductors and singers. But, of course, if you are not fond of music, this won’t interest you.
Shakespeare is the most famous British playwright in history
People know his name in almost every country in the world. But who exactly was William Shakespeare? That is the question! Shakespeare was born in Stratford-upon-Avon on 23 April, 1564. Families were big in those days. William had seven brothers and sisters. But his parent’s weren’t poor; his father, John Shakespeare, was a successful businessman who bought and sold leather and wool. His mother was the daughter of a rich farmer. When Shakespeare left school, he went to work for his father. But soon after, he met and fell in love with Ann Hathaway, the daughter of a farmer who lived in Stratford. They got married in December 1582, and just five months late, their first daughter, Susanna, was born. William was 18. Ann was 25. What did Shakespeare do for the next ten years?
Four hundred years ago, Shakespeare built a theatre – The Globe – here in the center of London. It was one of London’s first theatres. It was round and had no roof over the center – like the theatres of ancient Rome. The people of London love going to the theatre. The globe could hold three thousand people. Some people sat to watch the plays; other stood in the middle, in front of the stage. The audience was usually noisy, often clapping and cheering, and shouting to the actors – and there were only actors, no actresses. Young boys played the parts of women. It often rained in London then, too. And everyone got very wet. In 1610, after about twenty-five years in London, Shakespeare came back here to Stratford. He was rich, and he had a big house where he enjoyed life with his family and friends. But he didn’t stop writing plays. What kind of plays did William Shakespeare write?
Well, he wrote thirty-nine plays. Some of them are comedies, for example, A Midsummer Night’s Dream and Comedy of Errors. They have happy endings. Others are stories from English history, for example, stories about the kings of England. They are very patriotic. Queen Elizabeth 1 often went to see them. And the others are tragedies, such as Hamlet and Macbeth – these are sad, dark stories of murder and revenge. Shakespeare died on his fifty-second birthday in 1616. He is buried in Holy Trinity Church, Stratford. But the characters in his plays are still with us today.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Choose the correct answer :1. What is the official name of the country whose language you study?
a) Great Britain b) England c) the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
2. How many countries does the United Kingdom consist of?
a) four b) three c) two
3. What is the capital of Scotland?
a) Manchester b) Edinburgh c) Cardiff
4. What is the capital of Wales?
a) Edinburgh b) Cardiff c) Belfast
5. What is the capital of Northern Ireland?
a) Cardiff b) Belfast c) London
6. What is the capital of England?
a) Cardiff b) Belfast c) London
7. What is the symbol of the United Kingdom?
a) a bald eagle b) Britannia c) a rose
8. What is the name of the British national flag?
a) the Union Jack b) the United Jack c) the Union John
9. What is the emblem of England?
a) a shamrock b) a red rose c) a daffodil
10. What is the emblem of Scotland?
a) a daffodil b) a shamrock c) a thistle
11. What is the emblem of Northern Ireland?
a) a daffodil b) a shamrock c) a thistle
12. What is the emblem of Wales?
a) a shamrock b) a red rose c) a daffodil
13. Where can you see the Roman Baths?
a) in London b) in York c) in Bath
14. The first name of London was Londinium. It came from ….
a) the Romans b) the Dutch c) the French
15. The first name of York was Yorvik. It came from ….
a) the Romans b) the British c) the Vikings
16. London is located on the river ….
a) Avon b) Thames c) Serpentine
17. The Fire of London was in ….
a) 1686 b) 1666 c) 1668
18). In 1620 the Englishmen started for a new land from ….
a) London b) Plymouth c) Cardiff
19. Where can you see the Giant’s Causeway?
a) in Wales b) in Northern Ireland c) in Scotland
20. Where can you see bagpipers wearing kilts?
a) in Wales b) in Northern Ireland c) in Scotland
21. You can see Stonehenge in ….
a) Wales b) Northern Ireland c) England
22. Piccadilly Circus is located in ….
a) London b) Bath c) York
Географические и климатические особенности США
The United States
The United States is certainly one of the most diverse countries of the world, both from a cultural and an environmental perspective. The land that is now the United States was home to diverse cultures when the first Europeans and Africans arrived. It was inhabited by a variety of Native American peoples who spoke morethan 300 different languages. The Europeans and Africans added their own varyingcultures to this diversity.
The 13 colonies they founded along the eastern seaboard became the UnitedStates in the late 18th century. During the following century, the new nation addedhuge chunks of territory, and millions of immigrants arrived, mainly from Europeand especially during the years from 1860 to 1914. A second migration occurred inthe Southwest, where Hispanics pushed northward from Mexico, leaving anindelible imprint. In addition, slaves were brought from Africa to work on agricultural estates in the South, where they formed a large percentage of thepopulation. Of those who chose to come to the United States, many saw it as a landof plenty, and certainly that was true.
However, many Americans facedextraordinary hardships as they adapted to a natural and cultural environment thatwas sometimes harsh and demanding.During the settlement of the nation, immigrants moved westward across theUnited States and found a rich and varied natural environment. From the originalcoastal colonies, settlers made their way over the Appalachian Mountainsbeginning in the 1700s. Beyond the mountains lay the vast rolling territory drained by the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes. There settlers encountered the richfarmlands of the Ohio Valley, the Mississippi Delta, and the Great Plains. Fordecades, the rugged peaks of the Rocky Mountains and the arid landscape of the Southwest discouraged movement further west. In the mid-1800s, however, spurred by the discovery of gold in California, determined settlers followed trails through the mountain passes to reach the West Coast. In the valleys of Californiaand Oregon, they found productive agricultural land, and they began harvesting the timber reserves from the untouched forests of the Pacific Northwest. The purchase of Alaska in 1867 added a mountainous northern territory rich in natural resources.
The annexation of Hawaii in 1898 gave the United States what would be its only tropical state. The United States has been blessed with many natural advantages, such as climates favorable for agriculture, extensive internal waterways, and abundant natural resources.
All four of the world’s most productive agricultural climates are found in the United States. These climatic regions display a favorable mix of rain and sun as well as a long growing season, and together, they cover more than a third of thecountry. Favorable climates have allowed farmers to produce vast quantities of grain for human consumption and crops to feed animals. These remarkable climatic areas make the United States one of the world’s leading agricultural countries. Another major natural advantage—one that is taken for granted by mostAmericans—is that the major river systems (the Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, Colorado, and Río Grande systems) flow south. If these rivers flowed north, as rivers do in Russian Siberia, ice and frozen soil would block the meltwater, causing floods that would saturate the land and render it unusable for agriculture.
Instead, when spring thaws arrive in the interior mountains of the United States,meltwater flows unimpeded through the river systems to the warm waters of the Gulf of Mexico or the Gulf of California. This almost uninterrupted flow of waterprovides ample supplies for drinking water and for crop irrigation and industrialproduction.
The United States has many other natural advantages. A wide array of valuable mineral resources, such as oil, natural gas, iron ore, coal, lead, zinc, phosphate, silver, and copper, benefits mining and industry. The shallow waters along the coastline, known as the continental shelf, serve as a rich breeding ground for marine life, which promotes commercial and sport fishing. The comprehensive network of rivers also provides transportation routes for bulk cargo and the potential for the development of hydroelectricity.
Политическое устройство США. Символика
United States are the combination of federal, state, and local laws, bodies, and agencies that is responsible for carrying out the operations of the UnitedStates. The federal government of the United States is centered in Washington,D.C.The institutions of all governments emerge from basic principles. In theUnited States the one basic principle is representative democracy, which defines asystem in which the people govern themselves by electing their own leaders. TheAmerican government functions to secure this principle and to further the common interests of the people.
Democracy in America is based on six essential ideals: (1) People mustaccept the principle of majority rule. (2) The political rights of minorities must beprotected. (3) Citizens must agree to a system of rule by law. (4) The free exchangeof opinions and ideas must not be restricted. (5) All citizens must be equal beforethe law. (6) Government exists to serve the people, because it derives its powerfrom the people. These ideals form the basis of the democratic system in theUnited States, which seeks to create a union of diverse peoples, places, andinterests.To implement its essential democratic ideals, the United States has built itsgovernment on four elements:
(1) popular sovereignty, meaning that the people arethe ultimate source of the government’s authority; (2) representative government;
(3) checks and balances;
(4) federalism, an arrangement where powers areshared by different levels of government.
Every government has a source of its sovereignty or authority, and most of the political structures of the U.S. government apply the doctrine of popularsovereignty. In previous centuries the source of sovereignty in some countries wasthe monarchy-the divine right of kings to rule. Americans place the source of authority in the people who, in a democratic society, reign. In this idea the citizenscollectively represent the nation’s authority. They then express that authority individually by voting to elect leaders to represent them in government. “I know no safe repository of the ultimate powers of the society but the people themselves,”wrote Thomas Jefferson in 1820, “and if we think them not enlightened enough to exercise their control with a wholesome discretion, the remedy is not to take itfrom them but to inform their discretion.” This was an experimental idea at the time, but today Americans take it for granted.
The U.S. Flag
The U.S. Flagis called the Stars and Stripes or Old Glory or the StarryBanner. It is comprised of a blue canton with 50 stars each symbolizingone American state and 13 red and white stripes that stand for theoriginal 13 colonies.
The symbolic meanings of the elements of the flag are:
The star – heavens and the divine goal to which man has aspired from time immemorial
The stripe – the rays of light emanating from the sun
Red – hardiness, valor and bravery blood spilled protecting the country
White – purity and innocence freedom
Blue – vigilance, perseverance and justice
The first unofficial version of the flag called Continental Colors orGrand Union Flag appeared in 1776. The first official flag called BetsyRoss or The Old Thirteen appeared on June 14, 1777. Since then June14 is celebrated as Flag Day.The first Great Seal appeared in 1782 after 6 years of efforts to designit. It is used to certify signatures and documents of the highestimportance. The obverse of the Great Seal represents the coat-of-armsof the USA.
The national bird and symbol of the U.S.A. is Bald Eagle or the American eagle. This bird is found only in North America. Itsymbolizes freedom and reliance of American nation on its own virtues.
The national anthem is The Star-Spangled Banner by Francis Scott Key, written in 1814. Music was introduced by John Stafford Smith in 1780.
Other national abolitionist and patriotic tunes are The Battle Hymn of the Republic and America the Beautiful.
Uncle Sam is a popular U.S. symbol. He was probably named after “Uncle” Sam Wilson who examined army supplies for the U.S. government during the War of 1812. This fact is said to have led to the use of the nickname Uncle Sam for the United States.
The Liberty Bell, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is a symbol of independence. It is considered an icon of liberty and justice.
U.S.S. Constitution nicknamed “Old Ironsides” is the most famous vessel in the history of US Navy. It was named by George Washington.It is the oldest commissioned naval vessel afloat in the world.
Промышленность, сельское хозяйство, транспорт и города США
Industry of the USA
The USA is a country with strong economy as compared to most of the other countries in the region. Industry of the USA is very popular due to its quality and reliable products all over the world. But in these days it is a trend that most of the project or manufacturing is done through outsourcing. The business men of the USA are doing the same that they outsource the project to the companies in China or South Asia.
Industry of the USA means textile, auto, chemical, mechanical and electronics because they are highly demanded products in the country. There is no compromise on the quality of the product so people love to buy it. The USA is popular in heavy machinery, autos, aero plane, textile and weapons so these things are manufactured here in the country. It has been a good market for the product of other countries of the world. The automobiles produced in Japan have got worldly fame in 1980 but China brought revolutionary changes in 2008.
In start there were large number of companies which manufactured auto cars but by the end of 1920 the main three companies remained in the market. The names of these companies are Ford, General Motors and Chrysler. The steam engine of the train and cars has brought revolutionary changes in the development of the vehicles. The industry of America is full with professional skills, knowledge and experience so the companies here in America got great fame. Industry of the USA consists of AT&T, iPhone, Microsoft and many other car manufacturers play the role of the backbone for the country.
Industry in the USA plays a vital role in the economy of the country for a long time. The industry of the country started to emerge in last two or three decades. The USA consists of heavy industry and light industry at the same time. Industry of the USA has opened its sub offices in different parts of the world but all work with same quality. In some countries the manufacturing units have also been installed to meet the needs of that particular country. The USA is a country of trade, business or industry because a large number of people are working.
Agriculture of the USA
Thanks to technology, natural endowments, and generous public supports, American farmers are among the most productive on earth. They produce roughly half the world's corn and soybeans, a fifth of its cotton, and a sixth of its meat. And they do all this with remarkably few hands - less than 2% of the U.S. population.The proportion of large-scale farms has increased, and all farmers are under pressure to invest in more and more machinery.
Family farms continue to dominate U.S. agriculture. Corporations own only 12% of U.S. farmland - but produce 26% of the value of output, making them over twice as productive as family-owned farms. Many of the hired hands are migrants, who move about the country with the seasons, living and working under the worst circumstances - sleeping in crowded shacks, working without any protection from vile agricultrural chemicals, and paid a pittance for their labor.
Commercial fishing has declined significantly in the United States over the past 30 years. The majority of U.S. fish cultivation is used domestically, and about half is for human consumption. There is a wide variety of species caught, including cod, haddock, pollock, tuna, and salmon. Various shellfish such as lobster, shrimp, or crab account for about 20 percent of the annual harvest, but provide about one-half of the total revenues. Commercial fish farms are increasingly common and used for species such as salmon, catfish and shrimp.
The United States produces about half of the world's corn and 10 percent of its wheat. It also accounts for 20 percent of the globe's beef, pork, and lamb. With such progress in increasing output and the efficiency of agriculture, food prices for American consumers have had little increase over the past 20 years. Americans spend less on food, as a proportion of their income, than any other nation in the world. U.S. consumers spent 10.9 percent of their income on food. In comparison, the average British consumer spent 11.2 percent, the French 14.8 percent, the Japanese 17.6 percent, and Indians spent 51.3 percent.
The United States is the world's largest producer of timber. About 70 percent of the nation's forests are privately owned, but there is also limited logging allowed in federally-owned or managed forests. Almost 80 percent of timber harvested is soft woods such as pine or Douglas Fir. Hardwoods such as oak account for the remaining 20 percent.
Amtrak provides intercity railway services in the USA, linking over 500 destinations. Tickets can be purchased online, via a mobile device, station kiosks, over the phone, at staffed stations, travel agents or on board trains in limited circumstances. The total ticket price consists of the rail fare plus any applicable accommodation charge. In some instances, passengers can also take a car or bicycle with them. Amtrak trains provide a safe, relaxing and comfortable alternative to driving or flying to a destination. Discounts are readily available for children, senior citizens, veterans and students. There are even more savings for those take advantage of special promotions or purchase particular rail passes, multi-city tickets or tour packages.
While some large cities and towns have their own rail or subway service, smaller towns or suburbs may not have this convenience, but will at least have some type of public municipal bus service. Fares are reasonable in many cases, with discounts usually available to students, senior citizens and other individuals on specific tickets. Several bus companies such as Greyhound and Coach USA offer economical intercity services compared to trains, air travel, and even driving. While lacking the conveniences of other types of transport, intercity bus services are a genuine, low cost alternative for travelers.
Railways and subways
New York and San Francisco are just a couple of the cities that have railway services. While underground train services are generally described as subways, some railway routes have both underground and surface train stops. Railway travel in the USA is inexpensive and convenient, offering similar discounts as other forms of public transit. Some cities also have trains connecting to major airports, saving commuters time, money and the hassles of dealing with traffic and parking.
Streetcars and cable cars. Taxis
Some cities have the added benefit of streetcars (known as trams in other parts of the world) or cable cars. While streetcars are found in cities such as Portland, San Francisco is well known for its cable cars. Both streetcars and cable cars run on a system of embedded rails with overhead electric cables.
Taxis or cabs are usually found in inner city and outlying suburban areas or even within smaller towns. Taxis can be hailed in the street, at special taxi ranks or cab stands, or reserved over the phone. While taxis are extremely convenient for getting between short distances, they can be quite expensive and not always the most pleasant experience.
While some cities genuinely encourage cycling through designated bicycle lanes, conveniently located public bike racks and lockers, special events and thoughtful urban planning; there are still many cities that are more conducive and safer to get around in by other forms of travel such as a car. Riding a bicycle across the USA is possible through the use of certain bicycle friendly routes. Maps and specialized equipment are easily available for purchase online, at some general retailers and bicycle stores. Some groups and organizations also offer guided tours with vehicle support to carry equipment or, for the more adventurous types, self-contained tours where riders carry all of their gear.
There are several large domestic airlines in the USA that offer intercity services to passengers such as Southwest, United Airlines and American Airlines. Smaller regional carriers provide services on more specialized routes but may partner with larger carriers for greater coverage and customer convenience. Most travelers will purchase their tickets online to take advantage of special discounts, print tickets and even check in; however, tickets can still be purchased through travel agents and at airports. While air travel is generally a quick way to travel around the USA, travelers should make allowances for applicable immigration, customs and security check points.
TASK: Read the text and find additional information for the presentation of the cities.
Cities and Towns of the USA
Washington, the capital of the United States of America, is situated on the Potomac River. In comparison with such ancient historical cities as, for example, Rome, London, Moscow or Paris, Washington is quite young. The capital owes much to the first President of the USA — George Washington. It was G. Washington, who chose the place for the capital and laid in 1790 the corner-stone of the Capitol, where Congress sits. Washington has many historical places. The largest and highest among the buildings is the Capitol with its great House of Representatives and the Senate chamber. There are no sky-scrapers in Washington because no other building can be higher than the Capitol.
Washington D.C. is home of the federal government. Most important governmentinstitutions are situated in the District:
The Washington Monument (Washington, D.C.). This four-sided stone structure (obelisk) honors the “Father of our Country,” General, Founding Father, and the first president of the United States, George Washington.
The Jefferson Memorial (Washington, D.C.). It honors the author of the Declaration of Independence, first Secretary of State, and third President of the United States.
The Lincoln Memorial (Washington, D.C.). It honors AbrahamLincoln, the 16th president of the United States, and “the virtues of tolerance, honesty, and constancy in the human spirit.”
Independence Hall (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania). At this building, colonial leaders met to plan the future of the new nation. TheDeclaration of Independence wasadopted here on July 4, 1776. Independence Hall was also the home of the Liberty Bell for over 200 years.
Arlington National Cemetery (Virginia). It honors those men and women who served in the Armed Forces. Currently, there are over 260,000 people buried in there and approximately 5,400 burials are conducted each year.
Mount Rushmore National Monument (South Dakota). It is a colossalsculpture representing the heads of Presidents George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Abraham Lincoln. The four heads represent, respectively, the nation’s independence, democratic process, leadership in world affairs, and equality.
New York is the largest city in the USA and the biggest sea-port. It is situated in the mouth of the Hudson River. New York was founded by the Dutch. It is interesting to know that Manhattan Island — the central part of New York — was bought from the local Indians by the Dutch for 24 dollars. That was the most profitable commercial deal in the US history. Today Manhattan is the heart of business and commercial life of the country. New York is the city of skyscrapers. The highest of them is the 102–storeyed building. There are many other places of interest in New York: Central Park, Times Square, Rockefeller Centre, the shopping districts and the United Nations Building. In Manhattan, at Broadway, there is Columbia University, one of the biggest universities of the USA.
Another large city of the USA is Boston, one of the first cities which were built on the Atlantic coast of America. It is an important port and a financial and cultural centre. It has three universities.
Chicago is one of the biggest industrial cities in the USA and the second largest after New York.
Los Angeles, in California, is the centre of modern industries. Hollywood is the centre of the US film industry.
Система образования в США.
Text 1.American education
American education provides a program for children, beginning at the age of 6 acontinuing up to the age of 16 in some of the states, and to 18 in others.The elementary school in the United States is generally considered to include the first six or eight grades of the common-school system, depending upon the organization that has been accepted for the secondary school. It has been called the “grade school” or the “grammar school”.There is no single governmental agency to prescribe for the American school system, different types of organization and of curriculum are tried out.The length of the school year varies among the states. Wide variations exists also in the length of the school day. A common practice is to have school in session from 9:00 to 12:00 in the morning and from 1:00 to 3:30 in the afternoon, Monday through Friday. The school day for the lower grades is often from 30 minutes to an hour shorter. Most schools require some homework to be done by elementary pupils.
Text 2. School Curriculum
From Hawaii to Delaware, from Alaska to Louisiana, each of the 50 states in the USA has its own laws regulating education. From state to state some laws are similar, others are not. For example, all states require young people to attend school (the age limits vary: seven to sixteen, six to eighteen, etc.). Though there is no national curriculum in the united States, certain subjects are taught across the country.
Almost every elementary school provides instruction in these subjects: mathematics, language arts (a subject that includes reading, grammar, composition and literature), penmanship, science, social studies (a subject that includes history, geography, citizenship and economics), music, art and physical education. In many elementary schools courses in the use of computers have been introduced. And in some cases, a foreign language is offered in the upper elementary school. Not all schools offer any foreign languages, if they do, if they do, it usually lasts for no longer than half a year. In general, it is not necessary to study a foreign language to get a high school diploma. But if one plans to enter a college or university, one should study a foreign language for no less than two years.
penmanship – каллиграфия, чистописаниеcitizenship — права и обязанности гражданQuestions:
1. Are the laws regulating education the same across the USA?2. What are the subjects offered in elementary schools?3. What courses have been introduced in elementary schools?4. Is it necessary to study a foreign language to get a high school diploma in the USA?5. How long should a student study a foreign language at high school before entering a college?
Text 3. Elementary Schools, High Schools and Institutions of Higher Learning
There are eight years of elementary schooling. The elementary school is followed by four years of secondary school, or high school. Often the last two years of elementary and the first years of secondary school are combined into a junior high school. The school year is nine months in length, beginning early in September and continuing until about the first of June, with a vacation of week or two at Christmas time and sometimes a shorter one in spring.
There are slight variations from place to place. Students enter the first grade at the age of six and attendance is compulsory in most states until the age of sixteen or until the student has finished the eighth grade. The elementary schools tend to be small. The high schools are generally larger and accommodate pupils from four or five elementary schools. A small town generally has several elementary schools and one high school. In some rural communities the one-room country school house still exists. Here may be found from five to twenty-five pupils in grades one through eight, all taught by the same teacher.
Admission to the American high school is automatic on completion of the elementary school. During the four-year high school program the student studies four or five major subjects per year, and classes in each of these subjects meet for an hour a day, five days a week. In addition, the students usually has classes in physical education, music and art several times a week. If he fails a course, he repeats only that course and not the work of the entire year. Students must complete a certain number of courses in order to receive a diploma, or a certificate of graduation. Institutions of higher learning supported by public funds are not absolutely free.
The state colleges and universities charge a fee for tuition or registration. This fee is higher for those who come from outside the state. Working one’s way through college is common-place.Usually there is no admission examination required by a state university for those who have finished high school within the state. Sometimes a certain pattern of high school studies is necessary, however, and some state universities require a certain scholastic average, or average of high school grades.Private colleges and universities, especially the larger, well-known ones such as Harvard, Princeton, and Yale, have rigid scholastic requirements for entrance, including an examination.It usually takes four years to meet the requirements for a Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science degree. A Master of Art or Master of Science degree may be obtained in one or two additional years. The highest academic degree is the Doctor of Philosophy. It may take any number of years to complete the original research work necessary to obtain this degree.
Task 1. Find sentences that give the information about:
a) the school year;b) a one-room country school house;c) the subjects studied at high school;d) fee for tuition;e) academic degrees.Task 2. Find sentences with the following words and phrases in the text and translate them into Russian:
vacation, attendance is compulsory, to accommodate, rural community, a one-room country school house, to be taught by the same teacher, admission to school, major subjects, to receive a diploma, a fee for tuition.Questions:
1. When does the school year begin?2. Are elementary schools big or small?3. Do one-room country school houses still exist?4. What does the curriculum in high school include?5. Are there any admission exams required by universities?6. Is higher education free of charge or fee-paying?7. What academic degrees exist in the USA?
Text 4. Public Education: Historical Review
The history of education in the United States has certain peculiarities which are closely connected with the specific conditions of life in the New World and the history of the American society.The early Colonies and different politics of education for the first white settler who came to the North America from Europe in the 17th century brought with them he educational ideas of the time most typical of the countries they represented. In Virginia and South Carolina, for example, education was entirely private. The children of the rich either had tutors or were sent to Europe for schooling. Many of the children of poor parents had no education at all. In Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York many of the schools were set up and controlled by the church. In Massachusetts, which was much more developed at that time, three educational principles were laid down:
1) the right of the State or Colony to require that its citizens be educated;
2) the right of the State to compel the local government decision such as towns and cities, to establish schools; and
3) the right of the local government to support these schools by taxation.
At the very beginning, school buildings were often rough shacks. They were poorly equipped with a few benches, a stove, and rarely enough textbooks. Discipline was harsh, and a corporal punishment was frequent. The program of studies consisted largely of reading, writing, basic arithmetic, and Bible lessons. Since each community was responsible for solving its own educational problems, there was no attempt to find a common standard of excellence.
Even the Constitution of the United States, ratified in 1789, contained no direct mention of education. The schools of the early 1800s were not very different from those of the pre-revolutionary period. Some historians consider hat they actually deteriorated in the three or four decades following the American Revolution, for the new country turned its attention to the development of its land, cities, and political institutions.
And yet, in attempt to generate interests in education, a number of communities continued founding schools. Some classes were opened to children for secular instruction and a number of schools for poor children which were a forerunner of the public schools in several major cities. Some States tax-supported schools and urged their spread. The purpose of the public or “common” schools was to teach the pupils the skills of reading, writing, and arithmetic. No particular religion was to b taught. By the mid-19th century, the desire for free public education was widespread. But the States couldn’t find enough means for its financial support. It was during those years that communities began to support the schools within their boundaries.
The States finally required local school districts to tax themselves for that purpose through the “real property” tax. This tax originated as financial support for public schools, and remain today the major financial resource for the public school system in the United States though it can no longer carry the entire burden. Towards the second part of the 19th century compulsory attendance laws came into effect, starting with Massachusetts in 1852
Now in most States the minimum age at which a pupil may leave school is sixteen; in five States seventeen; and in four States eighteen. As has already been mentioned, education remains primarily a function of the States. Each State has a board of education, usually 3 to 9 members, serving mostly without pay. They are either elected by the public or appointed by the Governor. The board has an executive officer, usually called a State school superintendent or commissioner.
In some cases he is elected; in others he is appointed by the board. In theory, responsibility for operating the public educational system is local. Schools are under the jurisdiction of local school board, composed of citizens elected by residents of the school district. In fact, however, much local control has been superseded. State laws determine the length of the school year, the way in which teachers will be certified, and many of the courses which must be taught.
Though the Federal Government has no powers at all in the field of education, from time to time Congress passes different Acts which help to “assist in the expansion and improvement of educational programs to meet critical national needs”. Such Acts provide money for science, mathematics, and language instruction; for the purchase of laboratory equipment.
Make up a list of words which can be joined under the headline “Education”. Give reasons for your choice.
TASK 2. Discussion.
Describe the development of education from the 17th through the 19th centuries.State the role of the Church.Comment on the three principles of education laid down in Massachusetts.Express your attitude towards corporal punishment.Tell the story of the “real property” tax.Say how the public education system operates nowadays.
Text 5. Higher Education
There are about 3,000 colleges and universities, both private and public, in the United States. Students have to pay to go both private and State universities. Private universities are generally smaller but very expensive, which means that the tuition fees are extremely high. State colleges and universities are not that expensive, the tuition fees are usually lower, and if the students are State residents, they pay much less.
Every young person who enters a higher educational institution can get financial assistance. If a student is offered a loan, he should repay it (with interest) after he has left the college. Needy students are awarded grants which they do not have to repay. Scholarships are given when a student is doing exceptionally well at school. American universities and colleges are usually built as a separate complex, called “campus”, with teaching blocks, libraries, dormitories, and many other facilities grouped together on one site, often on the outskirts of the city.
Some universities are comprised of many campuses. The University of California, for example, has 9 campuses, the biggest being Berkeley (founded in 1868), San Francisco (1873), Los Angeles (1919), Santa Barbara (1944), Santa Cruz (1965). All the universities are independent, offering their own choice of studies, setting their own admission standards and deciding which students meet their standards. The greater the prestige of the university, the higher the credits and grades required. The terms “college” and “university” are often used interchangeably, as “college” is used to refer to all undergraduate education; and the our-year undergraduate program, leading to a bachelor’s degree, can be followed at either college or university. Universities tend to be larger than colleges and also have graduate schools where students can receive post-graduate education. Advanced or graduate university degrees include law and medicine. Most colleges and universities undergraduate courses last for four years.
During the first two years students usually follow general courses in the art or sciences and then choose a major – the subject or area of studies in which they concentrate. The other subjects are called minors. Credits (with grades) are awarded for the successful completion of each course. These credits are often transferable, so students who have not done well in high school can choose a junior college (or community college), which offers a two-year “transfer” program preparing students for degree-granting institutions. Community colleges also offer two-year courses of vocational nature, leading to technical and semi-professional occupations, such as journalism. There are no final examinations at colleges and universities, and students receive a degree if they have collected enough credits in a particular subject. The traditional degree which crowns the undergraduate course is that of a Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) or a Bachelor of Science (B.C.) The lower level of graduate school is for obtaining the Master’s Degree (M.A. or M.C.), and the upper level is for the degree of a Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.)
tuition fee платазаобучениеloan заемinterest зд. процент (ссуммывзятойвзаймы)to repay возмещать, возвращатьneedy нуждающийсяgrant субсидия, дотацияscholarship стипендияdormitory (dorm) студенческоеобщежитиеbachelor’s degree степеньбакалавраBachelor of Arts бакалавргуманитарныхнаукBachelor of Science бакалаврестественныхнаукgraduate school аспирантураthe arts гуманитарныенаукиthe science(s) естественныенаукиmajor предметспециализации“transfer” program подготовительныйкурсMaster’s Degree степеньмагистранаук(M.A. or M.S.) (гуманитарных или естественных)Doctor of Philosophy степень доктора наук
TASK 1. Agree or disagree with the following statements:
1. The system of university education in the US is centralized.2. There is no difference between private and State universities.3. A University course usually lasts for four years.4. One can obtain a bachelor’s degree at any college or University.5. There are no special advanced University degrees.6. Any University has only one campus.7. There are no colleges which offer “transfer” programs.8. M.A., M.S. and Ph.D. degrees are research degrees.
TASK 2. Additional text. Read and translate without using the dictionary.
Higher education began in the United States in 1636, when Harvard College was founded in Massachusetts. The aim was to train men for service in church and civil state. Yale College, Princeton University, Columbia University are the oldest and the most famous American higher educational institutions.Now there are about 3,000 colleges and universities, both private and public, in the United States. Students have to pay to enter universities. All the universities are independent, offering their own choice of studies, setting their own admission standards. Higher educational institutions usually are governed by a board of trustees.
Most colleges and universities undergraduate courses last for four years. During the first two years students usually follow general courses in the art or sciences and then choose a major – the subject or area of studies in which they concentrate. The other subjects are called minors. Credits (with grades) are awarded for the successful completion of each course.
A college grants a bachelor’s degree at the conclusion of studies. A college prepares the student for either graduate study leading to master’s or doctor’s degree or a job immediately after graduation. Students are classified as freshmen, sophomores, juniors and seniors All students who have graduated from the senior class and who continue studying at a university are classified as graduate students. Scholarships are given when a student is doing exceptionally well at school. American universities and colleges are usually built as a separate complex, called “campus”, with teaching blocks, libraries, dormitories, and many other facilities grouped together.
TASK 3. Discuss the following:
1. Different types of colleges and Universities.2. The structure of American graduate school.3. American and Russian Universities. (Pay special attention to the entrance standards and admission policies).
Text 6. World famous
The most famous American higher educational institutions that were already in operation during the early period came into being through the religious zeal and philanthropy of their founders.Higher education began in the United States long time ago, when the Puritan leaders of the settlement called the Massachusetts Bay Colony founded in 1636 Harvard College (Massachusetts). Established by John Harvard, English clergyman, this college was to turn into the most famous of the American Universities.The College of William and Mary (Virginia, 1693) was the second institution of higher education founded in the Colonies. In 1701 Connecticut Puritans established Yale College (Connecticut).All these Colonial colleges which were gradually turned into Universities with classical education established a balance between the Humanities and Science. Their aim was to train men for service in church and civil state. By the 1770s several more colleges had been opened: University of Pennsylvania (1740), Princeton University (1746), Washington and Lee University (1749), Columbia University (1754), Brown University (1764), Rutgers College (1766), Dartmouth College (1769).Though the colleges in the first half of the 19th century were numerous and widely scattered over the settled area, their enrollments were comparatively small. Since 1870s the colleges have developed enormously. Their resources have multiplied, the number of their students has increased by leaps and bounds, the program of studies has broadened and deepened, the standards have been raised, and the efficiency of the instruction has greatly increased. Rigidly prescribed courses of study have given way to elective courses. In the course of time, when research centres and experiment stations were attached to the Universities, these institutions turned into the strongholds of science and higher education. They developed a unique, typically American structure unlike and other existing University system in the world.
Give a review of University education in its historical development.
Using the text and your background knowledge, describe one of the American Universities.
Text 7. Higher Educational Institutions
It has become common for the college program to be divided into broad fields, such as language and literature, the social science, the science and mathematics, and the fine arts. Many colleges require all freshmen and sophomores to take one or two full-year courses in each of three fields. Certain courses, such as English or history, may be required for all, with some election permitted in the other fields.
Higher educational institutions usually are by a board of regents or a board of trustees. The executive head of a college or a university is usually called the president. The various colleges or schools which take up a university are headed by deans. Within a school or a college there may be departments according to subject matter fields, each of which may be headed by a chairman. Other members of the faculty hold academic ranks, such as instructor, assistant professor, associate professor, and professor.
Graduate students who give some part-time service may be designated as graduate assistants or fellows. Professional education in fields such as agriculture, dentistry, law, engineering, medicine, pharmacy, teaching, etc. Is pursued in professional schools which may be part of a university or may be separate institutions which confine their instruction to a single profession. Often two, three, or four years of pre-professional liberal arts education are required before admission to a professional school. Three to five years of specialized training lead to professional degrees such as Doctor of Medicine, Bachelor of Law, etc.
Freshman-студент–первокурсникSophomore -студентвторогокурсаgraduate student -аспирантto govern -управлятьregent -членправленияуниверситетаa board of regents -Советуправителейa board of trustees -Советпопечителейexecutive head -главаисполнительнойвластиPresident of the University -ректоруниверситетаinstructor - professor преподавательto pursue -заниматься, преследоватьцельto confine -ограничиватьto designate -назначать (надолжность)liberal arts courses -гуманитарныенаукиuniversity fellow -стипендиат
TASK 1. Look through the text and say which of its paragraphs gives information about:
a) professional education;b) the broad fields into which the college education may be divided into;c) the administration of a college.
TASK 2. Find answers to the following questions:
1. Which are the fields the college program is commonly divided into?2. Which courses do many colleges require all freshmen and sophomores to take?3. Who usually governs higher educational institutions?4. Who is the executive head of a college or a university?5. Who governs the department of a college or school?6. Who are other members of the faculty?7. How are graduate students who give some part-time service called?8. What professional education fields can you name?9. How many years of pre-professional liberal arts education are required?10. How many years of specialized training are required for getting a degree?
Text 8. Colleges and Universities
American colleges and universities are either public or private, that is, supported by public funds or supported privately by a church group or other groups acting as private citizens although under a state charter. A public institution is owned and operated by a government, either a state or a municipal government. The government appropriates large sums of money for the institution’s expenses. Yet these sums are normally not sufficient to cover all expenses, and so the institution is partially dependent on student fees and on gifts. A private institution receives no direct financial aid from any government, municipal, state or federal. The money used to pay the operating expenses has a threefold origin: tuition fees paid by the students, money given in the form of gifts for immediate use, and the income from invested capital in the possession of the institution and originally received by the institution in the form of the gifts to be invested with only the income to be spent. Of the nation’s nearly 1,900 institutions of higher learning roughly one-third are state or city institutions. About 1,200 are privately controlled.
Approximately 700 of these are controlled by religious groups. Less than half of these institutions are liberal art colleges and universities which stress the languages, history, science and philosophy. The rest are professional and technological schools and junior colleges. A college is usually defined as an institution of higher learning which offers a course of instruction over a four-year period, and which grants a bachelor’s degree at the conclusion of studies. As part of university, a college graduate is distinguished from a graduate of professional school. However, the professional schools in some universities are called colleges.
A college prepares the student for two things: either graduate study leading to master’s or doctor’s degree or a job immediately after graduation. A student who majors in business administration for example, may be fully prepared for a career in business when he has finished college. On the other hand, a student majoring in psychology often must do a great deal of graduate work before he is competent in this field.
Students are classified as freshmen, sophomores, juniors and seniors. A freshman is a first year student, a sophomore, a second year student, a junior, a third year student, and a senior, a fourth year student. All students who have graduated from the senior class and who continue studying at a university are classified as advanced students or graduate students. Some graduate students receive grants which cover the cost of their education; a person on such a fellowship is called a university fellow.
TASK 1. Skim through the text and say which of its paragraphs gives information about:
a) classification of students;b) what is a college;c) what a college prepares the student for;d) what is a public institution;e) what is a private institution.
Say what information given in the text specifies the old facts you knew.Say which facts given in the text were new for you.
TASK 3. Additional text. Read the text (using the dictionary if necessary) and find the information about:
1. social origin of drop-outs;2. the reasons which keep the people out of college in the USA;3. courses of study which have a lower pay-off in the job market in the USA.Colleges Which are as Different as Geese Are Different From Swans
Entering a college does not mean much in itself. What is meaningful is how long students stay and what college they enter. Many people enter a college, take one or two courses, and drop out.More than half of al students who enter colleges drop out before graduation. The drop-outs are more often from middle class than upper America, and more often from blue-collar than from professional families. It is the college degree that really counts in the world of work and income. Anything less than a degree is not much better than high school graduation. Students enter colleges that are different as geese from swans. In the range are Negro junior college of Natchez, say, and Harvard.
Again: in the world of work and income, the difference is huge. High costs, high admission standards, the need to work – all conspires to keep the sons of middle America out of college. Seldom will they enter a first-rate university, except on an athletic scholarship. At best, they go to a junior college or perhaps even a state college. Middle Americans are more often part-time students than the affluent (=rich ones). Many must limit their college work to an occasional course in the evening. They usually enter a course of study that has a low pay-off in the job market – such as teaching, social work, nursing, etc. Nationally, only about one of four boys go to college after the high school classes. According to the National Science Foundation, the main reason the other three do not attend is inadequate financial resources.
Text 9. TEACHING PROFESSION IN THE USA
Requirements for teachers’ certificate vary among 50 states. Usually the state department of education, or a state certificate board, issues certificates which permit teachers to be employed within the state. Forty-four of the 50 states require at least the completion of a four-year course, with the bachelor’s degree, as a minimum for high school teaching: the tendency to require a fifth year beyond the bachelor’s degree is increasing.
Graduation from a two-year normal school or at least two years of college education is the minimum requirement for elementary teaching in 36 states; others demand the completion of a four-year course and the bachelor’s degree. Because of the decentralization of school control in the USA teachers are employed by local districts rather than by the national government.
The American teacher does not have the absolute security of tenur which the French or Australian teachers enjoys. A high proportion of the teaching force are women. The teacher-training institutions have not been able to provide sufficient numbers of fully trained teachers to replace those retiring and dropping out of the profession and at the same time to meet the requirements for new classes each year. The problem of recruiting and supply of teachers remains a serious one. In general the problem of shortage of teachers has not been met by lowering certificate standards.
requirement – требованиеcertificate board – аттестационнаякомиссияnormal school – педагогическоеучилищеsecurity of tenure [′tenju∂] – сохранностьрабочегоместаshortage – нехваткаto be in force – являтьсядействительнымTASK 1. Answer the questions:
a) Are the requirements for teachers the same or are they different among the 50 states?b) Who usually issues certificates for teaching?c) What is the minimum requirement for the teacher of high school?d) What is the minimum requirement for elementary teaching?e) How does the decentralization of school control concern employment of teachers?f) Does the American teachers enjoy the absolute security of tenure?g) Are the more men or women teachers in the USA?h) Which are the major problems in the teaching profession in the USA?i) Are teachers’ certificates in force throughout the country or only within a given state?j) Why were certification standards lowered?
TASK 1. Check up your knowing of the subject answering the following questions:
Is public education in the USA centralized?2. Is there a unified system of education in the USA?3. At what age do children begin to attend school in the USA?4. What is a high school in the USA?5. What is an elementary school in the USA?6. If a person studies at a state university or college, does it mean that his education is absolutely free or does he still pay tuition fee?7. Is tuition fee the same for those who live in the state and for those who come from outside the state?8. Do private colleges and universities require an admission examination?9. Do private colleges and universities have rigid scholastic requirements for entrance?10. What is the duration of a school year in the USA?11. Which are the best higher educational institutions in the USA, are they private or public?12. What is the classification of the first-, second-, third- and fourth-year students in the USA?
TASK 2. TALKING POINTS
1. The pattern of education in the USA and in Russia.2. Teaching profession in the USA and in Russia.3. Higher educational institutions in the USA, public and private, the quality of education in them.4. History of establishing some of the colleges in the USA.5. Elementary and high school in the USA.6. The system of pre-school, school and higher education in Russia.7. Types of schools in the USA and differences between them.
Культура и искусство США
The American people express their culture through traditions in food,clothing, recreation, and ceremonies; through the education system and institutions of learning, including museums and libraries; and through the arts, encompassing the visual, literary, and performing arts. American culture is rich, complex, and unique. It emerged from the short and rapid European conquest of an enormous landmass sparsely settled by diverse indigenous peoples. Although European cultural patterns predominated, especially in language, the arts, and political institutions, peoples from Africa, Asia, and North America also contributed to American culture. All of these groups influenced popular tastes in music, dress, entertainment, and cuisine.
As a result, American culture possesses an unusual mixture of patterns and forms forged from among its diverse peoples. The many melodies of American culture have notalways been harmonious, but its complexity has created a society that struggles toachieve tolerance and produces a uniquely casual personal style that identifies Americans everywhere.
The country is strongly committed to democracy, in which views of the majority prevail, and strives for equality in law and institutions. Characteristics such as democracy and equality flourished in the American environment long before taking firm root in European societies, where the ideals originated. As early as the 1780s, Michel Guillaume Jean de Crèvecoeur, a French writer living in Pennsylvania who wrote under the pseudonym J. Hector St. John, was impressed by the democratic nature of early American society. It was not until the 19th century that these tendencies in America were most fully expressed.
When French political writer Alexis de Tocqueville, an acute social observer, traveled through the United States in the 1830s, he provided an unusually penetrating portrait of the nature of democracy in America and its cultural consequences. Hecommented that in all areas of culture—family life, law, arts, philosophy, anddress—Americans were inclined to emphasize the ordinary and easily accessible, rather than the unique and complex. His insight is as relevant today as it was when de Tocqueville visited the United States.
As a result, American culture is more often defined by its popular and democratically inclusive features, such a blockbuster movies, television comedies, sports stars, and fast food, than by its more cultivated aspects as performed in theaters, published in books, or viewed in museums and galleries. Even the fine arts in modern America often partake of the energy and forms of popular culture, and modern arts are often a product of the fusion of fine and popular arts.
While America is probably most well known for its popular arts, Americans partake in an enormous range of cultural activities. Besides being avid readers of a great variety of books and magazines catering to differing tastes and interests, Americans also attend museums, operas, and ballets in large numbers. They listento country and classical music, jazz and folk music, as well as classic rock-and-roll and new wave. Americans attend and participate in basketball, football, baseball, and soccer games. They enjoy food from a wide range of foreign cuisines, such as Chinese, Thai, Greek, French, Indian, Mexican, Italian, Ethiopian, and Cuban. They have also developed their own regional foods, such as California cuisine and Southwestern, Creole, and Southern cooking. Still evolving and drawing upon its ever more diverse population, American culture has come to symbolize what is most up-to-date and modern. American culture has also become increasingly international and is imported by countries around the world.
National HolidaysMartin Luther King Day(3rd Monday,January January). ).
Abraham LincolnLincoln’s Birthday s (February 12).
George WashingtonWashington’s Birthday s (February 22).
Arbor Day(April 22), ДеньДень древонасаждения древонасаждения.
Memorial Day(Last Monday in May), День поминовения поминовения.
Independence Day(July 4).
Labor Day(1st Monday, September), Деньтрудатруда.
Columbus Day(2nd Monday, October), ДеньКолумбаКолумба.
Veterans’ Day (November 11).
(4thThursday, November), Деньблагодаренияблагодарения.
Collectively called the Smithsonian Institution, the world-renowned museum and research complex consists of 15 separate museums and the National Zoo in Washington, DC. From the origins of man at the Natural History Museum to the future of space travel at the Air and Space Museum, the museums of the Smithsonian cover an array of fascinating areas of study.
The Smithsonian Institution is sometimes referred to as America’s treasure chest because of the diverse artifacts it houses. Whether you’re interested in American history or Asian art, giant pandas or stamp collecting, there’s a Smithsonian museum for you. By attendance, the most popular Smithsonian museums are the Air and Space Museum, Natural History Museum, American History Museum and the National Zoo. First-time visitors tend to seek these out, but we recommend reading a bit about each museum and visiting those which interest you. With 15, it’s virtually impossible see them all in one visit, but planning to see three or four during a weeklong vacation would be a realistic goal.
Air and Space Museum: The most popular museum in the world by attendance numbers, the National Air and Space Museum houses 23 galleries that trace the history of flight. Look for the 1903 Wright Flyer, Spirit of St. Louis, SpaceShipOne, Apollo 11...
National Zoo Most definitely the wildest Smithsonian, the National Zoo is home to approximately 2,000 animals, including the famous giant pandas Mei Xiang and Tian T. Highlights also include an African Savanna, Asia Trail and Kids’ Farm.
Natural History Museum:A family favorite featuring dinosaur bones, a life-size whale, a butterfly habitat and the jaw-dropping Hope Diamond. Look for the giant stuffed African elephant greeting guests in the rotunda, and see a 3D film at the museum’s IMAX theatre.
William Henry Gates, also known as «Bill», has established himself as the richest man in the world.
He is the youngest self made billionaire, and perhaps the best businessman in the world. Bill Gates is important because he did not only change the computer technology in America, but also created the biggest, strongest, richest and the most powerful company in the world.
Bill was born on October 28, 1955, his parents, Mary and Bill, had one other daughter Kristi.
Gates began his career in PC software, programming computers at age 13.
As to his education, he attended a well-known private school in Seattle, Washington called Lakeside. At Lakeside, he met his future business partner Paul Allen. Bill Gates entered Harvard in 1973.
He created the programming language BASIC. Gates attended Harvard University and after a few years Gates and his business collaborator, Paul Allen, dropped out of Harvard to begin the Microsoft Corporation in 1975.
Throughout his life, Gates had many experiences with business. Allen and Gates started a small company called Traf-O-Data. They sold a small computer outfitted with their program that could count traffic for the city.
Gates also worked at a programming company called 'TRW. After all his minor jobs, Gates and Allen founded Microsoft in 1975, the largest computer based company in the world. Gates is the Chief Executive officer and Paul Allen is VP. They are both very wealthy due to this business.
Gates believes that if you are intelligent and know how to apply your intelligence you can accomplish anything.
Bill works very hard to carry out his vision. His belief in high intelligence and hard work is what put him where he is today, as well as being in the right place at the right time. He doesn't believe in luck or any sort of god, just hard work and competitiveness.
«Trey» as he is called at home is a remarkable man who has been able to go into the world spotlight as a genius at what he does. His welfare until today is worthabout 92,000,000,000 dollars. Questions:
1. Why is Bill Gates important?2. How did Gates begin his career?3. Where did Bill Gates study?4. When was the Microsoft Corporation begun?5. What are Gates' beliefs?6. How much is Gates' welfare worth?
software — программноеобеспечениеto create — создаватьcollaborator — сотрудникto found — основатьdue to — благодарячему-либоto apply — применять, прилагатьto accomplish — достигатьto carry out — выполнять, осуществлятьbelief — убеждениеcompetitiveness — конкурентоспособностьremarkable — замечательныйspotlight — центрвниманияwelfare — благосостояниеto be worth — стоить
Read the text and discuss with your partner.
Musicals were first performed in the middle of the century. The Elves was the first ever long run musical that played in New York as it played for 50 performances. Other long run entertainment include The Seven Sisters, a musical burletta by Laura Keene. What can be considered the modern musical, with dance and original music did not appear on Broadway until 1866 with the opening of The Black Crook.
This musical was five and a half hours long and ran for 474 performances. Vaudeville theatre began in 1881 with the musicalThe Mulligan Guard Picnic, as the characters were people who could be found in everyday life.
Theater moved to Broadway in the middle of the century due to inexpensive real estate prices. Many theaters were located near Madison square with the heart of Broadway located at Union Square. Transportation also helped to remove the poverty found in New York which in turn improved theater as longer plays were produced with better profits and larger audiences. During the back half of the century there were fewer prostitutes in the audience which in turn increased the number of women who attended theater. Comic operas by Gilbert and Sullivan became very popular and many copycat productions such as El Capitan by John Philip Sousa and Robin Hoodby Reginald Dekoven were performed.
Theatre experienced a low period when motion pictures had sound. It was during this time that the Ziegfeld revues, mainly song and dance performances, were very popular. It was during this time that many of the most well known musical composers created shows. Some of the most well known include Cole Porte, George Gershwin, Vincent Youmans, Jerome Kern, Noel Coward and Rodgers and Hart.
Show Boat was the show that allowed drama to come back to Broadway as it had a completely integrated score and book that was all based on dramatic themes. After the Great Depression, Broadway entered its golden age with many blockbuster hits running for more than a thousand shows. Oklahoma! Is one of the longest running musicals with 2,212 performances. During the 1920s the American playwright also became prominent with plays by Eugene O’Neil, Arthur Miller, Tennessee Williams, Maxwell Anderson and Elmer Rice emerging. This was also the start of revivals with many Shakespearian productions being revived as with George Bernard Shaw plays. Some of the most notable actors of these revivals were John Gielgud, John Barrymore, Paul Robeson, Katharine Cornell and Maurice Evans.
The longest running plays on Broadway are typically musicals, with more than 100 different musicals that have all run for more than 1,000 performances.
The longest running show is The Phantom of the Opera which has more than 9,881 performances and is still playing in Broadway at this time in 2011. Before this Cats was the longest running show, closing after 7,485 performances in 2000 and then Les Miserables closing after 6,691 performances in 2003.
The longest running straight play is Life with Fatherthat closed after 3,224 performances in 1947.
Broadway's longest running revival is Chicago which is currently still performing after opening in 1996 and currently numbered at 6,208 performances. It is also the longest running show to have premiered on Broadway. The longest running revue is Oh! Calcutta! Which ran for 5,959 performance and closed in 1989.
Test Yourself on the USA
Only one answer may be correct.
1.When people travel to the USA they want to see:
a) Big Ben b) the Statue of Liberty c) Baker Street d) the Eiffel Tower
2. The USA consists of 50:
a) state b) republics c) counties d) districts
3. The biggest river is:
a) the Mississippi b) the Colorado c) the Hudson River d) the Thames
4. The Great Lakes are situated between the USA and:
a) Mexico b) Canada c) Cuba d) Panama
5. These famous people lived in the US:
a) Christopher Columbus b) William Shakespeare c) Mark Twain d) Walt Disney
6. The national sport(s) in the USA is/are:
a) cricket b) basketball c) baseball d) American football
7. How many stars are there on the US flag?
a) 47 b) 50 c) 51 d) 49
8. How many stripes are there on the US flag?
a) 20 b) 13 c) 17 d) 31
9. The Declaration of Independence was signed in:
a) 1831 b) 1799 c) 1776 d) 1620
10. When did the Pilgrims arrive in North America?
a) 1725 b) 1492 c) 1620 d) 1861
11. Halloween is celebrated in:
a) December b) October c) November d) July
12. Washington, the capital, is situated in the:
a) state of New York b) state of Washington c) District of Columbia
13. New York is situated on which river?
a) Mississippi b) Hudson c) Colorado
14. Washington, D.C., is situated on which river?
a) Columbia b) Potomac c) Saint Lawrence River
15. How many boroughs are there in New York City?
a) 3 b) 8 c) 5 d) 10
16. How many storeys does the Empire State Building have?
a) 98 b) 102 c) 115
17. How many members does the Senate have?
a) 100 b) 150 c) 435 d) 50
18. Hollywood is situated near:
a) San Francisco, California b) Boston, Massachusetts c) Los Angeles, Californiad) Seattle, Washington
19. This interesting place is in Washington:
a) The Metropolitan Museum b) the Library of the Congress c) the Bronx Zoo
20. Detroit is the centre of this industry:
a) textile b) automobile c) ship building
21. This city is situated in the USA:
a) Florida b) Boston c) Liverpool d) Dublin
22. The Pilgrims’ ship was called:
a) "Discovery” b) "Titanic” с) "Mayflower”
23. What state is the nearest to Mexico?
a) Oklahoma b) Texas c) Nevada
24. The first President of the USA was:
a) Lincoln b) Washington c) Jefferson
25. This holiday is celebrated only in the USA:
a) Valentine’s Day b) Halloween c) Thanksgiving Day d) New Year’s Day
Голицинский Ю.Б., Великобритания. Пособие по страноведению.- Санкт-Петербург. Издательство КАРО,2002.
Ощепкова В., ШустиловаИ. Britain in brief. Книга для чтения в ст. классах ср. школы.- Москва. «Просвещение»-2003.
ШарменЭ. Across cultures. Culture, literature, music, language // Longman. – 2004.
РоссД. Scotland. History of a Nation /Шотландия. История нации. Книга по страноведению на английском языке. – Спб.: Каро. – 2006.
РоссД. England. History of a Nation /Англия. История нации: Книга по страноведению на английском языке. – Спб.: Каро. – 2006.
РоссД. Ireland. History of a Nation /Ирландия. История нации: Книга по страноведению на английском языке. – Спб.: Каро. – 2006.
РоссД. Wales. History of a Nation /Уэльс. История нации. Книга по страноведению на английском языке. – Спб.: Каро. – 2006.
Васильев К.Б. История Великобритании. СПб: Азбука. – 2004.
Васильев М.В. Достопримечательности Великобритании. – М.: Айрис-пресс. – 2007.
Павлоцкий В.М. Знакомимся с Америкой: Книга по страноведению. 8-10 кл. (AmericanStudies). – Спб.: Каро. – 2002.
.Павлоцкий В.М. Знакомимся с Британией: Книга по страноведению. 9-11 кл. (BritishStudies). – Спб.: Каро. – 2002.
Интернет-школа «Просвещение. ru». Режим доступа: http://www.internet-school. ruИстория, география, культура, праздники, быт, города Британии. http://www.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk