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Thanksgiving: History and Traditions Izmaylova Elizaveta Alikhanovna School 540 St Petersburg 2013 Today’s Traditions Thanksgiving feast/family day Remembering our blessings 5 kernels of corn Macys Parade Historical Context The Pilgrims Named for the Israelites in Exodus longing for a better country, the term wasn’t popular until the 1800’s.Early 1600’s - Separatist movement “But after these things they could not long continue in any peaceable condition, but were hunted & persecuted on every side, so as their former afflictions were but as flea-bitings in comparison of these which now came upon them. For some were taken & clapt up in prison, others had their houses besett & watcht night and day, & hardly escaped their hands; and ye most were faine to flie & leave their howses & habitations, and the means of their livelehood.” Historical Context The Pilgrims 1607 - Migration and escape to Amsterdam and then to Liden "For these & other other reasons they removed to Leyden, a fair & bewtifull citie, and of a sweete situation, but made more famous by ye universitie wherwith it is adorned, in which of late had been so many learned man. But wanting that traffike by sea which Amerstdam injoyes, it was not so beneficiall for their outward means of living & estats. But being now hear pitchet they fell to such trads & imployments as they best could; valewing peace & their spirituall comforte above any other riches whatsoever. And at length they came to raise a competente & comforteable living, but with hard and continuall labor. William Bradford, Of Plymouth Plantation Historical Context The Pilgrims1617 - “Aging congregation,” language barriers and the hope of missionary work leads the pilgrim leaders to begin chartering a voyage to America, “The New World.”1620 - After much difficulty two ships (The Speedwell and Mayflower) are chartered for the trip. Historical Context The Pilgrims1620Encounters with the Native AmericansMany had had previous contact with hostile Europeans before.Squanto/Tsquantum (c. 1580s – November 1622)Patuxet Indian The Mayflower Compact “IN THE NAME OF GOD, AMEN.We whose names are underwritten, the loyal subjects of our dread Sovereign Lord King James, by the Grace of God of Great Britain, France, and Ireland King, Defender of the faith, etc.Having undertaken, for the Glory of God and advancement of the Christian Faith and Honor of our King and Country, a Voyage to plant the First Colony in the Northern Parts of Virginia, do by these presents solemnly and mutually in the presence of God and one of another, Covenant and Combine ourselves together into a Civil Body Politic, for our better ordering and preservation and furtherance of the ends aforesaid; and by virtue hereof to enact, constitute and frame such just and equal Laws, Ordinances, Acts, Constitutions and Offices, from time to time, as shall be thought most meet and convenient for the general good of the Colony, unto which we promise all due submission and obedience. In witness whereof we have hereunder subscribed our names at Cape Cod, the llth of November, in the year of the reign of our Sovereign Lord King James, of England, France and Ireland the eighteenth, and of Scotland the fifty-fourth. Anno Domini 1620.” Cultural Legacy Legal Influence Self-government “Under God”Contractual governmentReligious toleration Thanksgiving 1621 - The first Thanksgiving feast November 1, 1782 - Congress issues the first Thanksgiving day proclamation. 1863 - President Abraham Lincoln appoints the last Thursday in November as a day of thanksgiving. 1939 - President Franklin D. Roosevelt set the date for Thanksgiving to the current date - the fourth Thursday of November. Conclusion The Pilgrims Who were they? Why did they come to America? Cultural legacy Religious toleration Legal influence Impact on the Native Peoples Contemporary Debate - Was it genocide?