Топик Ancient Transport.
The first form of transport was, of course, ShankпїЅs pony (the human foot!). However people eventually learned to use animals for transport. Donkeys and horses were probably domesticated between 4,000 and 3,000 BC (obviously the exact date is not known). Camels were domesticated slightly later between 3,000 and 2,000 BC. Meanwhile about 3,500 BC the wheel was invented in what is now Iraq. At first wheels were made of solid pieces of wood lashed together to form a circle but after 2,000 BC they were made with spokes. The earliest boats were dug out canoes. People lit a fire on a big log then put it out and dug out the burned wood. About 3,100 BC the Egyptians invented the sailing boat. They were made of bundles of papyrus reeds tied together. They had simple square sails made of sheets of papyrus or later of linen. However the sail could only be used when sailing in one direction. When travellingagainst the wind the boat had to be rowed. About 2,700 BC the Egyptians began using wooden ships for trade by sea.Early ships were steered by a long oar.
Топик Roman Transport.
The Romans are famous for the network of roads they built across the Empire. Roman legionaries built them so the Roman army could march from one part of the empire to another quickly. Rich people travelled by horse or on long journeys by covered wagon. Sometimes they were carried in litters (seats between two long poles). Travel by water was also important to the Romans. They built large merchant ships called cortia, which could carry up to 1,000 tons of cargo. Roman ships had a single main mast, which carried a rectangular sail, although some ships also had small sails at the bow and stern. Roman ships did not have rudders. Instead they were steered by oars. The Romans also built lighthouses to aid shipping.
Топик Transport in the Middle Ages .
After the fall of Rome roads in Europe returned to being simple dirt tracks, which turned to mud in the Winter. In the Middle Ages rich people sometimes travelled in covered wagons. They must have been very uncomfortable as they did not have suspension and roads were bumpy and rutted. Others travelled on a box between two poles. Two horses, one in front and one behind carried it. They were trained to walk at the same pace. However at sea a number of useful inventions were made. The Chinese invented the compass centuries before it was used in Europe. Nevertheless by the 12th century Europeans had learned to use it. Also in the 12th century Europeans invented the rudder. (The Chinese independently invented it centuries before). Rudders made ships much easier to steer. Furthermore shipbuilding became far more advanced and by the 15th century ships were made with 3 masts.