ОСОБЕННОСТИ УПОТРЕБЛЕНИЯ И ПЕРЕВОДА ФРАЗЕОЛОГИЗМОВ БИБЛЕЙСКОГО ПРОИСХОЖДЕНИЯ
В АНГЛИЙСКОМ И РУССКОМ ЯЗЫКАХ.
Peculiarity of use and translation of the biblical idioms in English and Russian languages.(слайд 1)
Religion has been exerting its influence on a personality, the world outlook, society and culture. Any religion implies not only certain world-view, but is confirmed by written and historical sources.
It’s an irrefutable fact that one of the most influential sacred writings has been the Holy Bible. During lots of centuries The Bible has been the source of quoting and appearance of new idiomatic phrases. Every new language gradually, but confidently absorbed and organically assimilated the heritage of the Bible. More often the difference in use of the biblical idioms in various languages, in this case English and Russian languages, actualizes the problem of the adequate translation of the phrases and expressions like these. So the actuality of the research work is evaluated by the special status of the biblical idioms, both in English and Russian and by the search of the optimal ways of their translation.
(Слайд 2) The aim of the research work is to make the general conclusion and systematize the information about phraseology of English and Russian languages. The aim is fulfilled in the course of solution the following tasks:
1. to define the place and structure of the biblical idioms in the system of the biblical phraseology in whole.
2. to describe the methods of introduction of idioms in the text and the methods of their translation from English into Russian.
The objects of the research are biblical idioms in Russian and English languages.
The subject of investigation is structural-semantic and functional features of biblical idioms in English and Russian languages. The importance of it is especially necessary for the successful translation of the idioms from one language to another.
The following research methods were used in the work: descriptive, comparative and selective. The practical value of the research work is that its results can help in identification of the biblical phraseology in the text. Besides it can be helpful while working out the semantic and stylistic features and while choosing the exact variant of translation
In the research work the aspect of various ways of translation of biblical idioms from English into Russian have been analyzed.Let’s make comparative analyses of correlation between the biblical phrases in English and in Russian languages. Under the comparison several groups of the correlation are revealed.
The choice of the way of the translation of a biblical idiom from English into Russian depends on several factors. The most important one is the presence or absence of the exact equivalent of a biblical phrase in Russian.
(слайд 3) From this point of view the following variants are possible: 1. in both languages the meaning and the sphere of using of the idioms fully coincide. 2. biblical expressions have become phrases only in one language; 3. biblical expressions have become phrases in two languages, but there is mismatch in their use; 4. English idioms don’t have Russian equivalents, but they have other biblical idioms or just phrases to express the proper meaning.
It’s an important fact that while translating the text with biblical idioms, different ways of translation should be used
(слайд4) So let’s research the variant when the meaning and the sphere of use of the idioms in both languages fully coincided.
Idioms like these form quite a large group and under their translation a Russian biblical equivalent is used. Let’s have a look at some of the examples: daily bread – хлеб насущный; the salt of the earth – соль земли; by the sweat of one’s brow – в поте лица своего; to beat swords into ploughshares– перековать мечи на орала; to turn the other cheek – подставить другую щеку; blind leaders of the blinds – слепые поводыри слепых; vanity of vanities – суета сует; to cast pearls before swine – метать бисер перед свиньями; the sign of the times – знамение времени; not by bread alone – не хлебом единым.
(слайд 5) Now let’s examine the biblical expressions that have become idioms only in one of two languages (in English). In this case English biblical idioms don’t have equivalents in the modern Russian language. Idioms like these form a large group, which is the most difficult one for translation. The main task for the interpreter is to find the Russian equivalent (according to the text), that with the help of the figurative means of the Russian language, will do justice to the English expressions. In some cases it can be translation with interpretation, in others – descriptive translation, and besides it can be a set biblical word combination or just a word. On the screen you see some possible variants of the translation of the expression from this group: (слайд)
English biblical idiom
Английский библеизм word-for word translation
дословный перевод A possible variant of translation
At the eleventh hour
(Matthew 20:9- Евангелие от Матвея) There is no Russian equivalent
в одиннадцатом часу - в последнюю минуту; в самый последний момент
Hewers of wood and drawers of water
(Matthew 20:10- Евангелие от Матвея) There is no Russian equivalent
рубящие дрова и черпающие воду - люди (а также группы населения и целые страны), выполняющие тяжелую, черновую работу (обыкн. физическую) - простые смертные
To hide one’s light under a bushel
(Matthew 5:15- Евангелие от Матвея) держать свет свой под спудом/сосудом зарывать талант в землю; скрывать свои достоинства, способности, быть излишне скромным, не использовать своих возможностей, талантов
To play Samson in the temple
(Judges 16:21-30 –7-я Книга библии - Книга Судей )To cast one’s bread upon the waters There is no Russian equivalent
поступить, как Самсон в храме (принести себя в жертву)
отпускать хлеб свой по водам
There is no Russian equivalent - погубить врагов/противников и погибнуть при этом самому.
делать что-л., не ожидая немедленных результатов; делать добро, не ожидая вознаграждения, бескорыстно
One more way of the biblical idioms translation from English into Russian is when biblical expressions have become phrases in both languages, but there is mismatch in their use. The mismatch among the biblical idioms in the examining languages can have different types.
(слайд 6) Let’s analyze the mismatch of English and Russian biblical idioms in grammar, semantics and in style
а) английский и русский эквиваленты демонстрируют различия в объеме значений и оценочной нагрузки. Например:
а) English and Russian equivalents demonstrate difference in the range of meaning and assessment. Let’s compare some of the examples. In English the biblical idiom Manna of the heaven has several meanings:
-food that God send to people
-something very tiny (like cereals)
Compare it to the Russian meaning:
-Манна небесная – something miraculous; God’s grace. In Russian the idiom usually has more expressive and allegorical meaning. It is usually used as an allusion or a joke.
b) On the base of one and the same biblical plot in English and Russian languages there appeared idioms, that usually have more meanings in English than in Russian. Quite often Russian language doesn’t have an idiom that reflects this or that biblical plot. In this case it is necessary to know exact meaning of the expression in order not to be disorientated by the visual identity.
Let’s examine the idioms connected with the name of Job (Иов или Иова).In English there are several idioms, containing the name of Job, that are perfectly often used in the language (слайд): As poor as Job (Нищ как Иова); As poor as Job’s turkey (в значении – беднее самого Иовы); As patient as Job (терпелив как Иова); Job’s comforters (буквально утешители Иовы, в значении «Горе-утешители»); Job’s news (печальное известие); Job’s post (человек, приносящий дурные вести).
As for the Russian language it has got only, one rarely used expression, containing the name of Job – Книга Иова. More over, one should know the plot from the Bible to use the idiom properly.
(слайд 7) Теперь обратимся к грамматическим расхождениям.
Now let’ examine grammar mismatch in the biblical idioms. In English and Russian languages different use of syntactical and morphological models of the biblical idioms have become common. Let’ compare the idioms: (слайд)
English idiom Russian idiom
To wash one’s hands of smb./smth.
(Matthew 27:24 – евангелие от Матвея) (обычно с дополнением) - Умывать руки (без дополнения)
Out of the mouths of babies and sucklings
(Psalms 8:2, Matthew 21:16)
Употребляется только во множественном числе - библ.: из уст младенцев и грудных детей; употребляется и в ед. и во мн. числе: устами младенцев (младенца) глаголет истина
Doubting Thomas (John 20:24-29) употр. Во множественном числе и возможна замена компонентов: Doubting Ernest; Doubted Thomas; Doubting Thomases - Фома неверующий/неверный (только в единственном числе; форма не меняется)
(слайд 8) As for the stylistic mismatches, it’s interesting to analyze English and Russian idioms, which equivalents in different language styles, function and have got extra meanings.
For example, in the idioms the outer darkness/тьма кромешная, the English idiom refers to the bookish style and means cosmic darkness, hell, the place where the sinners’ souls agonize. Besides this idiom the outer darkness in the English language has got allegorical meaning – expatriation, life full of hardships. As for the Russian equivalent it has got direct meaning – darkness and can be translated into English as pitch darkness.
The same can be said about the biblical equivalents the slaughter of the innocents – избиение младенцев. The English expression hasn’t changed its primary meaning and means: killing, violence and repressions against innocent people and is mostly used in the bookish style. Moreover the idiom the slaughter of the innocents on the parliament language means defeat of a bill because of time shortage.
As for the Russian equivalent now it is always used ironically. The word “убийство” is replaced by “избиение”. The idiom is used in the informal style, especially in relation to young inexperienced people when they are criticized or treated severely.
In both analyzing languages-English and Russian, there are certain fixed images connected with Christianity. But for the English people the Bible has always been the main book and has kept its strong positions practically in all spheres of life. Russian people were remoted from the sacred book, so they don’t know lots of plots from it. Nevertheless, the Holy Bible has made strong influence on the language itself and remained its trace in the Russian phraseology.
Let’s examine some other examples: (слайд)
Can the leopard change his spots? (Jeremiah 13:23 ) “горбатого могила исправит”
A drop in the bucket
(Isaiah 40:15 ) капля в море
To sweet blood (Luke 22:44 ) пролить семь потов (над чем-либо)