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Classification of English speech soundsProshina Julia 21a8k Two major classes of sounds: consonantsvowels Consonants a complete, partial or intermittent blockage of the air passage the air stream is blocked or hindered or otherwise gives rise to audible friction → sounds which have noise The phonological analysis of English consonant sounds helps to distinguish 24 phonemes: [p, b, t, d, k, g, f, v, θ, ð, s, z, ∫, , h, t∫, , ʒ ʤ m, n, ŋ, w, r, l, j]. Articulatory classification of English consonantsThe particular quality of a consonant would be best thought of as a complex bundle of features articulatory posture place in the mouthorgan makes an obstructionwork of vocal cords, etc. Articulatory classification of English consonantsEach sound is known to have three aspects:acoustic, articulatory,auditory → can be studied on these three levels. Russian phoneticians classify consonants according to the following principles: degree of noise; place of articulation; manner of articulation; position of the soft palate; force of articulation. The primary importance → the type of obstruction and the manner of production of noise. Two large classes of consonants: occlusive, in the production of which a complete obstruction is formed;constrictive, in the production of which an incomplete obstruction is formed. [ti: ] — [si: ] tea — sea (occlusive — constrictive)[si: d] — [si: z] seed — seas (occlusive — constrictive)[pul] — [ful] pull — full (occlusive — constrictive) Each of the two classes is subdivided into noise consonants and sonorants ← either noise or tone component prevail in the auditory characteristic of a sound. Noise consonants are divided into plosive consonants (or stops) and affricates. C O N S O N A N T S Occlusive Constrictive noise consonants sonorants noise consonants sonorants plosives(stops) affricates medial lateral Another point of view is shared by a group of Russian phoneticians. The first and basic principle of classification — the degree of noise. Such consideration leads to dividing English consonants into two general kinds: a) noise consonants ; b) sonorants. «Degree of noise» The term belongs to auditory level of analysis. There is an intrinsic connection between articulatory and auditory aspects of describing speech sounds. In this case the term of auditory aspect defines the characteristic more adequately. Sonorantsdiffer greatly from other consonants. In their production the air passage between the two organs of speech is fairly wide.→ the auditory effect is tone, not noise → sound more like vowels than consonants [r], [j], [w]the class of semivowels Acoustically sonorants are opposed to all other consonants because they are characterized by sharply defined formant structure and the total energy of most of them is very high. Functional groundsaccording to their position in the syllable → consonantal categoryfrom the point of view of their phonetic description → vowel glides According to the Soviet phoneticianssonorants = consonants from articulatory, acoustic and phonological point of view sonorants can be classified according to all the principles of classification of consonants: [beık — meık] bake — make (noise consonant — sonorant) [vi: l- wi: l] veal — wheel (noise consonant — sonorant) Classifications of British and American scholarsno sonorants Daniel Jones and Henry A. Gleason – separate groups of nasals [m, n, η], the lateral [l] and semi-vowels, or glides [w, r, j].Bernard Bloch and George Trager – nasals, lateral + trilled [r]. The manner of articulationThe point of view of the closure: complete closure → occlusive (stop or plosive) consonants incomplete closure → constrictive consonants the combination of the two closures → occlusive-constrictive consonants, or affricates intermittent closure → then rolled, or trilled consonants Russian phoneticiansConsonants: unicentral (pronounced with one focus) bicentral (pronounced with two foci) according to the number of noise producing centers, or foci. The shape of narrowingConstrictive consonants and affricates: sounds with flat narrowing sounds round narrowing The place of articulationis determined by the active organ of speech against the point of articulation. According to this principle the English consonants are classed into: labial, lingual, glottal. The class of labial consonants bilabial;labio-dentalThe class of lingual consonants forelingual, medio- lingual, backlingual. C o n s o n a n t s labial lingual glottal bilabial labiodental fore-lingual medio-lingual back lingual Oppositionsbased on the active organ of speech and the place of obstruction[waı] — [laı] why — lie (bilabial — forelingual) [pık] — [kık] pick — kick (bilabial –backlingual)[saı] — [haı] sigh — high (forelingual — glottal) [Ies] — [jes] less — yes (forelingual — mediolingual) Voiced — voiceless characteristicdepends on the work of the vocal cords [p, b], [t, d], [k, g], [s, z], [f, v], [ʃ ,ʒ ] ,[ʧ ʤ] → absence or presence of vibrations of the vocal cords, voice or tone component There is also energy difference (force of articulation) → all voiced consonants are weak (lenis) and all voiceless consonants are strong (fortis) ControversyIn the intervocalic position the voicing difference is important latter – ladder In word-initial and final positions the pronunciation of consonants traditionally considered to be voiced may well be voiceless cap – cab, not – nod ControversyIn initial position aspiration would be a more important feature for stops tick – Dick, cap – gap In a word-final position the length of the proceeding vowel constitutes the chief difference bead – beet ↓ ↓the presence or absence of voice is not a constant distinctive feature → oppositions [p, b], [t, d], [k, g], [s, z], [f, v], [ʃ ,ʒ ] ,[ʧ ʤ] are primarily based on energy difference → on fortis — lenis articulation The position of the soft palateoral nasal When the soft palate is raised → oral consonants When the soft palate is lowered → nasal consonants Nasalizationcannot be a phonologically relevant feature of English consonants → no differences of meaning in the presence or absence of nasalization → it is an indispensable concomitant feature of English nasal consonants. Distinctive oppositions of English consonantsDegree of noise bake — make, veal — wheel Place of articulation – labial vs. lingual pain — cane – lingual vs. glottal foam = home, care — hair, Tim — him Distinctive oppositions of English consonantsManner of articulation occlusive vs. constrictive pine — fine, bat — that, bee – thee constrictive vs. affricates fare — chair, fail – jail constrictive unicentral vs. constrictive bicentral same – shame Distinctive oppositions of English consonantsWork of the vocal cords and the force of articulation voiceless fortis vs. voiced lenis pen — Ben, ten — den, coat — goal Position of the soft palate oral vs. nasal pit — pin, seek — seen Thank you for attention!