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Modal verbs: can, could, may, might, must, ought to, will, would, shall, should, have to, need. The modal verbs are: can, could, may, might, must, ought to, will, would, shall, should, have to, need. They take no -s in the third person singular except for have to and need. They come before the subject in questions and take "not" after them in negations. Except for ought to and have to, modal verbs are followed by an infinitive without to. Sorry, I can't come. I have to meet Pam. Modal verbs are used to express : ability, possibility, probability, logical assumptions, permission, requests, offers suggestions, advice, criticism, obligation, prohibition necessity MAY ____ I help you, sir? Yes, please! _________ you give me six fish, and ______ you throw them to me, please? WOULD COULD May Would could Why ______I throw them? SHOULD should Well, I'm a hopeless fisherman but I'm not a liar, so now I _____tell my wife I caught them. can CAN ABILITY Can is the Present Simple and could is the Past Simple. Can borrows the rest of its tenses from be able to. He hasn't been able to call them yet but he can call them tomorrow. Fill in can or be able to in the appropriate tense and form. 1. I've been looking for your glasses but I__________________ find them yet. 2. By the time Phillis was ten, she__________________ speak three languages. 3. If you don't tell me what your problem is, I _________help you. 4. I got home early last night, so I _____________ watch my favourite programme on TV. 5. I ________________eat anything when I was younger, but now I have to be more careful. 6. He _____________pass the exam because he had studied hard. haven't been able to POSSIBILITY perhaps; it's possible that something will happen in the future or perhaps it is true at the moment____________________________ perhaps something happened in the past______________________________ is also used for something which was possible but didn't actually happen _________________________________ may/might/could + present infinitive may/might/could + perfect infinitive Could + perfect infinitive PROBABILITY show that something is probable now or in the future___________________________ show that we expected something to happen but we don't know if it happened or not_________________________________ ought to/should + present infinitive ought to/should + perfect infinitive I don't think; it's logically improbable________________________________ I think, I'm fairly sure; it's logically probable__________________________________ ______is the opposite of________ It's impossible that something happened in the past____________________________________ It's very probable that something happened in the past__________________________________ LOGICAL ASSUMPTIONS can't/couldn't + present Inf must + present Inf can't must can't/couldn't + perfect Inf must + perfect Inf She can't be rich. Her house is too small. (I don't think she's rich.) His face is red. He must be very angry. (I think he's very angry.) It can't be true. It must be a lie. She can't/couldn't have lost her way; she must have missed the train. (= I don't think she's lost her way; I think she has missed the train.) LOGICAL ASSUMPTIONS You _____be serious! You could get food poisoning! You ______be new here. Don't worry, that's what they served me yesterday. can't CAN'T must MUST