Алексеевка – 2012
Кришталь Е. В.
преподаватель английского языка
Департамент образования, культуры
и молодежной политики Белгородской области
ГБОУ СПО «Алексеевский педагогический колледж»
МЕТОДИЧЕСКИЕ РЕКОМЕНДАЦИИ ПО ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЮ ЛЕКСИКИ В РАМКАХ ТЕМЫ:
«Защита окружающей среды. ГЛОБАЛЬНОЕ ПОТЕПЛЕНИЕ»
для студентов 3 курса
специальности 050303 «ИНОСТРАННЫЙ ЯЗЫК»
Кришталь Е. В.
преподаватель английского языка
В наступивший век проблема охраны природы приобрела на нашей планете исключительное значение. В России она стала одной из важнейших государственных задач. Практическое осуществление идей охраны природы во многом зависит от природоохранительного просвещения населения. Особая ответственность за его выполнение ложится и на общеобразовательные школы, учреждения СПО и ВУЗы.
Вносимые человеком изменения в природу приобрели такие масштабы, что превратились в серьезную угрозу нарушения существующего в природе относительного равновесия.
Долгое время человек смотрел на природу как на неисчерпаемый источник необходимых для него материальных благ. Но, сталкиваясь с отрицательными результатами своего воздействия на природу, он постепенно приходит к убеждению в необходимости более разумного ее использования и охраны.
Значимость этой проблемы усиливается появлением таких глобальных изменений в биосфере, как избыточное накопление углекислого газа в атмосфере, повышения фона радиации, сокращение зеленого покрова и т.д., которые ставят под опасность существование жизни на Земле.
Жизнь без атмосферы невозможна. Но она невозможна и без воды, и без пищи, и без многого другого. Без пищи человек может прожить недели, без воды - дни, без воздуха – минуты, без атмосферной защиты - секунды.
Сокращение запасов кислорода практически пока неощутимо. Но этот процесс нарастает. Поступление кислорода уменьшается из-за вырубки лесов, отчуждения земель под строительство, лесных пожаров и т.п. Загрязнение Мирового океана нефтью и другими веществами ведёт к массовой гибели зеленых водорослей. Это одни из самых острых глобальных экологических проблем современности.
От того, как они будут решаться, зависит наше будущее. Эти вопросы волнуют весь мир, всю страну. Вот почему данные рекомендации посвящены этой теме.
WORDS & WORD COMBINATIONS
acid [‘æsid] – кислота
acid rain – кислотный дождь
alkali [‘ælkэlai] – щёлочь
arsenic – мышьяк
base – основание (хим.)
butt – окурок
body of water – водоём
chemicals – хим. отходы
creature – создание
decomposition – разложение, гниение
energy “leaks” – утечка энергии
environment – окружающая среда
glass products –изделия из стекла
lawn clippings –отходы от стрижки травы
litter – сор, мусор
packaging – упаковка
pest – паразит, вредитель
pesticide [‘pestisaid] – пестицид (хим. ср-во для борьбы с вредителями)
pollution [pэ’lu:∫(э)n] – загрязнение
raw material – сырьё
drain – сток, канализационная труба
trash – хлам, отбросы
wax paper cup [‘wæks ‘peipэ ‘kΛp]– стаканчик из вощеной бумаги
wastes – отходы
biodegradable [‘baiэudi’greidэble]– биологически разрушающийся
hazardous – опасный
household – домашний
stinky – вонючий, отвратительный запах
toxic – ядовитый, токсичный
to cause – быть причиной
to contaminate – загрязнять, разлагать
to drop – ронять, бросать
to dump –сбрасывать
to forecast –предсказывать, предвидеть
to harm –причинять вред
to monitor –контролировать, проверять
to occur –случаться, происходить
to preserve –сохранять
to absorb - поглощать
deforestation – уничтожение лесов
drought [draut] – засуха
desertification – распространение пустынь
disaster – катастрофа
duration of seasons – продолжительность времён года
earthquake – землетрясение
gasoline – бензин
famine [‘fæmin] – голод
frequency - частота
forest fire – лесной пожар
to give off – выделять
glaciers melting – таяние ледников
habitat – среда обитания
greenhouse gases – парниковые газы
water vapor – водяные пары
carbon dioxide – двуокись углерода (CO2)
ozone – озон
methane [mi:’θein] – метан
oil – нефть
fossil fuels – ископаемые горючие (уголь, нефть)
oxygen – кислород
precipitation – осадки
to reflect – отражать
to recycle – повторно перерабатывать
recycling – повторная переработка
solar energy – солнечная энергия
species extinction – вымирание видов
volcano eruption – извержение вулкана
-299085229235Listen, repeat and learn the following words & word combinations.
holes in the ozone layer
the greenhouse effect
the ozone layer
the greenhouse effect
the Earth’s atmosphere
Some causes of environmental damage
aerosol cans / sprays
cutting down tropical forests
smoke from factories
alternative forms of transport
new energy sources
protesting against pollution
wind / wave / solar power
Things that are damaged
Verbs connected with the environment and pollution
Tropical forests are being cut down so that people can use the land to grow crops.
Chemicals destroy the ozone layer.
In order to protect the environment we have to plant more trees.
Exhaust fumes pollute the air.
Many people protest against pollution and try to persuade governments to take more care of the environment.
Glass, cans, and paper can all be recycled.
We should save energy and natural resources and not waste them.
Don’t throw away bottles, paper and cans. They can be recycled.
How long do you think litter lasts? Circle the correct answer. Find the key on the next page.
litter lasts traffic ticket 2-4 weeks
banana peel 2 months
wool sock 6 months
wooden stake a year
painted wooden stake a year
wax paper cup a year
tin cans 50 years
aluminum cans 500 years
plastic containers up to 500 years
up to 100 years
up to 200 years
glass bottle 100 years
up to 500 years
Well-operated landfills are dry, dark, and airless; they are airtight and watertight to avoid contaminating our underground water. These conditions actually preserve garbage! Researchers have recovered 25-year-old newspapers from a landfill and found them still readable. Without air and water, even biodegradable products, such as bread or lawn clippings, break down very slowly.
Approximate Decomposition Times in a landfill
traffic ticket 1 month
banana peel up to six months
wool sock 1 year
wooden stakes 4 years
wax paper cups 5 years
painted wooden stakes 13 years
tin cans 100 years
plastic bottles up to 500 years
glass bottles never
Read the text “Acid Rains” and choose the only one right variant.
Every year more and more plants and animals disappear never to be seen again. Strangely, it is the most intelligent but most thoughtless animal that is causing most of the problems — man. Nature is very carefully balanced and if this balance is disturbed, animals can disappear alarmingly fast. Every day, thousands of species of animals draw closer to extinction. There are countless number of species which may become extinct before they are even discovered.
In many lakes the fish are dying. Fishermen are worried because every year there are fewer fish and some lakes have no fish at all. Scientists are beginning to get worried too. What is killing the fish?
The problem is acid rain. Acid rain is a kind of air pollution. It is caused by factories that burn coal or oil or gas. These factories send smoke high into the air. The wind often carries the smoke far from the factories. Some of the harmful substances in the smoke may come down with the rain hundreds of miles away.
The rain in many places isn't natural and clean any more. It's full of acid chemicals. When it falls in lakes, it changes them too. The lakes become more acidic. Acid water is like vinegar or lemon juice. It hurts when it gets in your eyes. It also kills the plants and animals that usually live in lake water. That is why the fish are dying in lakes.
But dead fish may be just the beginning of the problem. Scientists are finding other effects of acid rain. In some large areas trees are dying. Not just one tree here and there, but whole forests. At first scientists couldn't understand why. There were no bugs or diseases in these trees. The weather was not dry. But now they think that the rain was the cause. Acid rain is making the earth more acidic in these areas. Some kinds of trees cannot live in the soil that is very acidic.
Now scientists are also beginning to study the effects of acid rain on larger animals. For example, they believe that some deer in Poland are less healthy because of acid rain. If deer are hurt by the rain, what about people? This is the question many people are beginning to ask. No one knows the answer yet. But it is an important question for us all.
1. This passage is about
(B) acid rain.
C) air pollution.
(D) destructive human activity.
2. Every year thousands of species of animals
(A) are hunted for their meat and skins.
(B) migrate to other places.
(C) starve to death.
(D) die out.
3. Acid rain is caused by
(A) natural gas.
(B) the ozone layer depletion.
(C) acidic lake water.
(D) emissions of industrial enterprises.
4. Which of the following is true?
(A) Dead fish in lakes is the only problem caused by acid rains.
(B) Scientists are sure that acid rains are not harmful for mankind.
(C) If we don't make an attempt to stop acid rains we may never see some animals again.
(D) There's no reason to worry about several trees that died of some unknown disease.
5. What was not mentioned in the text?
(A) Acid rain is capable of dissolving some rocks and stones.
(B) Fish are unable to live in the water containing acidic chemicals.
(C) Coal, oil or gas form dangerous combinations after being burnt.
(D) Scientists reckon that if some larger animals can be affected by acid rains, people may be in great danger.
6. Factory smoke
(A) stays over the factories.
(B) is usually clean now.
(C) turns into air.
(D) can travel hundreds of miles.
7. Scientists think acid rain
(A) is killing people.
(B) helps kill bugs.
(C) fertilizes the soil.
(D) is killing trees.
8. The word bug in this context means
(A) an infectious disease.
(B) a small insect.
(C) a dangerous bird.
(D) a small animal.
climate & weather
Match the words (0-6) with their definitions (A-H). There is one extra definition which you do not need to choose. There is an example at the beginning (0).
5. barometric pressure
A. An instrument used to measure atmospheric pressure.
B. Rain, hail, mist, sleet, snow or any other moisture that fall to the Earth.
C. Energy emitted in the form of electromagnetic waves.
D. A thin layer of mixed gases which make up the air we breathe.
E. The scientific study of weather conditions.
F. A measure of how hot or cold a place or thing is.
G. A long period of dry weather when there is not enough water for plants and animals to live.
H. The pressure of the atmosphere usually expressed in terms of the height of a column of mercury.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
F Put the sentences in the correct order to reconstruct some dialogues.
a) Sharon: I hope it's not gonna break into three digits!
b) Harry: Oh, my! It's really hot! I've never seen such scorching weather in my life!
c) Sharon: Well, I just hope it'll level off.
d) Harry: But it's already awfully close!
e) Sharon: You are right. It's like the whole world is broiling!
f) Sharon: I guess so. What else can we do? You can't stay in the heat for long!
g) Harry: Oh, look at the thermometer! The temperature has hit 98 °F!
h) Harry: I guess we can't do anything until after dark then.
Correct order: ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
a) Stephen: Well, you'd better take a hot shower right now, or you'll catch a cold. 6
b) Justine: I hope so. I'm sick and tired of such nasty weather.
c) Stephen; Wow, you look like a drowned rat! Didn't you know there's a thunderstorm today?
d) Justine: Yes. Let's hope for the best.
e) Stephen: They say the weather will improve next week. The temperature will rise to 25°C.
f) Justine: I knew there would be a shower, but I didn't realize it would rain cats and dogs today.
g) Stephen: Besides, if the weather turns to better, we'll be able to go on a picnic.
h) Justine: I know. I don't want to get sick, especially during final weeks.
Correct order: __ __ __ ___ ___ ___ ___ __
a) Ethan: I think so, too, but didn't it rain last month?
b) Ethan: Looks like it's going to be an ongoing thing that would get worse each day.
c) Sally: Yeah, and the soil has been baked so hard that the plow can't even break it.
d) Ethan: Oh. That bad?!
e) Sally: It did rain last month, but the rainfall was only half the monthly average.
f) Ethan: I don't blame you. The pastures have browned out though the summer hasn't arrived yet.
g) Sally: I think a drought has set in. It hasn't rained a drop for months.
h) Sally: That's right. It's really bad. I'm really concerned though not panicked yet.
Correct order: __ __ __ ___ ___ ___
Read the texts A-G. Say in which text you can find the answer to one of the questions (1-5). There is one extra text. There is an example at the beginning (0).
0. How can people actually change the Earth's climate?
1. How can climate change influence people's health?
2. Why does the Earth's average temperature rise?
3. What can you do to make the planet a better place?
4. What is the difference between the terms "weather" and "climate"?
5. What methods do scientists use to gather evidence about climate, both past and present?
Weather is the specific condition of the atmosphere at a particular place and time. It is measured in terms of such things as wind, temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, cloudiness, and precipitation. In most places, weather can change from hour-to-hour, day-to-day and season-to-season. Climate is the average weather (usually taken over a 30-year time period) for a particular region and time period. Climatic elements include precipitation, temperature, humidity, sunshine, wind velocity, phenomena such as fog, frost, and hail storms, and other measures of the weather.
The greenhouse effect is the rise in temperature that the Earth experiences because certain gases in the atmosphere (water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane, for example) trap energy from the sun. Without these gases, heat would escape back into space and the Earth's average temperature would be about 60°F colder. Because of how they warm our world, these gases are referred to as greenhouse gases. The Earth's atmosphere is all around us. It is the air that we breathe. Greenhouse gases in the atmosphere behave much like the glass panes in a greenhouse. Sunlight enters the Earth's atmosphere, passing through the blanket of greenhouse gases. As it reaches the Earth's surface, land, water, and biosphere absorb the sun^ light's energy. Once absorbed, this energy is sent back into the atmosphere. Some of the energy passes back into space, but much of it remains trapped in the atmosphere by the greenhouse gases, causing our world to heat up.
Scientists don't know exactly what will happen in the future. But they can use special computer programs to find out how the climate may change in the years ahead. And the computer programs tell us that the Earth may continue to get warmer. Together, the melting glaciers, rising seas, and computer models provide some good clues. They tell us that the Earth's temperature will probably continue to rise as long as we continue increasing the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Scientists look for clues to help them understand how the world works. Then they investigate the clues to find evidence — real facts that can give them a setter idea of what is going on. Weather stations, balloons, ocean buoys, and satellites tell us the Earth's temperature today. Ice cores, sediment layers, and tree rings tell us about what the Earth's climate has been like in the past. With this evidence, scientists are learning how climate changes over time.
Once, all climate changes occurred naturally. However, during the Industrial Revolution, we began altering our climate and environment through agricultural and industrial practices. The Industrial Revolution was a time when people began using machines to make life easier. It started more than 200 years ago and changed the way humans live. Before the Industrial Revolution, human activity released very few gases into the atmosphere, but now through population growth, fossil fuel burning, and deforestation, we are affecting the mixture of gases in the atmosphere. Since the Industrial Revolution, the need for energy to run machines has steadily increased. Some energy, like the energy you need to do your homework, comes from the food you eat. But other energy, like the energy that makes cars run and much of the energy used to light and heat our homes, comes from fuels like coal and oil — fossil fuels. Burning these fuels releases greenhouse gases. The trash that we send to landfills produces a greenhouse gas called methane. Whenever we drive or ride in a car, we are adding greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. And, when factories make the things that we buy and use everyday, they too are sending greenhouse gases into the air.
Heat stress and other heat related health problems are caused directly by very warm temperatures and high humidity. Untreated, heat stress can be a very serious medical problem. Scientists suspect that, in many places, climate change will increase the number of very hot days that occur during the year. More hot days increases the possibility of heat related health problems. Ecological disturbances, air pollution, changes in food and water supplies, and coastal flooding are all examples of possible impacts that might affect human health.
How people and nature adapt to climate change will determine how seriously it impacts human health. Some people and places are likely to be affected more than others. Very young children and the elderly adults will run the highest risks.
Global warming may make the sea level become higher. Warmer weather makes glaciers melt. A glacier is a large sheet of ice that moves very, very slowly. Some melting glaciers add more water to the ocean. Warmer temperatures also make water expand. When water expands in the ocean, it takes up more space and the level of the sea rises. Sea level may rise between several inches and as much as 3 feet during the next century. This will effect both natural systems and manmade structures along coastlines. Coastal flooding could cause saltwater to flow into areas where salt is harmful, threatening plants and animals in those areas. Oceanfront property would be affected by flooding, and beach erosion could leave structures even more vulnerable to storm waves. Whether we move back from the water or build barricades in the face of a rising sea, it could cost billions of dollars to adapt to such change. Coastal flooding also may reduce the quality of drinking water in coastal areas.
Driving a car or using electricity is not wrong. We just have to be smart about it. Some people use less energy by carpooling. For example, four people can ride together in one car instead of driving four cars to work. Whenever we use electricity, we help put greenhouse gases into the air. By turning off lights, the television, and the computer when you are through with them, you can help a lot. You can save energy by sometimes taking the bus, riding a bike, or walking. Planting trees is fun and a great way to reduce greenhouse gases. Trees absorb carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, from the air. You can recycle cans, bottles, plastic bags, and newspapers. When you recycle, you send less trash to the landfill and you help save natural resources, like trees, oil, and elements such as aluminum. Buy products that don't use as much energy. By conserving energy, we help reduce climate change and make the Earth a better place. Some products — like certain cars and stereos — are made specially to save energy.
Source: www.epa.gov0 1 2 3 4 5
D Read the text below. Complete the sentences. Choose from the sentences A-I the one which fits each gap (1-7). There is one extra sentence which you do not need to use. There is an example at the beginning (0).
Global warming is the increase in the average temperature of the Earth's near-surface air and oceans. It is caused by carbon dioxide emissions from the burning of fossil fuels (0) _____________________ Climate model projections indicate that the global surface temperature is likely to rise during the 21st century. Warming is expected to continue beyond 2100 even if emissions stop, (1) _________.
432816085725An increase in global temperature will cause sea levels to rise and will change the amount and pattern of precipitation, (2) ___________________. Other likely effects include increases in the intensity of extreme weather events, species extinctions, and changes in agricultural yields.
Political and public debate continues regarding global warming, and what actions to take in response. Most national governments have signed and ratified the Kyoto Protocol (3) _____________.
Ozone depletion is a slow decline of ozone in the Earth's stratosphere. Ozone is a protective layer absorbing harmful ultraviolet radiation (4) __________. Ultraviolet radiation may cause skin cancer and can affect the growth of plants.
Acid rain contains harmful quantities of acid. It has harmful effects on the environment and on structures. It is mostly caused by emissions (5) __________.
Water pollution is very dangerous to humans, animals and plants. The major water pollutants are petroleum products, pesticides, fertilizers, heavy metals, and others. Oil. fuel and lubrication get into water (6) __________. Spills take months or even years to clean up. Most marine mammals, fish and seabirds affected by an oil spill die (7) __________.
Source: www.en. wikipedia.org
A. because of the large heat capacity of the oceans and the long lifetime of carbon dioxide in the
B. which react in the atmosphere to produce acids.
C. unless there is human intervention.
D. probably including expansion of subtropical deserts.
E. which is produced by the Sun.
F. that collect in the space around the Earth.
G. which will be strongest in the Arctic
H. by accidental spills from ships and tanker trucks.
I. aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
F Read an article from the Newsweek magazine. 1) What is it about? Render its content in English.
If you want to know what the weather's going to be like this weekend, ask a weatherman. If you want to know what it'll be like in 100 years, ask a scientist.
The most important influence on the weather of the future is likely to be global warming. Global warming may or, may not be the great environmental crisis of the next century.
Here's what we know about global warming. Since the Industrial Age say, 1800, the concentration of the so-called 'greenhouse gases' — carbon dioxide, methane and others — in the atmosphere has risen about 30 per cent. .In the past century, temperatures have increased 1 degree Fahrenheit. One opinion is that these tendencies are connected. Industrial and transportation emissions increased carbon dioxide, trapping more heat in the atmosphere and raising temperatures. Another opinion is that the small temperature rise is a natural climatic variation.
The next hundred years, most scientists agree, will see the earth heat up further. How much further is open to debate: in 1995 hundreds of scientists from around the world predicted a rise of anywhere between 1.8 and 6.3 degrees by 2100. But some regions will warm much less and others, especially of northern continents, will warm much more. The United States is facing a temperature rise of 5 to 10 degrees. But, really, it's anybody's guess and the answer may be everybody's problem.
We don't know what the effects of warming might be. Warmer weather might make some areas more attractive and others less. Because what will happen to the world is still uncertain, what will happen to a particular region is even more uncertain.
We don't know how to prevent warming. Stabilizing emissions isn't enough. No one knows how to lower emissions without crushing the world economy. Based on present knowledge, the best way of coping with warming — if it happens — would be to adapt to it.
2) Which is the best title for the article?
Climate Change in the USA in the 21th Century
The 100-Year Forecast: Very Hot
Global Warming: Problems or Benefits?
3) Decide if these statements are True or False?
We know more about global warming than we don't.
Because the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has risen, temperatures have increased.
The scientists are sure of how much the temperature will rise in the next century.
By 2100 northern regions will warm less than other regions.
Stabilizing emissions can prevent global warming.
Global warming will crush the world economy.
9. A. Read the article by Helen Nugent & Louise Cohen below to say if the following statements are true or false.
1) Forecasters said that eastern and southern England would see the heaviest rains.
2) There were no delays for air and train passengers as snow was cleared.
3) The Met Office said that easterly winds from Russia and Eastern Europe would result in the widest covering of snow since 1991.
4) Snowfalls up to 50 cm are predicted across southeast England.
5) This winter has already been the warmest for 13 years.
6) Motorists are recommended to pack food, water, a torch and a spade as well as warm clothes.
7) Most of Britain can expect sharp frosts and bitterly cold conditions for much of this week.
8) Experts say that this year's daisy crop is the worst in a decade.
Drivers are warned to prepare for the worst as extreme weather is forecast
by Helen Nugent & Louise Cohen
3899535233680Treacherous travel conditions were predicted for much of Britain today. Forecasters said that eastern and southern England would see the heaviest snowfalls.
Meteorologists described the conditions as an extreme weather event and advised motorists to check the roads before leaving home.
Travelers were left stranded at bus stops in London last night as Transport for London decided to halt all bus services in the capital. A spokesman said that drivers were instructed to return to their garages after several accidents in which cars collided with buses or buses lost their grip on the road. "We aim to restore services as soon as possible once roads have been treated," he said.
There were delays for air and train passengers as snow was cleared. Gatwick cancelled more than 20 flights and diverted others as ground staff scrambled to de-ice runways. London City was closed for a time. Several train services linking London and the South East were cancelled or delayed. A section of the London-bound M20 in Kent was closed. Kent Police said that several minor collisions had been reported after snow froze on the road.
The Met Office said that easterly winds from Russia and Eastern Europe would result in the widest covering of snow since 1991. The greatest depths will be seen in the East and snowfalls up to 15cm (6in) are predicted across southeast England.
This winter has already been the coldest for 13 years, with temperatures plunging to lows of -13C during a three-week freeze in January. Temperatures fell below freezing last night, causing treacherous conditions for drivers, particularly in the Pennines and the North York Moors.
Biting winds are expected to hit steady speeds of 15 to 20mph today, gusting up to 35mph over the hills and along the east coast.
The Highways Agency's fleet of more than 500 salt spreaders, snow ploughs and snow blowers is on standby and salt spreading began over the weekend. Officials told motorists to check forecasts before setting out. They also recommended packing food, water, a torch and a spade as well as warm clothes.
Motorists who fail to ensure that they have warm clothing and extra layers are "flirting with hypothermia", motoring groups said.
"People often treat their car like an overcoat," Andy Taylor, of the AA, said. "But when you break down you are suddenly vulnerable to the weather. If you break down on a motorway, the safety advice is to get out of the car and wait behind the barrier. You need extra clothes for this."
The blast of icy weather will bring another bank of snow across Kent, Essex and Surrey this afternoon, moving quickly across the whole of eastern England. Most of Britain can expect sharp frosts and bitterly cold conditions for much of this week. A brief respite is predicted tomorrow before another barrage of snow.
Gardeners are worried that the temperatures will ruin the spring blooms. Experts say that this year's daffodil crop is the worst in a decade. Laura Davies, of the National Botanical Garden of Wales, said: "Now is the time you would expect to see daffodils coming out but we are not expecting them for two or three weeks at best if it warms up. Winter snowdrops were late and other plants you would expect to see have not shown signs of appearing. There will be fewer plants in gardens this year and Mediterranean shrubs will be the worst to suffer."
Helen Chivers, a Met Office forecaster, said: "Northerly winds will be maintaining the cold weather so we can expect some more icy nights and snow showers. It is looking likely that the snow will be coming back on Thursday and Friday, probably hitting southeast England again."
The bookmaker William Hill has dropped the odds of 2009 being the coldest year on record from 12-1 to 8-1. It is also offering odds of 100-1 that the Thames will freeze over.
Mervin Kohler, of Help The Aged, urged the elderly to take care. "Over-seventies can have insulation installed free by energy providers. Obviously it is a bit late to do those things before tonight and tomorrow but now is the time to start the process going because it is going to be cold again and energy prices are probably never going to go down to the level they were at five years ago," he said.
From the Times February 2, 2009
B. Look through the article again. Answer the questions briefly and fill in the table. Use a number, a word or a word combination. There is an example at the beginning (0).
0) Whom did meteorologists advise to check the roads before leaving home?
1) Who decided to halt all bus services in London?
2) How many flights did Gatwick cancel?
3) Which part of London was closed for a time?
4) Where will the greatest depths be seen?
5) In what month was a three-week freeze?
6) When is a brief respite predicted?
7) Whom did Mervin Kohler urge to take care?
0 motorists 4 1 5 2 6 3 7 Read the following article (3 parts), translate it in English, and get ready to speak about the greenhouse effect using the illustration below.
What is the Greenhouse Effect?
By Larry West, About.com Guide
What Causes the Greenhouse Effect?
Life on earth depends on energy from the sun. About 30 percent of the sunlight that goes toward Earth is reflected by the atmosphere and scattered back into space. The rest reaches the planet's surface and is reflected upward again as a type of slow-moving energy called solar radiation.
The heat caused by solar radiation is absorbed by "greenhouse gases" such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, ozone and methane, which slow its escape from the atmosphere.
Although greenhouse gases make up only about 1 percent of the Earth's atmosphere, they regulate our climate by trapping heat and holding it in a kind of warm-air blanket that surrounds the planet.
603885641985This phenomenon is what scientists call the "greenhouse effect." Without it, scientists estimate that the average temperature on Earth would be colder by approximately 30 degrees Celsius (54 degrees Fahrenheit), far too cold to sustain our current ecosystem.
How Do Humans Contribute to the Greenhouse Effect?
While the greenhouse effect is an essential environmental prerequisite for life on Earth, there really can be too much of a good thing.
The problems begin when human activities distort and accelerate the natural process by creating more greenhouse gases in the atmosphere than are necessary to warm the planet to an ideal temperature.
Burning natural gas, coal and oil (fossil fuels) including gasoline for automobile engines raises the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
Some farming practices and land-use changes increase the levels of methane and nitrous oxide.
Many factories produce long-lasting industrial gases that do not occur naturally, yet contribute significantly to greenhouse effect and "global warming" that is currently under way.
Deforestation also contributes to global warming. Trees use carbon dioxide and give off oxygen in its place, which helps to create the optimal balance of gases in the atmosphere. As more forests are logged for timber or cut down to make way for farming, however, there are fewer trees to perform this critical function.
Population growth is another factor in global warming, because as more people use fossil fuels for heat, transportation and manufacturing the level of greenhouse gases continues to increase. As more farming occurs to feed millions of new people, more greenhouse gases enter the atmosphere.
Besides there are some natural sources of CO2 contribution into the atmosphere such as volcano eruptions and forest fires.
Ultimately, more greenhouse gases means more radiation trapped and held, which gradually increases the temperature of the Earth's surface and the air in the lower atmosphere.
The Impacts of Global Warming
Scientists agree that even a small increase in the global temperature would lead to significant climate and weather changes, affecting cloud cover, precipitation, wind patterns, the frequency and severity of storms, and the duration of seasons.
Rising temperatures would lead to melting glaciers and raise sea levels as well, reducing supplies of fresh water as flooding occurs along coastlines worldwide and salt water reaches inland.
Many of the world’s endangered species would become extinct as rising temperatures changed their habitat.
Millions of people also would be affected, especially poor people who live in precarious locations or depend on the land for a subsistence living.
Certain vector-borne diseases carried by animals or insects, such as malaria, would become more widespread as warmer conditions expanded their range.
Fill in the following table with the information from the article above. You can also use the picture “IMPACTS” below.
facts about Global Warming reasons of Global Warming possible impacts
rising temperatures rising CO2 emissions melting glaciers
-365760100965Listen to the dialogue and fill in the blanks. Learn the dialogue by heart and reproduce it in pairs in class.
George, what can you tell us about the ___________ and how to ___________ it?
Well, Ms Robins. There are many environmental problems and people have _________ with it.
Can you give us any examples?
____________, the ___________ effect, holes in the ____________...
Very good, George, but what is the greenhouse effect?
The greenhouse effect is _________ by harmful gases, so called greenhouse gases. They are produced by ___________ stations. They go up into the Earth’s atmosphere and ___________ heat from ___________ . Because the heat cannot ___________, the Earth gets warmer. This is known as global warming.
What can we, as ____________ of the Earth, do to protect our planet?
It is very important to know the main sources of ___________ and try to change them for the better. Cars are the biggest ______________ today, because they produce ________ _________, which are the main cause of bad air quality. Maybe we should use public transport more often because it is more ___________________ friendly than cars.
And what about ______________ energy?
There are _____________ energy sources we could use instead of ________ and ___________ . Wind power, wave and solar power do not pollute the environment.
Very good. But what about ordinary people? How should we change our ______________?
It’s easy. We can help the environment by choosing to buy ________ ___________ like paper and glass, which can be _____________ . We should eat organic fruit and vegetables that have been produced without chemicals.
Excellent, George! You are a very good ____________ of our planet. Today you get an A.
Think of 10 things you can do to reduce global warming. Read the article by Larry West and compare your tips. Which of them are most appropriate for you? Which of them are difficult or impossible to follow in your country?
Top 10 Things You Can Do to Reduce Global Warming
1. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle
Do your part to reduce waste by choosing reusable products instead of disposables. Buying products with minimal packaging (including the economy size when that makes sense for you) will help to reduce waste. And whenever you can, recycle paper, plastic, newspaper, glass and aluminum cans. If there isn't a recycling program at your workplace, school, or in your community, ask about starting one. By recycling half of your household waste, you can save 2,400 pounds of carbon dioxide annually.
2. Use Less Heat and Air Conditioning
Add insulation to your walls and attic, doors and windows – it can lower your heating costs more than 25 percent, by reducing the amount of energy you need to heat and cool your home. Turn down the heat while you're sleeping at night or away during the day. It can save about 2,000 pounds of carbon dioxide each year.
3. Change a Light Bulb
Be practical; replace regular light bulbs with compact fluorescent light bulbs. Replacing just one 60W light bulb with a CFL will save you $30 over the life of the bulb. CFLs also last 10 times longer than regular bulbs, use two-thirds less energy, and give off 70 percent less heat. If every U.S. family replaced one regular light bulb with a CFL, it would eliminate 90 billion pounds of greenhouse gases, the same as taking 7.5 million cars off the road.
4. Drive Less and Drive Smart
Less driving means fewer emissions. Besides saving gasoline, walking and biking are great forms of exercise. Check out options for carpooling to work or school. Every gallon of gas you save not only helps your budget; it also keeps 20 pounds of carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere.
5. Buy Energy-Efficient Products
When it's time to buy a new car, choose one that offers good gas mileage. Avoid products that come with excess packaging, especially molded plastic and other packaging that can't be recycled. If you reduce your household garbage by 10 percent, you can save 1,200 pounds of carbon dioxide annually.
Use Less Hot Water
Buy low-flow showerheads to save hot water. Wash your clothes in warm or cold water to reduce your use of hot water and the energy required to produce it. That change alone can save at least 500 pounds of carbon dioxide annually in most households. Use the energy-saving settings on your dishwasher and let the dishes air-dry.
7. Use the "Off" Switch
Save electricity and reduce global warming by turning off lights when you leave a room, and using only as much light as you need, to turn off your TV, video player, stereo and computer when you're not using them. It's also a good idea to turn off the water when you're not using it. While brushing your teeth, shampooing the dog or washing your car, turn off the water until you actually need. You'll also reduce your water bill.
8. Plant a Tree
If you have the means to plant a tree, start digging. During photosynthesis, trees and other plants absorb CO2 and give off oxygen. They are an integral part of the natural atmospheric exchange cycle here on Earth, but there are too few of them. A single tree will absorb approximately one ton of CO2 during its lifetime.
9. Get a Report Card from Your Utility Company
Many utility companies provide free home energy audits to help consumers identify areas in their homes that may not be energy efficient.
10. Encourage Others to Conserve
Share information about recycling and energy conservation with your friends, neighbors and co-workers, and take opportunities to encourage public officials to establish programs and policies that are good for the environment.
Trash Becomes New Products
Give a 3 minute talk on recycling trash using the picture given below.
This logo indicates the item is made from recycled materials
This logo indicates the item can be recycled
Прочитайте утверждения (1-7). Вы услышите 7 высказываний на тему об окружающей среде. Определите, соответствуют ли данные утверждения (1-7) прослушанному, а по каким утверждениям нет информации. Отметьте правильный ответ в таблице. Вы услышите запись дважды.
TRUE FALSE NO INFORMATION
Acid rain has a pH value of above 5.5. The thickness of the ozone layer varies. There is less nitrogen dioxide than sulphur in the air. Acid rain is less harmful to humans than bacteria in water. Ozone thinning is worse over the Arctic than the
Antarctic. Ozone thinning is a natural process. Healthy lakes contain clear water. Read the Internet article “Western Canadian Pine Beetle Infestation Spreads”.
Reveal the content of the article.
Discuss it in the group.
Adapt the article for the 10-11 form pupils to read and discuss it at school.
Western Canadian Pine Beetle Infestation Spreads
About half of the marketable pine trees in West Coast Canadian province of British Columbia have been ravaged by a nearly decade-long beetle infestation, according to new government statistics.
3420110361315The outbreak of mountain pine beetles has affected trees over an area of 13.5 million hectares (33.4 million acres) in the Western Canadian province, which is a major source of softwood lumber exports to the United States.
The insects have infested and killed about 710 million cubic meters of timber as of this month up from 582 million cubic meters at the same time last year, according to a news release posted on the province's Web site.
The tiny black beetles lay their eggs in the lodge pole and ponderosa pines with the hungry larvae killing the trees by destroying their ability to take in water and nutrients. They also carry a fungus that stains the wood blue.
British Columbia has about 1.35 billion cubic meters (4.8 billion cubic feet) of saleable pine lumber in its public and private forests, and the province estimates about 76 percent of it will have been killed by 2015.
A provincial report last fall predicted the infestation rate will return to pre-outbreak levels after 2015 because most of susceptible trees will be dead by then, although there are fears the insects will spread into the neighbouring province of Alberta.
The insects have lived in Western Canada for thousands of years, but nature has controlled major outbreaks by killing the beetles through extreme winter cold and forest fires.
Much of the infected area has not had the required cold snap in recent years and British Columbia Premier Gordon Campbell has cited the outbreak as evidence Canada needs to take aggressive steps to address global warming.
The outbreak is contributing to the lumber industry's woes.
Sawmills have rushed to process the dead trees before the wood deteriorates, but are selling the lumber into a market hit hard by reduced demand because of the collapse of the US housing market.
Работа в парах. Переведите следующий диалог на английский язык. Инсценируйте диалог.
Мы живем в интересном мире!
Да, действительно. Мы летаем к другим планетам и открываем древние рукописи.
Мы создаем искусственный интеллект и проникаем в глубины океана. Мы освобождаем огромные энергии...
...и вызываем глобальные катастрофы. Мы строим тоннель под Ла-Маншем...
...и загрязняем нашу прекрасную планету.
Да. Когда я ездила на море с родителями прошлым летом, я была удивлена, что вода не голубая, а коричневая от плавающего в ней мусора.
Очень похожая ситуация и в других странах, а также и в России. Кроме того, тонны нефти выливаются в море каждый год. Мы можем только вообразить, сколько морских птиц и животных погибает от этого.
Должно быть, это опасно и для людей.
А эти озоновые дыры...
Озоновые дыры? Что это такое?
Видишь ли, в атмосфере есть озоновый слой. Он защищает Землю от опасного ультрафиолетового излучения солнца.
Что-то вроде крыши?
Точно. Но озоновый слой разрушается веществом, которое содержат аэрозольные распылители и холодильники... Хлорофлуорокарбоны (Chlorofluorocarbons).
Боже мой, Рона, я не в состоянии выговорить это.
Людям придется принять меры, потому что опасные лучи пронизывают атмосферу, являясь причиной рака кожи и других заболеваний. Я думаю, люди смогут решить эту проблему.
Тогда я должна прямо сейчас перестать пользоваться моим аэрозольным распылителем.
Молодец! Следует многое сделать, чтобы сохранить планету пригодной для жизни.
Когда я была в Сингапуре, я видела плакат, на котором было написано: «Сингапур — город-сад Азии: содержите его чистым и зеленым!»
Думаю, такие плакаты можно увидеть и в Великобритании...
Да, но в Сингапуре это подкреплено очень строгими законами. Запрещено бросать мусор в общественных местах. Вас могут оштрафовать на сумму до 500 долларов.
Ну это очень разумно, не так ли?
Мы должны все бороться за чистоту окружающей среды. Мы все согласны, Леонард. Но есть хорошее изречение: не надо бороться за чистоту, а надо взять метлу (broom) и подмести свою улицу.
Ладно, ладно. Где моя метла? Мне начинать подметать улицу прямо сейчас?
Translate the following words and word combinations:
проблемы окружающей среды
защита окружающей среды
бросать мусор в общественных местах
Translate and think about the beginning or the ending for the following sentences:
Целью движения «Грин Пис» является защита природы и предотвращение…
….стали особенно острыми в стране.
Вы не представляете, сколько птиц и животных погибает в результате …
…. разрушается веществом, которое содержится в аэрозольных распылителях.
Чтобы ….. необходимо сажать больше деревьев.
Give explanations to the following questions:
Why environmental problems have become exceptionally acute in all countries?
Why it is necessary to take measures to protect the environment from industrial pollution?
Why in many towns and cities the concentration of harmful substances in the air is over ten times the admissible level?
Why it is necessary to study and protect the environmental systems of the Arctic and Subarctic regions?
What are the greenhouse gases and how do the work?
Why do ozone holes appear?
What are the causes and the consequences of acid rains?
How do humans contribute to the greenhouse effect?
What can you do to reduce global warming?
Suggest your own projects: What do you think should be done?
to lower the concentration of harmful substances in the air of towns and cities?
to protect the environment from industrial pollution?
to stop the danger from environmental disasters?
to attract more public attention to environmental problems?
to keep the streets of your town tidy and clean?
to solve the problem of communal waste in towns?
Imagine that you are invited to take part in a world conference on environmental protection which will be held in Washington. Prepare a report “environmental problems in Russia”.
Translate the introduction to this brochure into English.
Денисова Л.Г., Мезенин С.М. Snowball English: интенсивный курс, М. «Просвещение», 1998 г.
Клементьева Т., Джилл Шэннон. Счастливый английский. Книга 2, Обнинск, Титул, 1996 г.
Кузовлев В.П. Английский язык для 10-11 кл., М., «Просвещение», 2004 г.
Юнёва С.А. Открывая мир с английским языком. Современные темы для обсуждения, «Интеллект-центр», 2010 г.
Юнёва С.А. Открывая мир с английским языком. Письмо, «Интеллект-центр», 2010 г.
Easy English № 46, Oxford Educational Ltd., 2004 + кассета
State Exam Maximizer + диск