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Great writersВыполнила студентка Группы 2ДИЗОтавина Анастасия Alan Marshall (May 2, 1902 Nurata-, Victoria - January 21, 1984, Melbourne) - a well-known Australian writer and publicist.Autobiographical works"I can jump over puddles," Melbourne: FW Cheshire, 1955"It is an herb that grows everywhere," Melbourne: FW Cheshire, 1962"In my heart," Melbourne: FW Cheshire, 1963Collection of legends"Myths of the aborigines of Australia," Melbourne: Gold Star Publications, 1972"Diving into the darkness," with illustrations by Noel Kounihan, Melbourne: FW Cheshire & London: Wadley & Ginn, 1949Other works "These are my people", Melbourne: FW Cheshire, 1944«Ourselves Writ Strange». Melbourne: F.W. Cheshire, 1948"How beautiful are your feet," Melbourne Chesterhill Press, 1949"Whispers in the wind." Thomas Nelson (Australia) Ltd, 1969 At the age of six he suffered polio, leaving him disabled that influenced his life and literary career.1920 began literary activity. In the 1930s, he wrote short stories. During the Second World War, was a correspondent for the newspaper front.His most famous book, "I can jump over puddles" (1955) is the first part of his autobiographical trilogy. Two other books: "It is an herb that grows everywhere" (1962) and "In my heart" (1963). Heroes of the book and the place in which the action takes place, have real prototypes: Tualla mountain - a mountain Nurata-, under the name of the lake hidden lake Turally Keylambet, family Karrutnerov copied from Blake, the prototype was Mrs. Mary Colon Colon of Dixie, Terang; Finally, Joe - the best friend of the hero of the book - written off with friend Alan Marshall Leo Carmody. Australian poet and writer Hal Porter wrote in 1965 about Marshall: "... the embodiment of all the best and heroic, that is in man. Easily combining the simplicity and sincerity with incredible courage and fortitude, it helps to find the strength and reach of the hopeless darkness that descends sometimes strong people. " Marshall also collect and publish the legends of the Australian Aborigines.Alan Marshall died Jan. 21, 1984. Buried in the cemetery Nillumbik Cemetery, Victoria. Douglas Noel Adams (March 11, 1952, Cambridge, UK - May 11, 2001, Santa Barbara, California, USA) - English novelist, playwright and screenwriter, author of humorous fiction. Known as the creator of the famous series of books "The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy."The most famous work «The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy» (one translation - "Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy") first appeared in 1978 as a radio show on the BBC. Later came the literary "trilogy in five parts":1979 -The Hitch-Hiker's Guide To The Galaxy1980 -The Restaurant At The End Of The Universe1982 - Life, The Universe And Everything1984 - So Long And Thanks For All The Fish1992 - Mostly Harmless Douglas Noel Adams was born March 11, 1952 in Cambridge. Parents - Janet (Donovan) and Douglas Adams. A few months after the birth of Douglas, Jr., the family moved to East London. There was born three years later, his younger sister, Susan. In 1957, Adams' parents divorced. Douglas, his mother and sister settled in a shelter for animals RSPCA in Brentwood, Essex.Graduated from high school in Brentwood. He studied at the college in 1974, he received a bachelor's degree, and later - master. It has become a specialization in English Literature. Saul Bellow (June 10, 1915, Lachine, Quebec, Canada - April 5, 2005, Brookline, MA, USA) - American Jewish writer, Nobel Prize for Literature in 1976, novelist, also known as an essayist and educator.Prose:Dangling Man (1944)The Victim (1947)The Adventures of Augie March (1953)Seize the Day (1956)Henderson the Rain King (1959)Herzog (1964)Mosby's Memoirs (collection of short stories) (1968)Mr. Sammler's Planet (1970)Humboldt's Gift (1975) - 1976 Pulitzer PrizeThe Dean's December (1982)Him with His Foot in His Mouth (collection of short stories) (1984)More Die of Heartbreak (1987)A Theft (1989)The Bellarosa Connection (1989)Something to Remember Me By (1990)The Actual (1997)Ravelstein (2000)Collected Stories (2001) Saul Bellow was born June 10, 1915 in the town of Lachine (now part of Montreal) in the Canadian province of Quebec, to a Jewish family Belous, shortly before that emigrated from Russia and Americanized his name to Bellow. The family soon moved to the US and settled in poor neighborhoods of Chicago. As a child, Saul was sick a lot during this period and a passion for reading. In 1933 he graduated from high school and enrolled in the University of Chicago, two years later he transferred to Northwestern University, and graduated in 1937 with a Bachelor of anthropological and sociological sciences. Was a professor at the University of Minnesota, New York, Boston and Chicago.Bellow's writing career began with the publication of literary reviews and translations from Yiddish. The earliest works of the writer brought him fame as one of the best American novelists of the XX century. Fame he brought the novel "Between Heaven and Earth" (1944), the main problem is - the preservation of man's "I" in the chaos of social, national and moral obligations imposed on him by society. This topic has become dominant in the work of Bellow. The novel "The Adventures of Augie March" (1953) won the National Award for best book of the year. The novel "The Duke" (1964; awarded the same prize, 1965) is dedicated to the tragedy of the intellectual who can not find a place in the bourgeois world alien to him.In 1976, Bellow was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature "for his humanistic penetration and subtle analysis of contemporary culture, organically combined in his work." In 1983, French President Bellow was awarded the Order of the Legion of Honor. In 1988 he was awarded the National Medal of Arts in the United States.Died on 5 April 2005 in the town of Brookline (Brookline, Massachusetts). Edgar Rice Burroughs (September 1, 1875, Chicago, USA - March 19, 1950, Encino CA, USA) - American writer era pulp-magazines to get more popularity due to a series of books about Tarzan. Had a significant impact on the development of the genre of science fiction and fantasy in the XX century. Influence on literatureHe has had an enormous impact on popular literature in general and science fiction in particular. A significant part of the fiction of 1920-1930 was written as a direct imitation of the Burroughs books. Many authors have said that he has had a significant impact on their work - for example, Ray Bradbury and Philip Jose Farmer, and the number of successors includes such writers as John Norman and Otis Kline.science fictionThe Lost Continent (On the other side of the thirtieth) (1915)People Monster (1929)The last of the Pleistocene (1936)Novels about the adventures in the jungleCave Girl (1913)Eternal Savage (1913)The young man and the lion (1914)Man-eater (1915)Jungle Girl (Earth lost people) (1929)other worksMinidoka County (1903)Exile of Thorn (1911)Mad King (1913)Girl from Farris (1914)Horseman (1915)Expert efficiency (1919)Girl in Hollywood (1921)Marcia threshold c (1924)Pirate Blood (1932)I - Barbarian (1941) James Arthur Baldwin (August 2, 1924, Harlem, New York - November 30, 1987, Saint Paul de Vence) - novelist, essayist, playwright and activist for human rights, partly follower of Martin Luther King. Baldwin outgrowth of his stepfather in the family priest and was the eldest of nine children. His own father never knew Baldwin and partly suffered from it, which is reflected in some of his works ("Tell me when the train left," "Go Tell it on the Mountain", "Room Giovanni" and others). In his youth, Baldwin is going to follow in the footsteps of his stepfather and helps him in the church. But the older the future writer, the more clearly he realizes that the preaching of his stepfather at odds with what is happening on the streets of Harlem, and, most importantly, the behavior of the stepfather's house. After graduating from high school in the Bronx, Baldwin moved to Greenwich Village, where he began his literary career.Having spent his childhood and youth in Harlem and Greenwich Village - in some of the most disadvantaged areas of New York - Baldwin begins to write about their views and understanding of what is happening around them. His first journalistic articles imbued with the spirit of denial of racism, reigning around a young man.That is why, having received an award for his first feature novel "Go Tell it on the Mountain" in 1948, Baldwin left the US and went to the Old World, in Paris.Being a black man and a gay man in a racist and homophobic America 40-ies of XX century, being in the grip of double, arrived in France, Baldwin is like a breath of fresh air does. Its main product is written on the banks of the Seine, and it is here that Baldwin spends most of his life. He only twice returned to his homeland and was an active participant in the movement of Martin Luther King - the only movement, an ideology which he shared almost completely. But the home of the writer remained Europe, he returned a second time from the United States, did not leave until the end of life. 1953 - Go Tell it on the Mountain, a novel1954 - The Amen Corner, play1955 - Notes son of America, the story1956 - Giovanni Room, a novel 1962 - Another country, the novel1963 - The next time - fire, a collection of articles1964 - Blues for Mr. Charlie, play1965 - Going to Meet the Man, a collection of stories1968 - Tell me, when I left the train, a novel1976 - The Devil finds work, a collection of essays1979 - Just above my head, a novel1983 - Jimmy's blues, a collection of poems1985 - The Evidence of Things Not seen, a collection of essays1985 - The Prince of the Ticket, a collection of essaysBibliography Toni Morrison (birth - Chloe Ardelia Wofford, February 18, 1931, Lorain, Ohio) - American writer, editor, and professor. Nobel Prize for Literature in 1993, as a writer, "which in its full of dreams and poetry novels revived an important aspect of American reality." The winner of the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Real name - Chloe Ardelia Wofford, was born in Lorain, Ohio. The second of four children in a working-class family. Since childhood, she loved to read, among her favorite authors were Jane Austen and Leo Tolstoy. Her father, who worked as a welder in his spare time he loved to tell stories from the life of the black population of America, which later reflected in the books of the writer.In 1949 Morrison entered Howard University in the specialty "English language and literature." There she acquired the nickname "Tony" - derived from her middle name, Anthony, which, according to her, she was given the transition to Catholicism at the age of 12. In 1953, Morrison graduated from university with a bachelor's degree in 1955 received a master's degree from Cornell University on the basis of a thesis on the subject of suicide in the novels of Faulkner and Virginia Woolf. After graduation, she began to teach English at the University of South Texas in Houston, Texas (1955-1957), then went back to work in Howard.In 1958 she married a fellow student, a Jamaican architect Harold Morrison. Tony and Harold had two children, Harold and Slade. In 1964 the couple divorced. After that, Tony moved to Syracuse, where she worked as an editor of scientific benefits. A little more than a year has passed for the position of editor at the head office of the publishing house Random House in New York. Moreover, in these years, she taught at Yale University and Bard College. The editor, Tony helped popularize African-American literature, especially by authors such as Henry Dumas, Toni Cade Bambara, Angela Davis and Gail Jones. literary careerBy the early writing career Morrison pushed attend an informal circle of writers and poets of Howard University, who was going to discuss the works of its members. At one of the meetings, she came with a story about a black girl who longed to have blue eyes. Later this story was the basis for his first novel, Morrison "The Bluest Eye" (1970).In 1975, her novel "Sula" was nominated for the National Book Award USA. Bibliography:Novels:Mercy (2008;)Love (2003;)Paradise (1999;)Jazz (1992;)Beloved (1987; Pulitzer Prize) - included in the compiled by the magazine "Time" list of the 100 best novels in English, issued from 1923 to 2005Resin chuchelko (1981;)Song of Solomon (1977) - Prize: the National Association of literary critics; American Academy of Arts and Letters.Sula (1973;)The Bluest Eye (1970;)Children's Literature:Who's Got Game ?: The Mirror or the Glass? (To be released in 2007)Who's Got Game ?: Poppy or the Snake ?, (2004)Who's Got Game ?: The Ant or the Grasshopper, (2003)Who's Got Game ?: The Lion or the Mouse ?, (2003)The Book of Mean People, (2002)The Big Box, (2002)Stories«Recitatif» (1983)Performances:Dreaming Emmett (performed 1986) Carson McCullers (February 19, 1917, Columbus, GA - September 29, 1967, NYAKYI, NY) - American writer. Curriculum VitaeFrom the age of ten she studied music changed several professions, before deciding to become a writer. The first story, "Sucker" published in 1933, the novella "Wunderkind" - in 1936. In 1937 she married Reeves McCullers. In 1940, twenty-three, published first novel, "The Heart - Lonely Hunter" (the title - a quotation from a poem by the Scottish poet of the XIX century. William Sharpe "Lonely Hunter"), but then parted, and in 1941 she divorced her husband. Moved to New York, where she lived in a circle of literary and artistic bohemian friends with WH Auden, B.Brittenom, Salvador Dali, P. Bowles, later - with T.Kapote, Tennessee Williams. In 1944, his father died of a heart attack McCullers. In 1945 she joined with former husband in a new marriage and went on a trip to Europe. In 1947 the writer was trying to commit suicide, was treated at a New York hospital, was partially paralyzed. In 1952-1953 again lived with her husband in Europe (France), after his suicide - he was trying to convince her to leave this life together - is back in the United States. In 1955, lost her mother. In 1958, the play failed McCullers. She became depressed, drank heavily, suffered several serious operations, survived several strokes (writer since his youth suffered rheumatic heart disease, and a rush of blood to the head). Since 1962, moved in a wheelchair. Died from a brain haemorrhage after a six-coma. creationAutobiographical prose and drama McCullers - one of the most radical and impressive examples of "Southern Gothic" (William Faulkner, Erskine Caldwell, Flannery O'Connor, Harper Lee et al.).novelsThe Heart Is a Lonely Hunter (1940 film by Robert Ellis Miller, 1968)Reflections in a Golden Eye (1941 film John. Houston, 1967)The Member of the Wedding (1946 remake of the author in the drama, 1950; film F.Tsinnemana, 1952, a film by Claude Millet, 1985; telefilms 1982 and 1997)Clock Without Hands (1961)other worksThe Ballad of the Sad Café and Other Stories (1951 Sat prose, the title story E.Olbi converted into a drama, 1963; film, 1991)The Square Root of Wonderful (1958 play)The Mortgaged Heart (1972 Sat stories)Illumination and Night Glare (1999, unfinished autobiography)summary publicationComplete Novels. New York: The Library of America, 2001 William Shakespeare (April 26, 1564 Stratford-upon-Avon, England - April 23, 1616) - English poet and playwright, often considered the greatest English-language writer and one of the best playwrights in the world. Often referred to as the national poet of England. Extant works, including some written in collaboration with other authors, consist of 38 plays, 154 sonnets, poems 4 and 3 epitaphs. Shakespeare's plays have been translated into all major languages and put more than the works of other playwrights Shakespeare was born and raised in Stratford-upon-Avon. At 18, he married Anne Hathaway, married to whom he had three children: Susanna, and twins daughter Hemneta and Judith. Shakespeare's career began between 1585 and 1592, when he moved to London. Soon he became a successful actor, playwright, and theater co-owner of a company called "Servant of the Lord Chamberlain," later known as "Servants of the King." Around 1613, at age 48, he returned to Stratford, where he died three years later. Save the little historical evidence about the life of Shakespeare, and theories about his life are based on official documents and testimony of contemporaries, so the scientific community is still debated question about his appearance and religious beliefs, as well as there is a view that the work attributed to him who created -So it is popular in other cultures, although rejected by the overwhelming majority of scientists, Shakespeare.Most of the works of Shakespeare were written in the period from 1589 to 1613. His early plays are mainly related to comedy and chronicles, in which Shakespeare much succeeded. Then came the period of his work tragedies, including the works of "Hamlet," "King Lear," "Othello" and "Macbeth", which are among the best in the English language. At the end of Shakespeare wrote several tragicomedy, and collaborated with other writers.Even during his lifetime Shakespeare received accolades for his work, but really it became popular only in the XIX century. In particular, representatives of Romanticism and the Victorians worshiped Shakespeare so that George Bernard Shaw called it «bardolatry». Shakespeare remain popular to this day, they are constantly studied and reinterpreted in accordance with the political and cultural conditions. Comedy by William Shakespeare:All's Well That Ends WellAs You Like ItThe Comedy of ErrorsLove's Labour's LostMeasure for measureThe Merchant of VeniceMerry Wives of WindsorMidsummer Night's DreamMuch ado about nothingPericlesTaming of the ShrewstormTwelfth Nighttwo Gentlemen of VeronaThe Two Noble KinsmenThe Winter's TaleWilliam Shakespeare:Romeo and JulietCoriolanusTitus AndronicusTimon of AthensJulius CaesarMacbethHamletTroilus and CressidaKing LearOthelloAntony and CleopatraCymbelinePoems:Shakespeare's sonnetsVenus and Adonisdishonored LucretiaThe Passionate PilgrimThe Phoenix and the TurtleA Lover's Complaint Charles Bukowski (1920, Andernach, Germany - 1994, Los Angeles, USA) - American writer, poet, novelist and journalist of German origin. The representative of the so-called "dirty realism". Author of more than two hundred short stories included in the collections of sixteen, six novels and more than thirty books of poetry. The first literary efforts Bukowski belong to the 1940s, however, he began to write seriously as an adult - since the mid-1950s. Thanks poems that appeared in the pages of short-run poetry journals published mainly in California, Bukowski became a prominent figure of the literary underground of America. Wider recognition he has achieved in the late 1960s, as the author of the column "Notes of a Dirty Old Man", exit at the Los Angeles newspaper «Open City». In those years, for Bukowski finally entrenched image rowdy, drunken womanizer and created and planted them in verse and prose. Outside the United States learned about the writer after the publication of the novel "The Post Office" (1971), which was very popular in Europe. From the American fame Bukowski won only in 1987, when the US went out on screens picture "drunk." The film, which was based on semi-autobiographical script Bukowski, directed by Barbet Schroeder set.Bukowski died in 1994, but to this day continues to leave his previously unpublished work. By 2011, published two biographies of the writer, issued ten collections of his letters. Life and work Bukowski became the subject of several documentaries, and his prose is often filmed. NovelsThe first major prose Bukowski in Russia began to publish thick magazines. In late 1994 - early 1995 in the pages of "The Art of Cinema" was published novel "Hollywood" is translated by Nina Tsyrkun, and in 1996, "Foreign Literature" introduced readers to the Russian novel "Waste Paper", which translated Victor Golishev . In 1999-2001. these works came out in book form, but then in Russian were published and the rest of Bukowski's novels.post officeFactotumwomenHam on RyeHollywoodwastepaperStorybooksThe first publication of short stories in Russian Bukowski took place in 1992 in the US-Russian almanac "Sagittarius". For this edition of writer and translator Sergey Yurenen prepared a small selection of texts Bukowski, which opens the story "Bring me your love." In the introduction Yurenen noted that "the Russian - language thirteenth, which translate" Bukowski. Later in the Russian periodical publications appeared several short stories by American writer, the most notable of which was the compilation, released in 1995 in the journal "Foreign Literature". Her translations made Victor Golysheva, Basil Golysheva and Victor Kogan. Since 1997, collections of short fiction Bukowski began to emerge in Russia in separate editions.Tales of Ordinary MadnessThe most beautiful woman in the cityNotes of a Dirty Old ManHot water music Joyce Carol Oates - American writer, novelist, poet, playwright, critic. His first book, released in 1963 and has since published over fifty novels, a large number of short stories, poems, and nonfiction. For his novel "Their life" won the National Book Award, and the novel "Black Water" and "Blonde" was nominated for a Pulitzer. Having earned a reputation as a prolific author, she was one of America's leading novelists with 60s.Also wrote under the pseudonyms Rosamund Smith and Lauren Kelly. Early life and educationOates was born in Lockport, New York. Parents - housewife Caroline Oates and Frederick Oates, designer tools. Her family professed Catholicism, but now it has become an atheist. Oates grew up in a farming community working class Millersporta, New York, and described the family as "a happy, close-knit and unremarkable for our time, place and the economic situation of the family." Her paternal grandmother, Blanche Woodside, lived with them and was "very friendly" with Joyce. After her death, Joyce learned that Blanche's father committed suicide, and later she hid her Jewish ancestry; over time, Joyce described the life of her grandmother in the novel The Gravedigger's Daughter (2007). In 1943, her brother Junior was born, and in 1956 my sister Lynn Anne suffers from severe autism.At the initial stage of education Oates visited the same "school with one room", which went to her mother in detstve.Ona early interest in reading and recalls the "Alice in Wonderland" by Lewis Carroll, gift Blanche as "the great treasure of childhood and a strong influence on literature my life. It was love at first sight! "In the early teens eagerly read Joyce, William Faulkner, Fyodor Dostoevsky, Henry David Thoreau, Ernest Hemingway, Charlotte and Emily Bronte, whose" impact is still very strong. " Oates began writing at age 14, when Blanche gave her a typewriter. Oates later translated into other suburban schools, and in 1956 graduated from secondary education in Vilyamsvillskoy South High School, where he wrote for the school newspaper. She was the first in his family who have completed high school. Bibliography1963 - a collection of stories "goes north"1964 - novel "stunning lows"1966 - a collection of stories "Torrent"1967 - novel "The Garden of Earthly Delights"1969 - novel "Their life"1971 - novel "Wonderland"1974 - a collection of stories, "The Goddess and the other women"1980 - novel "Bellefleur"1982 - novel "Romance in Bladsmure"1984 - novel "Secrets Winterthorn"1986 - novel "Mary: the biography"1990 - novel "Because it is bitter, and because it is my heart"1992 - novel "Black Water"1998 - a collection of short stories "The Collector of Hearts"2000 - novel "Blonde"Honors:1970 - US National Book Award for his novel "Their life"2010 - National Humanities Medal US Washington Irving (April 3, 1783, New York - November 28, 1859, Tarrytown, NY) - an outstanding American romantic writer, who is often called "the father of American literature." The most famous was the stories of "Rip Van Winkle" and "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow." For a while he was preparing for the legal profession. During the war with England, in 1812, was the adjutant under General Tompkins. Beginning of literary activity Irving served his humorous essays entitled «Letters of Jonathan Oldstyle». Throwing commercial matters, Irving engaged in the processing of travel writing, made during his trip to England in 1815 .; they published a collection of essays and short stories titled "Sketch Book" drew the general attention. Irving's best works can be considered "History of New York, told Diedrich Knickerbocker" and "Rip Van Winkle" - a tale of a man slept for 20 years. During the second visit to Europe Irving wrote in Paris "Bracebridge Hall"; London, 1823); next 1824 they published in England "travelers' tales"In Spain, he spent four years studying the manuscripts and books relating to the era of the discovery of America. The fruits of these studies - three-volume biography of Christopher Columbus, London, 1828-1830; Russian translation of St. Petersburg., 1837), «Voyages and discoveries of the companions of Columbus» (ibid, 1831), "The Chronicle of the conquest of Granada" and a collection of romantic stories "Alhambra".Biography of Columbus, as many say, was largely a fiction - in particular, he has created a myth that people pre-Columbian thought the earth was flat.At one time, Washington Irving was the American ambassador at the Spanish court.Died November 28, 1859 in Tarrytown, New York. Buried in the cemetery "Sleepy Hollow."In honor of Irving named a street in New York. Works:«Salmagundi» (1807-1808);«A History of New York» (1809);«The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon» (1819-1820);«Tales of a Traveller» (1824);«Bracebridge Hall» (1826);«A History of the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus» (1828);«Tales of the Alhambra» (1832, Russ. Trans. 1979);«Astoria» (1836);«Miscellanies» (1835-1836);«History of Mahomet and his successors» (1849-1850, Russian. Trans. M., 1857);«Oliver Goldsmith» (L., 1849);«Life of George Washington» (New York, 1855-1859).His collected works was published in New York in 1848-1850, and in London in 1851