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Ancient World. The Descent of Man.
Primitive world - the first page of the history of mankind. Today is not only a serious area of humanitarian research with its own laws, a clear timeline and specific methods, but also a fascinating discovery, puzzles hypothesis. Here, as in any other science, raging scientific debate, to resolve important questions about the origin and spread of a culture of Homo sapiens on the planet.
In the caves and underground scientists find the bones of ancient people and restore them to the appearance of our distant ancestors.The first humans appeared about 700,000 years ago. The climate on the earth at that time was a hot and humid. In Europe, if you could meet the rmophilic animals - elephant, rhino, hippo.
How did the ancient people.
Primitive human herdPeople lived in the woods. In appearance they were like monkeys. Almost their whole body was covered with hair. Moving people to bend the legs and leaned forward when running, barely touching the ground with his hands. Forehead ancient man was low and sloping. Massive lower jaw had no chin. Brain volume was one and a half times less than the brain of modern man.Hands ancient people with thick and clumsy fingers resembled an animal paw.Talk about the first people did not know how. They exchanged staccato cries, to help them find each other in a dense forest and warn of impending danger.And at the same time, the ancient people radically different from their animal ancestors - the monkeys.
Primitive human herd.
Live alone primitive people could not. They could easily become prey to predators. But they could also live and large groups: it would not be enough food. People connect in a group of several dozen people each. These groups led a wandering life on the banks of rivers and lakes.Roving bands of primitive hunters and gatherers called primitive stage. At the head of the herd was the leader who could be both male and female. In the harsh struggle with nature, predators inhabiting ancient forests, only the joint efforts of people to ensure their existence. Period primitive herd lasted hundreds of thousands of years. Slowly, over thousands of years, man developed his tools and developed itself, formed family, studied agriculture and cattle breeding increasingly closer in their appearance and abilities to modern man.
The first tools of early man and the oldest classes of people.
The most ancient people different from animals primarily the ability to make tools. None of even the most advanced animal is not able to make simple tools.The guns were made of wood and stone. The man drew the edge of the stone, chipping away with another small pieces of stone. Rough guns with a rough surface are called hand axes. Ancient people did hand-axes up to twenty centimeters in length and weighing - up to one kilogram. Hand ax accompanied by a man in his wanderings through the woods in search of food and serves as protection from wild animals: with it you can chop, cut, as well as dig.Choppers were not the only tools of early man. During the manufacture of chopped flaked flakes. They were used as a sharp, rough puncture scrapers.
The man used the same club and sharpened sticks.In the ancient forests had a lot of berries, wild fruits and edible roots. The oldest, or as they are called primitive people wandered from place to place, looking for fruit, digging small mammals, lizards, and insects. They also hunted large animals. At first, their prey were mostly weakened or sick animals, and strayed from the herd young.Hunting is an ancient branch of the economy. The meat of large animals could feed not one, but many.Hunting demanded unity of human groups. It has contributed to the improvement of tools.The most ancient people in short, did not make any stocks of food, ate everything that was mined.Life of the case depended on. They did not have no clothes, no shoes, no permanent dwellings. From the heat and rain they were hiding under the eaves of rocks to escape from predators, arranged accommodation in the trees.
People began to tame animals before engaging in agriculture.
In the Mesolithic man domesticated the dog, and other animals later. At first they kept to himself as living food supplies. Killing on the hunt uterus, Young took alive, grew them and ate when hunting became less dobychlivoy. Over time, people saw that the animals get used to them and even breed in captivity. Born in captivity calves, lambs and goats became quite home, and they could graze near the village, driving from place to place. Pets allowed people not only meat, but also milk from which it was possible to produce cheese and butter from the skins made clothes, skins covered home.For domesticated animals had to procure food for the winter, it was necessary to increase the arable land to feed both people and animals. Require additional labor, and people began to use animals for processing fields. Invented a harness and plow. Arable farming and animal husbandry began to develop, as it were helping each other. Has long existed between the tribes exchanged different products and items: weapons, utensils, ornaments. Now it is possible to exchange a large amount of surplus products of agriculture and animal husbandry. Exchange has become a source of enrichment communal economy. To get more surplus, people have begun to increase the herd and to plow new ground. It took outbuildings, equipment, utensils for food storage, weapons for the protection of a large tribal population. Especially rapidly began to develop fisheries, and it took the network, sinkers, floats, ropes. Equipment hunters joined the traps, crossbows, snares. Began to stand out a group of people and even entire families, who supplied the community a variety of products. Thus arose the craft.
Childbirth be rich, growing, expanding area of communal land and land. Advanced technology far ahead of stone processing - grinding, sawing and drilling. Guns have become more sophisticated, and labor for their production now cost much less.
So, to draw conclusions.
Laws of social development are the same for all countries and peoples, but the living conditions are sometimes accelerate and sometimes slow down this development, and therefore communal tribal system persisted in some cultures until recently. This enabled the scientists to trace all phases of development and decay of the tribal community, using not only the archaeological monuments, but also by direct observations.
The history of mankind - a history of the development of his work. Labor created man. Collective labor has become the law of life of people who could not fight alone with the harsh nature. It is a work formed the primitive communal system - the first, the most simple form of social relations. Thanks to the work developed technology, improve the living conditions of people. But at the same time changed the relationship between people, there were classes and the stateBegan the class struggle of the exploited against the exploiters, which filled the entire history of mankind before the era of socialism.
Презентацию подготовила:Гущина Кристина 10 "Б".