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VERBS
Verbs in English have four basic parts:
Base form -ing form Past tense Past participle
work working worked worked
play playing played played
listen listening listened listened
 
Irregular verbs
Most verbs have past tense and past participle in –ed ( worked, played, listened). But many of the most frequent verbs are irregular:
Base form Past tense Past participle
bebeginbreakbringbuybuildchoosecomecostcutdodrawdriveeatfeelfindgetgivegohavehearholdkeepknowleaveleadletlielosemakemeanmeetpayputrunsayseesellsendsetsitspeakspendstandtake teach tellthinkunderstandwearwinwrite was/werebeganbrokebroughtboughtbuiltchosecamecostcutdiddrewdroveatefeltfoundgotgavewenthadheardheldkeptknewleftledletlaylostmademeantmetpaidputransaidsawsoldsentsetsatspokespentstoodtooktaughttoldthoughtunderstoodworewonwrote beenbegunbrokenbroughtboughtbuiltchosencomecostcutdonedrawndriveneatenfeltfoundgotgivengonehadheardheldkeptknownleftledletlainlostmademeantmetpaidputrunsaidseensoldsentsetsatspokenspentstoodtakentaughttoldthoughtunderstoodwornwonwritten
Question forms
We make questions by:
 
1: moving an auxiliary to the front of the clause:
Everybody is watching >> Is everybody watching?
They had worked hard >> Had they worked hard?
He's finished work >> Has he finished work?
Everybody had been working hard >> Had everybody been working hard?
He has been singing >> Has he been singing?
English is spoken all over the world >> Is English spoken all over the world?
The windows have been cleaned >> Have the windows been cleaned?
2: … or by moving a modal to the front of the clause:
They will come >> Will they come?
He might come >> Might he come?
They will have arrived by now >> Will they have arrived by now?
She would have been listening >> Would she have been listening?
The work will be finished soon >> Will the work be finished soon?
They might have been invited to the party >> Might they have been invited to the party?
3: The present simple and the past simple have no auxiliary. We make questions by adding the auxillary do/does for the present simple or did for the past simple:
They live here >> Do they live here?
John lives here >> Does John live here?
Everybody laughed >> Did everybody laugh?
Verb phrases
The verb phrase in English has the following forms:
1) a main verb:
 
  Verb  
WeIEverybodyWe arelikesaw.laughed. here.itthe accident 
 
The verb may be in the present tense (are, like) or the past tense (saw, laughed). A verb phrase with only a main verb expresses simple aspect
2) an auxiliary verb ("be") and a main verb in –ing form:
 
  Auxiliary "be" Verb (-ing)
EverybodyWe iswere watchinglaughing
 
A verb phrase with "be" and –ing expresses continuous aspect.
3) an auxiliary verb ("have") and a main verb with past participle:
 
  Auxillary "have" Verb (past participle)  
TheyEverybodyHe havehashad enjoyedworkedfinished themselves.hard.work.
 
A verb with "have" and the past participle expresses perfect aspect. A verb with have/has expresses present perfect, and a verb with had expresses past perfect.
4) an auxiliary verb ("have" + "been") and a main verb in the –ing form:
 
  Auxiliary "have" + "been" Verb (-ing)  
EverybodyHe has beenhad been workingsinging hard 
 
A verb with "have" and "been" and the present participle expresses perfect continuous aspect. A verb with have/has expresses present perfect continuous, and a verb with had expresses past perfect continuous.
5) a modal verb (can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, would) and a main verb:
 
  Modal Verb Main verb
TheyHe willmight come.come.
 
 
6) We can use modal verbs with the auxiliaries "be", "have", and "have been":
 
  Modal Auxiliary  Verb
TheyHeShe willmightmust behavehave been listeningarrivedlistening
Present tense
 
There are two tenses in English – past and present.
The present tenses in English are used:
to talk about the present
to talk about the future
to talk about the past when we are telling a story in spoken English or when we are summarising a book, film, play etc.
There are four present tense forms in English:
Present simple: I work
Present continuous: I am working
Present perfect: I have worked
Present perfect continuous: I have been working
We use these forms:
to talk about the present:
He works at McDonald’s. He has worked there for three months now.He is working at McDonald’s. He has been working there for three months now.London is the capital of Britain.
to talk about the future:
The next train leaves this evening at 1700 hours.I’ll phone you when I get home.He’s meeting Peter in town this afternoon.I’ll come home as soon as I have finished work.You will be tired out after you have been working all night.
We can use the present tenses to talk about the past...
Present simple
The present tense is the base form of the verb: I work in London.But the third person (she/he/it) adds an -s: She works in London.
Use
We use the present tense to talk about:
something that is true in the present:
I’m nineteen years old.He lives in London.I’m a student.
something that happens again and again in the present:
I play football every weekend.
We use words like sometimes, often. always, and never (adverbs of frequency) with the present tense:
I sometimes go to the cinema.She never plays football.
something that is always true:
The adult human body contains 206 bones.Light travels at almost 300,000 kilometres per second.
  
something that is fixed in the future.
The school term starts next week.The train leaves at 1945 this evening.We fly to Paris next week.
 
Questions and negatives
Look at these questions:
Do you play the piano?Where do you live?Does Jack play football?Where does he come from?Do Rita and Angela live in Manchester?Where do they work?
With the present tense, we use do and does to make questions. We use does for the third person (she/he/it) and we use do for the others.
 
 We use do and does with question words like where, what and why:
 
 But look at these questions with who:
Who lives in London?Who plays football at the weekend?Who works at Liverpool City Hospital?
Look at these sentences:
I like tennis, but I don’t like football. (don’t = do not)I don’t live in London now.I don’t play the piano, but I play the guitar.They don’t work at the weekend.John doesn’t live in Manchester. (doesn’t = does not)Angela doesn’t drive to work. She goes by bus.
With the present tense we use do and does to make negatives. We use does not (doesn’t) for the third person (she/he/it) and we use do not (don’t) for the others.
Complete these sentences with don’t or doesn’t:
Present continuous
The present continuous tense is formed from the present tense of the verb be and the present participle (-ing form) of a verb:
Use
1. We use the present continuous tense to talk about the present:
for something that is happening at the moment of speaking:
I’m just leaving work. I’ll be home in an hour.Please be quiet. The children are sleeping.
for something which is happening before and after a given time:
At eight o’clock we are usually having breakfast.When I get home the children are doing their homework.
 
for something which we think is temporary:
Michael is at university. He’s studying history.I’m working in London for the next two weeks.
for something which is new and contrasts with a previous state:
These days most people are using email instead of writing letters.What sort of clothes are teenagers wearing nowadays? What sort of music are they listening to?
to show that something is changing, growing or developing:
The children are growing quickly.The climate is changing rapidly.Your English is improving.
for something which happens again and again:
It’s always raining in London.They are always arguing.George is great. He’s always laughing.
Note: We normally use always with this use.
2. We use the present continuous tense to talk about the future:
for something which has been arranged or planned:
Mary is going to a new school next term.What are you doing next week?
3. We can use the present continuous to talk about the past:
When we are telling a story: 
When we are summarising the story from a book, film or play etc.:
Present perfect
The present perfect is formed from the present tense of the verb have and the past participle of a verb:
The present perfect continuous is formed with have/has been and the -ing form of the verb:
Use
We use the present perfect tense:
for something that started in the past and continues in the present:
They’ve been married for nearly fifty years.She has lived in Liverpool all her life.
Note: We normally use the present perfect continuous for this:
She has been living in Liverpool all her life.It’s been raining for hours.
 for something we have done several times in the past and continue to do:
I’ve played the guitar ever since I was a teenager.He has written three books and he is working on another one.I’ve been watching that programme every week.
We often use a clause with since to show when something started in the past:
They’ve been staying with us since last week. I have worked here since I left school.I’ve been watching that programme every week since it started.
when we are talking about our experience up to the present:
Note: We often use the adverb ever to talk about experience up to the present:
My last birthday was the worst day I have ever had.
Note: and we use never for the negative form:
Have you ever met George?Yes, but I’ve never met his wife.
for something that happened in the past but is important at the time of speaking:
I can’t get in the house. I’ve lost my keys.Teresa isn’t at home. I think she has gone shopping.I’m tired out. I’ve been working all day.
 
 We use the present perfect of be when someone has gone to a place and returned:
A: Where have you been?B: I’ve just been out to the supermarket.
A: Have you ever been to San Francisco?B: No, but I’ve been to Los Angeles.
But when someone has not returned we use have/has gone:
A: Where is Maria? I haven’t seen her for weeks. B: She's gone to Paris for a week. She’ll be back tomorrow.
We often use the present perfect with time adverbials which refer to the recent past:
just; only just; recently;
Scientists have recently discovered a new breed of monkey. We have just got back from our holidays.
or adverbials which include the present:
ever (in questions); so far; until now; up to now; yet (in questions and negatives)
Have you ever seen a ghost?Where have you been up to now?Have you finished your homework yet?No, so far I’ve only done my history.
WARNING:
We do not use the present perfect with an adverbial which refers to past time which is finished:
I have seen that film yesterday.We have just bought a new car last week.When we were children we have been to California.
But we can use it to refer to a time which is not yet finished:
Have you seen Helen today?We have bought a new car this week.
Past tense
There are two tenses in English – past and present.
The past tense in English is used:
to talk about the past
to talk about hypotheses – things that are imagined rather than true.
for politeness.
There are four past tense forms in English:
Past simple: I worked
Past continuous: I was working
Past perfect: I had worked
Past perfect continuous: I had been working
We use these forms:
to talk about the past:
He worked at McDonald’s. He had worked there since July..He was working at McDonald’s. He had been working since July.
to refer to the present or future in conditions:
He could get a new job if he really tried.If Jack was playing they would probably win.
and hypotheses:
It might be dangerous. Suppose they got lost.I would always help someone who really needed help.
and wishes:
I wish it wasn’t so cold.
In conditions, hypotheses and wishes, if we want to talk about the past, we always use the past perfect:
I would have helped him if he had asked.It was very dangerous, What if you had got lost?I wish I hadn’t spent so much money last month.
 
We can use the past forms to talk about the present in a few polite expressions:
Excuse me, I was wondering if this was the train for York.I just hoped you would be able to help me.
Past simple
Forms
With most verbs the past tense is formed by adding -ed:
call >> called; like >> liked; want >> wanted; work >> worked
But there are a lot of irregular past tenses in English. Her are the most common irregular verbs in English, with their past tenses:
infinitive irregular past
bebeginbreakbringbuybuildchoosecomecostcutdodrawdriveeatfeelfindgetgivegohavehearholdkeepknowleaveleadletlielosemakemeanmeetpayputrunsaysellsendsetsitspeakspendstandtaketeachtellthinkunderstandwearwinwrite was/werebeganbrokebroughtboughtbuiltchosecamecostcutdiddrewdroveatefeltfoundgotgavewenthadheardheldkeptknewleftledletlaylostmademeantmetpaidputransaidsoldsentsetsatspokespentstoodtooktaughttoldthoughtunderstoodworewonwrote
 
Use
We use the past tense to talk about:
something that happened once in the past:
I met my wife in 1983.We went to Spain for our holidays.They got home very late last night.
something that happened again and again in the past:
When I was a boy I walked a mile to school every day.We swam a lot while we were on holiday.They always enjoyed visiting their friends.
something that was true for some time in the past:
I lived abroad for ten years.He enjoyed being a student.She played a lot of tennis when she was younger.
we often use phrases with ago with the past tense:
I met my wife a long time ago.
Questions and negatives
We use did to make questions with the past tense:
When did you meet your wife?Where did you go for your holidays?Did she play tennis when she was younger?Did you live abroad?
But look at these questions:
Who discovered penicillin?Who wrote Don Quixote?
For more on these questions see question forms
We use didn’t (did not) to make negatives with the past tense:
They didn’t go to Spain this year.We didn’t get home until very late last night.I didn’t see you yesterday. 
Past continuous
The past continuous is formed from the past tense of be with the -ing form of the verb:
We use the past continuous to talk about the past:
for something which continued before and after another action:
The children were doing their homework when I got home.
Compare:
I got home. The children did their homework.andThe children did their homework when I got home.
As I was watching television the telephone rang.
This use of the past continuous is very common at the beginning of a story:
The other day I was waiting for a bus when …Last week as I was driving to work … 
for something that happened before and after a particular time:
It was eight o’clock. I was writing a letter.Compare:At eight o’clock I wrote some letters.
In July she was working in McDonald’s.
.to show that something continued for some time:
My head was aching.Everyone was shouting.
for something that was happening again and again:
I was practising every day, three times a day.They were meeting secretly after school.They were always quarrelling.
with verbs which show change or growth:
The children were growing up quickly.Her English was improving.My hair was going grey.The town was changing quickly.
Past perfect
We use the verb had and the past participle for the past perfect:
I had finished the work. She had gone .
The past perfect continuous is formed with had been and the -ing form of the verb:
I had been finishing the workShe had been going.
The past perfect is used in the same way as the present perfect, but it refers to a time in the past, not the present.
We use the past perfect tense:
for something that started in the past and continued up to a given time in the past:
When George died he and Anne had been married for nearly fifty years.She didn’t want to move. She had lived in Liverpool all her life.
We normally use the past perfect continuous for this:
She didn’t want to move. She had been living in Liverpool all her life.Everything was wet. It had been raining for hours.
for something we had done several times up to a point in the past and continued to do after that point:
He was a wonderful guitarist. He had been playing ever since he was a teenager.He had written three books and he was working on another one.I had been watching the programme every week, but I missed the last episode.
We often use a clause with since to show when something started in the past:
They had been staying with us since the previous week. I was sorry when the factory closed. I had worked there since I left school. I had been watching that programme every week since it started, but I missed the last episode.
when we are reporting our experience and including up to the (then) present:
My eighteenth birthday was the worst day I had ever had.I was pleased to meet George. I hadn’t met him before, even though I had met his wife several times.
for something that happened in the past but is important at the time of reporting:
I couldn’t get into the house. I had lost my keys.Teresa wasn’t at home. She had gone shopping.
We use the past perfect to talk about the past in conditions, hypotheses and wishes:
I would have helped him if he had asked.It was very dangerous. What if you had got lost?I wish I hadn’t spent so much money last month.
Perfective aspect
We use the present perfect to show that something has continued up to the present
They’ve been married for nearly fifty years.She has lived in Liverpool all her life.
… or is important in the present:
I’ve lost my keys. I can’t get into the house. Teresa isn’t at home. I think she has gone shopping.
We use the present perfect continuous to show that something has been continuing up to the present:
It’s been raining for hours.We’ve been waiting here since six o’clock this morning.
We use the past perfect to show that something continued up to a time in the past:
When George died he and Anne had been married for nearly fifty years.
... or was important at that time in the past:
I couldn’t get into the house. I had lost my keys.Teresa wasn’t at home. She had gone shopping.
We use the past perfect continuous to show that something had been continuing up to a time in the past or was important at that time in the past:
Everything was wet. It had been raining for hours.He was a wonderful guitarist. He had been playing ever since he was a teenager.
We use will with the perfect to show that something will be complete at some time in the future:
In a few years they will have discovered a cure for the common cold.I can come out tonight. I'll have finished my homework by then.
We use would with the perfect to refer to something that did not happen in the past but would have happened if the conditions had been right:
If you had asked me I would have helped you.I would have helped you, but you didn’t ask me.You didn’t ask me or I would have helped you.
We use other modals with perfective aspect when we are looking back from a point in time when something might have happened, should have happened or would have happened.
The point of time may be in the future:
We’ll meet again next week. We might have finished the work by then.I will phone at six o’clock. He should have got home by then.
the present:
It’s getting late. They should have arrived by now.He’s still not here. He must have missed his train.
or the past:
I wasn’t feeling well. I must have eaten something bad.I checked my cell phone. She could have left a message.
 
 
Continuous aspect
Both tenses have a continuous form. These continuous tenses are formed with the verb be and the –ing form of the verb:
We use continuous aspect:
for something happening before and after a given time.
He’s getting on the train. [before and after the moment of speaking]It was quarter past ten. We were watching the news on television.
for something continuing before and after another action:
Mother will be cooking the dinner when we get home.We were waiting for the bus when it started to rain.
for something continuing for some time:
Everybody will be waiting for us.They had been working hard all day.
for something happening again and again:
They’ve been doing that every day this week.The children were always shouting.He will be practising the piano every night.
for something temporary:
We are renting an apartment until our house is ready..He was working in a garage during the vacation.
for something new:
We have moved from Birmingham. We’re living in Manchester now.He had left university and was working in his father’s business.
to describe something changing or developing:
Everything has been getting more difficult.He was growing more bad-tempered every day. 
Active and passive voice
Transitive verbs have both active and passive forms:
active   passive
The hunter killed the lion. >> The lion was killed by the hunter.
Someone has cleaned the windows >> The windows have been cleaned
The passive forms are made up of the verb be with a past participle:
  be past participle  
English is spoken all over the world
The windows have been cleaned  
Lunch was being served  
The work will be finished soon
They might have been invited to the party
We sometimes use the verb get to form the passive:
Be careful with the glass. It might get broken.Peter got hurt in a crash.
If we want to show the person or thing doing the action we use by:
She was attacked by a dangerous dog.The money was stolen by her husband.
We can use the indirect object as the subject of a passive verb:
active   passive
I gave him a book for his birthday >> He was given a book for his birthday.
Someone sent her a cheque for a thousand euros >> She was sent a cheque for a thousand euros.
We can use phrasal verbs in the passive:
active   passive
They called off the meeting. >> The meeting was called off.
His grandmother looked after him. >> He was looked after by his grandmother.
They will send him away to school. >> He will be sent away to school.
Some verbs very frequently used in the passive are followed by the to-infinitive:
be supposed to be expected to be asked to
be scheduled to be allowed to be told to
John has been asked to make a speech at the meeting.You are supposed to wear a uniform.The meeting is scheduled to start at seven. 
To + infinitive
   We use the to-infinitive:
• to express purpose (to answer "Why...?"):
He bought some flowers to give to his wife.He locked the door to keep everyone out.
We sometimes say in order to or in order not to:
We set off early in order to avoid the traffic.They spoke quietly in order not to wake the children
… or we can say so as to or so as not to:
We set off early so as to avoid the traffic.They spoke quietly so as not to wake the children.
• after certain verbs (see verbs followed by infinitive), particularly verbs of thinking and feeling:
choose, decide, expect, forget, hate, hope, intend, learn, like, love, mean, plan, prefer, remember, want, would like, would love
… and verbs of saying:
agree, promise, refuse
They decided to start a business together.Remember to turn the lights out.
Some verbs are followed by a direct object and the infinitive(see verbs followed by infinitive):
advise, ask, encourage, invite, order, persuade, remind, tell, warn, expect, intend, would prefer, want, would like
She reminded me to turn the lights out.He encouraged his friends to vote for him.
• after certain adjectives.
Sometimes the to-infinitive gives a reason for the adjective:
disappointed
glad
sad
happy
anxious
pleased
surprised
proud
unhappy
We were happy to come to the end of our journey= We were happy because we had come to the end of our journeyJohn was surprised to see me = He was surprised because he saw me
Other adjectives with the to-infinitive are:
able
unable
due
eager
keen
likely
unlikely
ready
prepared
unwilling
willing
Unfortunately I was unable to work for over a week.I am really tired. I’m ready to go to bed.
We often use the to-infinitive with these adjectives after it to give opinions:
difficult
easy
possible
impossible
hard
right
wrong
kind
nice
clever
silly
foolish
It’s easy to play the piano, but it’s very difficult to play well.He spoke so quickly it was impossible to understand him.
We use the preposition for to show who these adjectives refer to:
difficult
easy
possible
impossible
hard
It was difficult for us to hear what she was saying.It is easy for you to criticise other people.
We use the preposition of with other adjectives:
It’s kind of you to help.It would be silly of him to spend all his money.
• As a postmodifier (see noun phrases) after abstract nouns like:
ability
desire
need
wish
attempt
failure
opportunity
chance
intention
I have no desire to be rich.They gave him an opportunity to escape.She was annoyed by her failure to answer the question correctly.
• We often use a to-infinitive as a postmodifier after an indefinite pronoun (See indefinite pronouns):
When I am travelling I always take something to read.I was all alone. I had no one to talk to.There is hardly anything to do in most of these small towns.
-ing forms
We can use the -ing form of the verb:
• as a noun:
I love swimming.Swimming is very good for your health.You can get fit by swimming regularly.-ing nouns are nearly always uncount nouns
as an adjective:
The main problem today is rising prices.That programme was really boring.He saw a woman lying on the floor.
Because the -ing noun or adjective is formed from a verb it can have any of the patterns which follow a verb, for example:
... an object:
I like playing tennis.I saw a dog chasing a cat.
... or an adverbial:
You can earn a lot of money by working hard.There were several people waiting for the bus.
... or a clause:
I heard someone saying that.
The -ing noun can be used:
as the subject of a verb:
Learning English is not easy.
as the object of a verb:
We enjoy learning English.
Common verbs followed by an -ing object are:
 
admit like hate start avoid
suggest enjoy dislike begin finish
as the object of a preposition
Some people are not interested in learning English.
The -ing adjective can come:
in front of a noun:
I read an interesting article in the newspaper today.We saw a really exciting match on Sunday.
 The commonest –ing adjectives used in front of the noun are
 
amusing interesting worrying shocking disappointing
boring surprising  exciting terrifying frightening
tiring annoying      
 
after a noun:
Who is that man standing over there?The boy talking to Angela is her younger brother.
and especially after verbs like see, watch, hear, smell etc.
I heard someone playing the piano.I can smell something burning.
Talking about the present
1. We use the present simple:
to talk about something happening regularly in the present:
The children come home from school at about four.We often see your brother at work.
 to talk about something happening continually in the present:
They live next door to us.He works for the Post Office.
 to talk about things which are generally true:
Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius.The Nile is the longest river in Africa.
2. We use the present continuous:
to show that something in the present is temporary:
We are living in a rented flat at present.My wife usually goes in to the office, but she is working at home today.
for something happening regularly in the present before and after a given time:
I’m usually getting ready for work at eight o’clock.When I see George he’s always reading his newspaper.
for something happening before and after the moment of speaking:
I can’t hear you. I’m listening to my iPod.Be quiet. The children are sleeping.
3. We use modal verbs
to talk about the present when we are not sure of something:
I don’t know where Henry is. He might be playing tennis.Who’s knocking at the door? I don’t know. It could be the police.
Talking about the past
1 Talking about past events and situations:
We use the past simple:
when we are talking about an event that happened at a particular time in the past
We arrived home before darkThe film started at seven thirty.
when we are talking about something that continued for some time in the past
Everybody worked hard through the winter.We stayed with our friends in London.
When we are talking about something that happened several times in the past we use
the past simple:
Most evenings we stayed at home and watched DVDs.Sometimes they went out for a meal.
… or used to
Most evenings we used to stay at home and watch DVDs.We used to go for a swim every morning.
... or would
Most evenings he would take the dog for a walk.They would often visit friends in Europe.
WARNING: We do not normally use would with stative verbs.
We use the past continuous:
when we are talking about something which happened before and after a given time in the past
It was just after ten. I was watching the news on TV.At half-time we were losing 1-0.
when we are talking about something happening before and after another action in the past:
He broke his leg when he was playing rugby.She saw Jim as he was driving away.
2 The past in the past
When we are looking back from a point in the past to something earlier in the past we use the past perfect:
Helen suddenly remembered she had left her keys in the car.When we had done all our shopping we caught the bus home.They wanted to buy a new computer, but they hadn’t saved enough money. They would have bought a new computer if they had saved enough money.
3 The past and the present:
We use the present perfect:
when we are talking about the effects in the present of something that happened in the past:
I can’t open the door. I’ve left my keys in the car.Jenny has found a new job. She works in a supermarket now.
When we are talking about something that started in the past and still goes on:
We have lived here since 2007. (and we still live here)I have been working at the university for over ten years.
4 The future in the past
When we talk about the future from a time in the past we use:
would as the past tense of will
He thought he would buy one the next day.Everyone was excited. The party would be fun.
was/were going to
John was going to drive and Mary was going to follow on her bicycle.It was Friday. We were going to set off the next day.
the past continuous:
It was September. Mary was starting school the next week.We were very busy. The shop was opening in two weeks time.
Talking about the future
1. When we know about the future we normally use the present tense.
We use the present simple for something scheduled or arranged:
We have a lesson next Monday.The train arrives at 6.30 in the morning.The holidays start next week.It is my birthday tomorrow.
We can use the present continuous for plans or arrangements:
I’m playing football tomorrow.They are coming to see us tomorrow.We’re having a party at Christmas.
2. We use will to talk about the future:
When we make predictions:
It will be a nice day tomorrow.I think Brazil will win the World Cup.I’m sure you will enjoy the film.
To mean want to or be willing to:
I hope you will come to my party.George says he will help us.
To make offers and promises:
I'll see you tomorrow.We'll send you an email.
To talk about offers and promises:
Tim will be at the meeting.Mary will help with the cooking.
3. We use (be) going to:
To talk about plans and intentions:
I’m going to drive to work today.They are going to move to Manchester.
When we can see that something is likely to happen:
Be careful! You are going to fall. Look at those black clouds. I think it’s going to rain.
4. We often use verbs like would like, plan, want, mean, hope, expect to talk about the future:
What are you going to do next year? I’d like to go to University.We plan to go to France for our holidays.George wants to buy a new car.
5. We use modals may, might, and could when we are not sure about the future:
I might stay at home tonight, or I might go to the cinema.We could see Mary at the meeting. She sometimes goes.
6. We can use should if we think something is likely to happen:
We should be home in time for tea.The game should be over by eight o’clock.
7. Clauses with time words:
In clauses with time words like when, after, and until we often use a present tense form to talk about the future:
I’ll come home when I finish work.You must wait here until your father comes.They are coming after they have had dinner.
8. Clauses with if:
In clauses with if we often use a present tense form to talk about the future:
We won’t be able to go out if it rains.If Barcelona win tomorrow they will be champions.
WARNING: We do not normally use will in clauses with if or with time words:
I’ll come home when I will finish work.We won’t be able to go out if it will rain rains.
But we can use will if it means a promise or offer:
I will be very happy if you will come to my party.We should finish the job early if George will help us.
9. We can use the future continuous instead of the present continuous or going to for emphasis when we are talking about plans, arrangements and intentions:
They’ll be coming to see us next week.I will be driving to work tomorrow.
Verbs in time clauses and if clauses
Verbs in time clauses and conditionals follow the same patterns as in other clauses except:
In clauses with time words like when, after, until we often use the present tense forms to talk about the future:
I’ll come home when I finish work.You must wait here until your father comes.They are coming after they have had dinner.
 in conditional clauses with if or unless we often use the present tense forms to talk about the future:
We won’t be able to go out if it is raining.If Barcelona win tomorrow they will be champions. I will come tomorrow unless I have to look after the children.
We do not normally use will in clauses with if or with time words:
I’ll come home when I will finish work.We won’t be able to go out if it will rain. rains.It will be nice to see Peter when he will get home gets home.You must wait here until you father will come comes.
but we can use will if it means a promise or offer:
I will be very happy if you will come to my party.We should finish the job early if George will help us.
"if" clauses and hypotheses
Some clauses with if are like hypotheses so we use past tense forms to talk about the present and future.
We use the past tense forms to talk about the present in clauses with if :
for something that has not happened or is not happening:
He could get a new job if he really tried   =  He cannot get a job because he has not tried.
If Jack was playing they would probably win  = Jack is not playing so they will probably not win.
If I had his address I could write to him  = I do not have his address so I cannot write to him.
 We use the past tense forms to talk about the future in clauses with if:
for something that we believe or know will not happen:
We would go by train if it wasn’t so expensive  = We won’t go by train because it is too expensive.
 I would look after the children for you at the weekend if I was at home  = I can’t look after the children because I will not be at home.
 to make suggestions about what might happen:
If he came tomorrow we could borrow his car.If we invited John, Mary would bring Angela.
When we are talking about something which did not happen in the past we use the past perfect in the if clause and a modal verb in the main clause:
If you had seen him you could have spoken to him  = You did not see him so you could not speak to him
You could have stayed with us if you had come to London  = You couldn’t stay with us because you didn’t come to London.
If we hadn’t spent all our money we could take a holiday.  = We have spent all our money so we can’t take a holiday
If I had got the job we would be living in Paris  = I did not get the job so we are not living in Paris.
 If the main clause is about the past we use a modal with have: 
If you had seen him you could have spoken to him.  = You did not see him so you could not speak to him.
You could have stayed with us if you had come to London.  = You couldn’t stay with us because you didn’t come to London.
If you had invited me I might have come.  = You didn’t invite me so I didn’t come.
If the main clause is about the present we use a present tense form or a modal without have:
If I had got the job we would be living in Paris now.  = I did not get the job so we are not living in Paris now.
If you had done your homework you would know the answer.  = You did not do your homework so you do not know the answer.
 
Wishes and hypotheses
Wishes
We use past tense forms to talk about wishes:
We use past tense modals would and could to talk about wishes for the future:
I don’t like my work. I wish I could get a better job.That’s a dreadful noise. I wish it would stop.I always have to get home early. I wish my parents would let me stay out later.
 We use past tense forms to talk about wishes for the present:
I don’t like this place. I wish I lived in somewhere more interesting.These seats are very uncomfortable. I wish we were travelling first class.Everyone wishes they had more free time.John wishes he wasn’t so busy.I wish it wasn’t so cold.
We use the past perfect to talk about wishes for the past:
I wish I had worked harder when I was at school.Mary wishes she had listened to what her mother told her.I wish I hadn’t spent so much money last month.
Hypotheses (things that we imagine)
When we are talking about hypotheses:
We use present tense forms after phrases like what if, in case and suppose to talk about the future if we think it is likely to happen:
Those steps are dangerous. Suppose someone has an accident.We should leave home early in case we are late.
We use a past tense form to talk about the future after suppose and what if to suggest something is not likely to happen:
It might be dangerous. Suppose they got lost.What if he lost his job. What would happen then?
We use modals would, could for a hypothesis about the future:
We can’t all stay in a hotel. It would be very expensive.Drive carefully. You could have an accident.
We use would in the main clause and the past in a subordinate clause to talk about the imagined future:
I would always help someone who really needed help.I would always help someone if they really needed it.
We use modals with have to talk about something that did not happen in the past:
I did not see Mary, or I might have spoken to her.It’s a pity Jack wasn’t at the party. He would have enjoyed this party.Why didn’t you ask me. I could have told you the answer.
The verb be
The verb be has the following forms:
Present simple: Affirmative I am You are He/She/It is We areYou areThey are
  Question form: Am I? Are you? Is he/she it? Are we?Are you?Are they?
  Negative: I am not/ I’m not You are not/ aren’t He/She/It is not/ isn’t We are not/aren’tYou are not/aren’tThey are not/aren't 
Past simple   I was You were He/She/It was We wereYou wereThey were
The past participle:   been.  
Present perfect:   has/have been  
Past perfect:   had been  
 The verb be is used in the following patterns:
1. with a noun:
My mother is a teacher.Bill Clinton was the president of the US.
2. with an adjective:
This soup is very tasty.The children were good.
2.1 with the -ing form to make the continuous aspect
We were walking down the street.Everything was wet. It had been raining for hours.
2.2 with the -ed form to make the passive voice
The house was built in 1890.The street is called Montagu Street.This car was made in Japan.
3. with a prepositional phrase:
John and his wife are from Manchester.The flowers are on the table.
 
 
Link verbs
Some verbs are followed by either a noun or an adjective:
She was a good friend. =  N + V + N
She was very happy. =  N + V + Adj.
He became headmaster. =  N + V + N
He became angry. =  N + V + Adj.
These verbs are called link verbs. Common verbs like this are:
be
become
appear
feel
look
remain
seem
sound
She seemed an intelligent woman.She seemed intelligent.He looked hungry.He looked a good player.
After appear and seem we often use to be:
She appeared to be an intelligent woman.He seemed to be angry.
Some link verbs are followed by an adjective. Common verbs like this are:
get
go
grow
taste
smell
He got hungry in the evening.She grew stronger every day.
Delexical verbs like have, take, make and give
Delexical verbs:have, take, make, give, go and do
We often use common verbs like have and take with nouns like a shower, a drink:
I took a shower. = I showered.She had a drink. = She drank something.
We call these delexical verbs because the important part of the meaning is taken out of the verb and put into the noun.
We often put adjectives in front of the noun:
I took a cold shower.She had a nice, refreshing drink.
The verbs used most frequently in this way are:
have     take     make     give
have
We use have with:
Food and drink: a meal, breakfast, lunch, dinner, a snack, a cup of teaTalking: a chat, a conversation, a discussion, a talkWashing: a bath, a shower, a wash, a scrubResting: a break, a holiday, a restDisagreeing: an argument, a dispute, a fight, a quarrel
I had a good breakfast before I left home.We had a long talk about the problem.The kids should have a bath before they go to bed.She generally had a short holiday in July or August.They had a serious quarrel about their father’s will.
We also use have with nouns formed from verbs:
I think you should have a look at this.She had a bite of the cake.I’m thirsty. I’m going to have a drink of water.I had a listen to that new CD in the car.They are going to have a swim. 
Modal verbs
The modal verbs are:
can could
may might
shall should
will would
We use modal verbs to show if we believe something is certain, probable or possible (or not). We also use modals to do things like talking about ability, asking permission making requests and offers, and so on. 
certain, probable or possibleability, permission, requests and advicemodals + havecan, could and could havemay, might, may have and might havecan or couldwill or wouldwill have or would haveCertain, probable or possible
The modal verbs are can, could, may, might, shall, should, will and would.
The modals are used to show that we believe something is certain, probable or possible:
Possibility:
We use the modals could, might and may to show that something is possible in the future, but not certain:
They might come later. (= Perhaps/Maybe they will come later.)They may come by car. (= Perhaps/Maybe they will come by car.)If we don’t hurry we could be late. (= Perhaps/Maybe we will be late)
We use could have, might have and may have to show that something was possible now or at some time in the past:
It’s ten o’clock. They might have arrived now.They could have arrived hours ago.
We use the modal can to make general statements about what is possible:
It can be very cold in winter. (= It is sometimes very cold in winter)You can easily lose your way in the dark. (= People often lose their way in the dark)
We use the modal could as the past tense of can:
It could be very cold in winter. (= Sometimes it was very cold in winter.)You could lose your way in the dark. (= People often lost their way in the dark)
Impossibility:
We use the negative can’t or cannot to show that something is impossible:
That can’t be true. You cannot be serious.
We use couldn’t/could not to talk about the past:
We knew it could not be true.He was obviously joking. He could not be serious.
Probability:
We use the modal must to show we are sure something to be true and we have reasons for our belief:
It’s getting dark. It must be quite late.You haven’t eaten all day. You must be hungry.
We use must have for the past:
They hadn’t eaten all day. They must have been hungry.You look happy. You must have heard the good news.
We use the modal should to suggest that something is true or will be true in the future, and to show you have reasons for your suggestion:
Ask Miranda. She should know.It's nearly six o'clock. They should arrive soon.
We use should have to talk about the past:
It's nearly eleven o'clock. They should have arrived by now.
Ability, permission, requests and advice
The modal verbs are can, could, may, might, shall, should, will and would.
The modals are used to do things like talking about ability, asking permission making requests, and so on.
Ability:
We use can to talk about someone’s skill or general abilities:
She can speak several languages.He can swim like a fish.They can’t dance very well.
We use can to talk about the ability to do something at a given time in the present or future:
You can make a lot of money if you are lucky.Help. I can’t breathe.They can run but they can’t hide.
We use could to talk about past time:
She could speak several languages.They couldn’t dance very well.
We use could have to say that someone had the ability/opportunity to do something, but did not do it:
She could have learned Swahili, but she didn’t have time.I could have danced all night [but didn't].
Permission:
We use can to ask for permission to do something:
Can I ask a question, please?Can we go home now.
could is more formal and polite than can:
Could I ask a question please?Could we go home now?
may is another more formal and polite way of asking for permission:
May I ask a question please?May we go home now?
We use can to give permission:
You can go home now if you like.You can borrow my pen if you like.
may is a more formal and polite way of giving permission:
You may go home now, if you like.
We use can to say that someone has permission to do something:
We can go out whenever we want.Students can travel free.
may is a more formal and polite way of saying that someone has permission:
Students may travel free.
Instructions and requests:
We use could you and would you as polite ways of telling or asking someone to do something:
Could you take a message please?Would you carry this for me please?Could I have my bill please?
can and will are less polite:
Can you take a message please?Will you carry this for me please?
Suggestions and advice:
We use should to make suggestions and give advice:
You should send an email.We should go by train.
We use could to make suggestions:
We could meet at the weekend.You could eat out tonight.
We use conditionals to give advice:
Dan will help you if you ask him.
Past tenses are more polite:
Dan would help you if you asked him.
Offers and invitations:
We use can I… and to make offers:
Can I help you?Can I do that for you?
We can also use shall I …
Shall I help you with that?Shall I call you on your mobile?
We sometime say I can ... or I could ... or I’ll (I will) ... to make an offer:
I can do that for you if you like.I can give you a lift to the station.I’ll do that for you if you like.I’ll give you a lift to the station.
We use would you like (to) ... for invitations:
Would you like to come round to morrow?Would you like another drink?
We use you must or we must for a very polite invitation:
You must come round and see us.We must meet again soon.
Obligation and necessity
We use must to say that it is necessary to do something:
You must stop at a red light.Everyone must bring something to eat.You can wear what you like, but you must look neat and tidy.I’m sorry, but you mustn’t make a noise in here.
We use had to for this if we are talking about the past:
Everyone had to bring something to eat.We could wear what we liked, but we had to look neat and tidy.
Modals + have
We use a modal verb with have and the past participle:
Subject Modal Have Past Participle  
They will have arrived by now
You might have seen the film
Jack and Jill would have been late
 We use a modal verb with have to refer back:
… from a point of time in the past:
We were very worried. Someone might have taken the car.
… from the present
It is nearly eight o’clock. They will have arrived by now.
…or from the future:
We won’t eat until they arrive. They might not have had supper.
or to refer to past time:
You should have helped her when she asked.They might have got lost. Nobody knows where they are.
Can, could and could have
Questions and negatives:
We make questions by putting the subject after can/could:
Can I …? Can you …? Could I … Could you …? and so on.
The negative form is can’t in spoken English and cannot in written English.We sometimes say cannot, but it is very emphatic.
The negative form of could is couldn’t in spoken English and could not in written English.We sometimes say could not.
We use can and can’t :
To talk about ability:
Maria can speak four languages.I can’t swim, but my sister can.
To say that something is possible or impossible:
Learning English can be difficult [= Learning English is sometimes difficult.]Children can be very naughty [= Children are sometimes very naughty.]It’s still light. It can’t be bedtime. 
For requests and refusals of requests
Can I go home now?You can go whenever you like.You can borrow the car today, but you can’t have it tomorrow.
To offer to help someone:
Can I help you?Can I carry that bag for you?
We use could and couldn’t as the past tense of can/can’t:
To talk about ability:
I could run very fast when I was younger.She couldn’t get a job anywhere.
To say that something was possible or impossible:
Our teacher could be very strict when we were at school. [= Some teachers were very strict.]People could starve in those days. [= People sometimes starved.]You couldn’t use computers in the nineteenth century.
To make a polite request:
Could I go now please?Could you lend me a dictionary please?
To make a polite offer:
Could I give you a lift?I could carry that for you.
We use could have:
to show that something is possible now or was possible at some time in the past:
It’s ten o’clock. They could have arrived now.They could have arrived hours ago.
May, might, may have and might have
Questions and negatives:
We make questions by putting the subject after may/might:May I …? Could I … Might I …? Etc.
The negative forms are may not and might not..
We use may:
when we are not sure about something:
Jack may be coming to see us tomorrow.Oh dear! It’s half past ten. We may be late for the meeting.There may not be very many people there.
to make polite requests:
May I borrow the car tomorrow?May we come a bit later?
When we use may not for a refusal it is emphatic:
You may not!You may not borrow the car until you can be more careful with it.
We use might:
• when we are not sure about something:
I might see you tomorrow.It looks nice, but it might be very expensive.It’s quite bright. It might not rain today.
• As the past tense of may for requests:
He asked if he might borrow the car.They wanted to know if they might come later.
• For very polite requests:
Might I ask you a question?Might we just interrupt for a moment?
We use may have and might have to show that something has possibly happened now or happened at some time in the past:
It’s ten o’clock. They might have arrived now.[= Perhaps they have arrived]They may have arrived hours ago. [= Perhaps they arrived hours ago.]
Can or could
Possibility
We use the modal can to make general statements about what is possible:
It can be very cold in winter. (= It is sometimes very cold in winter)You can easily lose your way in the dark. (= People often lose their way in the dark)
We use could as the past tense of can:
It could be very cold in winter. (=Sometimes it was very cold in winter.)You could lose your way in the dark. (=People often lost their way in the dark)
We use could to show that something is possible in the future, but not certain:
If we don’t hurry we could be late. (=Perhaps/Maybe we will be late)
We use could have to show that something is/was possible now or at some time in the past:
It’s ten o’clock. They could have arrived now.They could have arrived hours ago.
Impossibility:
We use the negative can’t or cannot to show that something is impossible:
That can’t be true. You cannot be serious.
We use couldn’t/could not to talk about the past:
We knew it could not be true.He was obviously joking. He could not be serious.
Ability:
We use can to talk about someone’s skill or general abilities:
She can speak several languages.He can swim like a fish.They can’t dance very well.
We use can to talk about the ability to do something at a given time in the present or future:
You can make a lot of money if you are lucky.Help. I can’t breathe.They can run but they can’t hide.
We use could to talk about past time:
She could speak several languages.They couldn’t dance very well.
 
Permission:
We use can to ask for permission to do something:
Can I ask a question, please?Can we go home now?
could is more formal and polite than can:
Could I ask a question please?Could we go home now?
We use can to give permission:
You can go home now if you like.You can borrow my pen if you like.
We use can to say that someone has permission to do something:
We can go out whenever we want.Students can travel free.
Instructions and requests:
We use could you and as a polite way of telling or asking someone to do something:
Could you take a message please?Could I have my bill please?
can is less polite:
Can you take a message please?
Offers and invitations:
We use can I … to make offers:
Can I help you?Can I do that for you?
We sometimes say I can ... or I could ... to make an offer:
I can do that for you if you like.I can give you a lift to the station.
Will or would
We use will:
to talk about the future – to say what we believe will happen
to talk about what people want to do or are willing to do
to make promises and offers
would is the past tense form of will. Because it is a past tense it is used:
to talk about the past.
to talk about hypotheses – things that are imagined rather than true.
for politeness.
Beliefs
We use will
to say what we believe will happen in the future:
We'll be late.We will have to take the train.
We use would as the past tense of will:
to say what we believed would happen:
I thought I would be late …… so I would have to take the train.
Offers and promises
We use I will or We will to make offers and promises:
I’ll give you a lift home after the party.We will come and see you next week.
Willingness
to talk about what people want to do or are willing to do:
We’ll see you tomorrow.Perhaps dad will lend me the car.
We use would as the past tense of will:
to talk about what people wanted to do or were willing to do:
We had a terrible night. The baby wouldn’t go to sleep. He kept waking up and crying.Dad wouldn’t lend me the car, so we had to take the train.
to talk about something that we did often in the past because we wanted to do it:
When they were children they used to spend their holidays at their grandmother’s at the seaside. They would get up early every morning and they’d have a quick breakfast then they would run across the road to the beach.
Conditionals
We use will in conditionals with if and unless to say what we think will happen in the future or present:
I’ll give her a call if I can find her number.You won’t get in unless you have a ticket.
We use would to talk about hypotheses, about something which is possible but not real:
to talk about the result or effect of a possible situation:
It would be very expensive to stay in a hotel.
in conditionals with words like if and what if. In these sentences the main verb is usually in the past tense:
I would give her a call if I could find her number.If I had the money I'd buy a new car.You would lose weight if you took more exercise.If he got a new job he would probably make more money.What if he lost his job. What would happen then?
We use conditionals to give advice:
Dan will help you if you ask him.
Past tenses are more polite:
Dan would help you if you asked him.
Phrases with would:
would you…, would you mind (not) -ing, for requests:
Would you carry this for me please?Would you mind carrying this?Would you mind not telling him that?
would you like ...; would you like to ...,  for offers and invitations:
Would you like to come round to morrow?Would you like another drink?
I would like …; I’d like … (you)(to) ..., to say what we want or what we want to do:
I’d like that one please.I’d like to go home now.
I’d rather… (I would rather) to say what we prefer:
I’d rather have that one.I’d rather go home now.
I would think, I would imagine, I'd guess, to give an opinion when we are not sure or when we want to be polite:
It’s very difficult I would imagine.I would think that’s the right answer.
 Will have or would have
We use the perfective will have when we are looking back from a point in time when something will have happened.
By the end of the decade scientists will have discovered a cure for influenza.I will phone at six o’clock. He will have got home by then.
or looking "back" from the present:
Look at the time. The match will have started.It’s half past five. Dad will have finished work.
We use would have as the past tense form of will have:
I phoned at six o’clock. I knew he would have got home by then.It was half past five. Dad would have finished work.
We use would have in past conditionals to talk about something that did not happen:
If it had been a little warmer we would have gone for a swim.He would have been very angry if he had seen you.
Double object verbs
1. Some verbs have two objects –an indirect object and a direct object:
Subject Verb Indirect object Direct object
My wife sent me an email
He brought his mother some flowers
He cooked all his friends a delicious meal
These clauses have the structure: V + N (indirect object) + N (direct object)
2. We can use a prepositional phrase with to or for with an indirect object:
Subject Verb Direct object Prepositional phrase
My wife sent an email to me
He brought some flowers for his mother
He cooked a delicious meal for all his friends.
These clauses have the structure : V + N (direct object) + Prepositional phrase (indirect object)
3. Common verbs with for and an indirect object are:
book
buy
get
cook
keep
bring
make
pour
save
find
They booked a table for me at the restaurant.We made toys for all the children.
4. Common verbs with to and an indirect object are:
give
lend
offer
pass
post
read
sell
send
show
promise
tell
He gave his programme to the man sitting next to him.They sent Christmas cards to all their customers.
5. If the indirect object is a long phrase we normally use to or for:
He showed his ticket to the policeman standing by the door.We kept something to eat and drink for all the people who arrived late.
6. If the indirect object is a pronoun we normally use the N + V + N + N pattern:
I poured him another drink.Their mother read them another story.
Phrasal verbs
Some verbs are two part verbs (see Clauses, Sentences and Phrases). They consist of a verb and a particle:
grow + up >> The children are growing up.
Often this gives the verb a new meaning:
take + after >> She takes after her mother = She looks like her mother, or She behaves like her mother.
count + on >> I know I can count on you = I know I can trust you, or I know I can believe you.
Some transitive two part verbs (see Clauses, Sentences and Phrases) have only one pattern:
N (subject) + V + p + N (object)
[Note: N = noun; V = verb; p = particle]
N (Subject)  Verb Particle  N (Object)
SheIMy father takescan countcomes afteronfrom her motheryouMadrid
Some transitive two part verbs (see Clauses, Sentences and Phrases) are phrasal verbs. Phrasal verbs have two different patterns:
• The usual pattern is: N + V + N + p
N (Subject) Verb (N) Object Particle
SheHe We gaveknockedwill be leaving the moneythe glassour friends and neighbours backoverbehind
 • But sometimes these verbs have the pattern: N (subject) + V + p + N (object)
N (Subject) Verb Particle N (Object)
SheHe We gaveknockedwill be leaving backoverbehind the moneythe glassour friends and neighbours
When the object is a personal pronoun,these verbs always have the pattern:
N + V +N + p:
She gave back it>> She gave it back
He knocked over it >> knocked it over
We will be leaving behind them>> We will be leaving them behind
• Phrasal verbs are nearly always made up of a transitive verb and a particle. Common verbs with their most frequent particles are:
bring: about, along, back, forward, in, off, out, round, up
buy: out, up
call: off, up
carry: off, out
cut: back, down, off, out, up
give: away, back, off
hand: back, down, in, on out, over, round
knock: down, out, over
leave: behind, out
let: down, in, off, out
pass: down, over, round
point: out
push: about, around, over
put: across, away, down, forward, off, on, out, through, together, up
read: out
set: apart, aside, back, down
shut: away, in, off, out
take: apart, away, back, down, in, on, up, over
think: over, through, up
   
Reflexive and ergative verbs
Reflexive verbs
1 The reflexive pronouns (see pronouns) are:
Singular: myself; yourself; himself; herself; itself
Plural: ourselves; yourselves; themselves
We use a reflexive pronoun after a transitive verb (see Clauses, Sentences and Phrases) when the direct object is the same as the subject of the verb:
I am teaching myself to play the piano.Be careful with that knife. You might cut yourself.
These are the verbs most often found with reflexive pronouns: 
cut
dry
enjoy
hurt
introduce
kill
prepare
teach
Some verbs change their meaning slightly when they have a reflexive pronoun as direct object:
amuse
apply
busy
content
behave
blame
distance
express
find
help
see
Would you like to help yourself to another drink? = Would you like to take another drink?
I wish the children would behave themselves. = I wish the children would behave well.
He found himself lying by the side of the road. = He was surprised when he realised that he was at the side of the road.
I saw myself as a famous actor. = I imagined that I was a famous actor.
She applied herself to the job of mending the lights. = She worked very hard to mend the lights.
He busied himself in the kitchen. = He worked busily in the kitchen.
I had to content myself with a few Euros. = I had to be satisfied with a few Euros.
     
The verb enjoy always has an object:
We all enjoyed the party.I really enjoyed my lunch.
If enjoy has no other object, we use a reflexive pronoun:
They all enjoyed They all enjoyed themselves.I really enjoyed I really enjoyed myself.
NOTE: We do not use a reflexive pronoun after verbs which describe things people usually do for themselves:
He washed in cold water.He always shaved before going out in the evening.Michael dressed and got ready for the party.
We only use reflexives with these verbs for emphasis:
He dressed himself in spite of his injuries.She’s old enough to wash herself.
Ergative verbs
1. Ergative verbs are both transitive and intransitive: 
Peter closed the door   Transitive: N + V + N
The door closed   Intransitive: N + V
I boiled a pan of water   Transitive: N + V + N
The pan boiled   Intransitive: N + V
2. Common ergative verbs are:
begin
break
change
close
drop
crack
dry
end
finish
grow
improve
increase
move
open
shake
start
stop
tear
turn
I broke the glass. I dropped the glass and it broke.
The referee blew his whistle and started the match.The match started at 2.30.
We grew some tasty potatoes.The potatoes were growing well.
The wind shook the trees.The trees shook in the wind.
3. Many verbs to do with cooking are ergative verbs:
bake
boil
cook
defrost
freeze
melt
roast
You should roast the meat at 200 degrees centigrade.The meat was roasting in a hot oven.
I always defrost meat before I cook it.I am waiting for the meat to defrost.
Melt the chocolate and pour it over the ice cream.The chocolate was melting in a pan.
4. Verbs to do with vehicles are often ergative:
back
crash
drive
fly
reverse
run
sail
start
stop
I’m learning to fly a plane.The plane flew at twice the speed of sound.
He crashed his car into a tree.His car crashed into a tree. 
5. We use some ergative verbs with only a few nouns:
catch: dress, coat, clothes, trousers etc.
fire : Gun, pistol, rifle, rocket.
play: guitar, music, piano, violin, CD, DVD etc.
ring: bell, alarm
She caught her dress on a nail.Her dress caught on a nail.
He fired a pistol to start the race.A pistol fired to start the race.
Verbs followed by to + infinitive
1 Some verbs are followed by the to-infinitive:
I decided to go home as soon as possible.We all wanted to have more English classes.
Common verbs followed by the to-infinitive are:
Verbs of thinking and feeling:
choose
decide
expect
forget
hate
hope
intend
learn
like
love
mean
plan
prefer
remember
would like
would love
Verbs of saying:
agree
promise
refuse
Other common verbs are:
arrange
attempt
fail
help
manage
tend
try
want
2 Some verbs are followed by a noun and the to-infinitive:
She asked him to send her a text message.He wanted all his friends to come to his party.
Common verbs with this pattern are:
Verbs of saying:
advise
ask
encourage
invite
order
persuade
remind
tell
warn *
*Note: The verb warn is normally used with notThe police warned everyone not to drive too fast.
Verbs of wanting or liking:
expect
intend
would
prefer
want
would like
Other verbs with this pattern are:
allow
enable
force
get
teach
3. Passive infinitive
Many of these verbs are sometimes followed by a passive infinitive (to be + past participle):
I expected to be met when I arrived at the station.They wanted to be told if anything happened.I don’t like driving myself. I prefer to be driven.
 
 
 
 
Activity 1(pop-up): Match the 'to infinitive' clauses to the sentence beginnings.Activity 2(pop-up): Match the 'to infinitive' clauses to the sentence beginnings.Activity 3(pop-up): Match the 'to infinitive' clauses to the sentence beginnings.Verbs followed by -ing clauses
Common verbs followed by –ing nouns are:
Verbs of liking and disliking:
detest
dislike
enjoy
hate
fancy
like
love
I love swimming but I hate jogging.They always enjoyed visiting their friends.A: Do you fancy going for a walk?B: I wouldn’t mind
Phrases with mind:
wouldn’t mind (= would like)
don’t mind (= I am willing to)
would you mind (= will you please…?)
I wouldn’t mind having some fish and chips.I don’t mind waiting for a few minutes.Would you mind holding this for me?
Verbs of saying and thinking:
admit
consider
 deny
imagine
remember
suggest
Our guide suggested waiting until the storm was over.Everyone denied seeing the accident.
Other common verbs are:
avoid
begin
finish
keep
miss
practise
risk
start
stop
I haven’t finished writing this letter. Let’s practise speaking English.
Passive form of -ing
Many of these verbs are sometimes followed by the passive form of -ing: being + past participle
I don’t like being interrupted.Our dog loves being stroked under the chin.
Noun + -ing clause
Some verbs are followed by a noun and an -ing clause:
Verbs to do with the senses:
see
watch
hear
smell
listen to
etc.
We saw everybody running away.I could hear someone singing. 
Other common verbs:
catch
find
imagine
leave
prevent
stop
I caught someone trying to break into my house.We couldn’t prevent them getting away.
Verbs followed by that clause
With "that"
We can use clauses with that:
• after verbs of thinking:
think
believe
expect
decide
hope
know
understand
suppose
guess
imagine
feel
remember
forget
I hope that you will enjoy your holiday.She didn’t really think that it would happen.I knew that I had seen her somewhere before.
• after verbs of saying:
say
admit
argue
reply
agree
claim
deny
mention
answer
complain
explain
promise
suggest
They admitted that they had made a mistake.She argued that they should invest more in the business.The children complained that they had nothing to do.
Note: tell and some other verbs of saying must always have a direct object (see clauses, sentences and phrases):
tell
convince
persuade
inform
remind
We tried to tell them that they should stop what they were doing.The police informed everybody that the danger was over.
• as postmodifiers after nouns to do with thinking or saying:
advice
belief
claim
feeling
argument
hope
promise
report
guess
opinion
idea
He made a promise that he would do all he could to help.I had a funny feeling that something was wrong.
• after some nouns to say more about the noun:
fact
advantage
effect
possibility
chance
danger
evidence
problem
difficulty
She pointed out the danger that they might be left behind.There was a chance that we would succeed
Note: We often use a that clause to define one of these nouns after the verb be :
danger
problem
chance
possibility
fact
The danger is that we will be left behind.The fact is that it is getting very late.
• after some adjectives which describe feelings to give a reason for our feelings:
pleased
sorry
happy
unhappy
sad
excited
glad
disappointed
afraid
I am sorry that you can’t come.Everybody was pleased that the danger was past.It is lucky that you were able to drive us home.
No "that"
 NOTE: We can always use a clause without the word that:
They admitted [that] they had made a mistake.The police informed everybody [that] the danger was over.I am sorry [that] you can’t come.There was chance [that] we would succeed.

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