Зо сезис 1 курс к р


ГБОУ СПО МО «Электростальский колледж»
УТВЕРЖДАЮ
Зам.директора по УМР
____________Л.Г.Жепан«______»___________2015
Контрольная работа по изучению дисциплины
«Английский язык»
для студентов заочного отделения
по специальности

08.02.01 Строительство и эксплуатация зданий и сооружений (базовая подготовка)
1 курс
Рассмотрены и одобрены на заседании предметно -цикловой комиссии ООГЭС
Протокол №________от ____________ 2015г.
Председатель предметной(цикловой) комиссии_________________Е.В.ТихоноваПреподаватель_____________________________________________Е.И.Миронова
Электросталь
2015
ВАРИАНТ 1
1. Прочитайте и переведите текст:
New Trends in Urban Management
The environmental protection brings together social, economic, moral and political considerations. Urban management must take these considerations into account and incorporate the following principles:
Environmental limits. Uncertainty about the environmental threshold of the earth’s carrying capacity requires the adoption of the precautionary principle and calls for demanding management.
Environmental efficiency. Reducing the use of natural resources, increasing durability and closing resource loops will contribute to long-range environmentally compatible urban management.
Welfare efficiency and equity. Multiple use and social and economic diversity, as well as a fair distribution of natural resources are key elements to be considered in urban planning.
To reconcile continuing development with environmental limits mankind must choose certain types of development rather than others. Efficiency has meanings beyond maximizing the economic output of each human being. Human benefit is not necessarily identical to utility as measured by neo-classical economics. Quantity of goods should be replaced with quality of life. Environmental protection is closely connected to social equity.
Natural building materials.Natural building has emerged as a response to an increasing concern for our built environment. Natural materials can provide an alternative to toxic substances which have led to widespread environmental illness. While interest has surged in the industrialized West, the ancient roots of natural building are being lost in many traditional areas. Ironically, builders in the industrialized countries are now turning to these very cultures for solutions to their building problems. It is to be hoped that increased interest and research into vernacular building systems will increase respect for these timeless ideas in their native lands, and through diligent efforts by a number of people, many of these techniques are indeed being revived, studied and implemented throughout the world.
As natural building and design is still in its infancy, the state of the art is in constant flux as practitioners and techniques, hitherto isolated, arc identified and brought into partnership with others. Most popular natural building techniques and materials include: adobe, bamboo, compressed earth, earthen floors, light straw-clay, natural fibres, living roofs, natural plasters and finishes, paper blocks, rammed earth, straw bale construction and wood.
Many of the European city problems could be resolved by paying greater attention to the environment. Architecture and urban planning based on environmental preservation are the only option for maintaining quality of life and preventing lasting environmental damage. Pollution reduction, waste minimization and energy conservation can be furthered through environmentally friendly urban design and construction. Awareness of these issues and information on possible opportunities existing worldwide are vital to the development of new possibilities and new scopes in restructuring urban and agricultural areas, as well as human settlements in general.
Bio-architecture links the appreciation of the environment and biodiversity with urban design and planning. Bio-architecture also promotes the use of materials and techniques, which are environmentally sound, culturally sensitive and reliant on local resources and skills. A “Biopolis” functions as a model for the harmonious coevolution of humanity with the bio-environment. It is based on the application of clean energy sources (solar, wind, hydrogen, etc.), cleaner production and environmentally friendly materials, and protection of bios aims at creating a self-sufficient, aesthetically pleasing urban environment with an active participation of every member of society in the conservation of nature.
2. Переведите на русский язык следующие английские словосочетания:
1) environmental protection; 6) social equity;
2) environmental limits; 7) natural building;
3) economic diversity; 8) pollution reduction;
4) economic output; 9) new possibilities;
5) quantity of goods; 10) conservation of nature.
3. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих словосочетаний:
1) принимать во внимание; 6) промышленные страны;
2) природные ресурсы; 7) городские проблемы;
3) ключевые элементы; 8) местные ресурсы;
4) непрерывное развитие; 9) источники энергии;
5) качество жизни; 10) активное участие.4. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту:
What principles must urban management incorporate?
What key elements are to be considered in urban planning?
What should replace quality of goods?
What alternative can natural materials provide?
What are the most popular natural building techniques and materials?
What does bio-architecture promote?
How do you understand the word “Biopolis”?
5. Составьте план текста.
ВАРИАНТ 2
1. Прочитайте и переведите текст:
Air-conditioning
Air-conditioning is the bringing of air in a building to a desired temperature, purity, and humidity throughout the year to maintain healthy and comfortable atmosphere.
Air-conditioning may be divided into two main sections: one for the processing of materials in industry; the other for human comfort. It has been found that there is an optimum condition of temperature and humidity at which the processing of different materials may be carried out with the minimum of wastage and the maximum of goods of specification quality. The system is therefore designed to produce air of predetermined temperature and moisture content and to keep it so despite all external influences. Such air is filtered free of foreign material.
Conditioning air for human comfort may also be divided into two main sections – winter and summer. Frequently, the systems installed in office buildings provide control during both seasons. Complete air-conditioning provides the following services.
First, filtration of the air both in winter and summer to remove dust.Second, circulation of the air at low velocity and with proper diffusion to prevent draughts and maintain a uniform temperature and humidity at all parts of the inhabited space.
Third, introduction of enough fresh air from the outside atmosphere.Fourth, heating of the air in winter.Fifth, heating of the air in summer below the outside atmosphere.Sixth, humidifying the air in winter to a relative humidity of at least 20-25 per cent.Seventh, dehumidifying the air in summer to a relative humidity not exceeding 55 per cent.The basic pieces of equipment are the filters, preheat coils, humidifiers, reheat coils, additional cooling coils, fans and controls. The control of air purity can be achieved in various degrees. As a minimum control some sort of filtering must be done near the entrance of the air-conditioning system. Possibly the most efficient filtering device is the electrostatic precipitator.
Air conditioning for human comfort is employed in both large and small installations, such as theaters, office buildings, department stores, residences, airplanes, railways, cars and submarines.
People are comfortable when they are neither too cold, nor too warm and when the air about them is neither too dry, nor too damp and is not stuffy or dusty. To bring about these desirable conditions the heating or air-conditioning apparatus must be capable of maintaining the following conditions inside the house, whatever the conditions outside may be.
To avoid stuffiness, the air should be given a certain amount of motion. Under winter conditions this must be sufficient to distribute the heat uniformly throughout the rooms. It must not be too cold at the floor, not too hot at the ceiling. A stove causes the hot air around it to rise up toward the ceiling and cooler air to flow toward the stove. A radiator acts in this respect like a stove. Warm-air registers bring heated air into a room with a certain motion or velocity which imparts movement to the air already in the room. An outlet for this air should be provided in order to have good ventilation. In summer time much greater air motion is needed, enough to change the air in a room completely from three to ten times per hour. Sometimes a fan is placed in the attic to blow the warm air out and to cause the cooler night air to flow through open windows. When this is done, air in the house can be expected to be changed completely every two or three minutes. When air is brought into a house from outside, heated in a furnace and distributed through all the rooms, it ought to be cleaned by passing it through “filters” before it enters the furnace.
2. Переведите на русский язык следующие английские словосочетания:
1) a desired temperature; 6) outside atmosphere;
2) comfortable atmosphere; 7) air-conditioning system;
3) the processing of materials; 8) electrostatic precipitator;
4) minimum of wastage; 9) human comfort;
5) to remove dust; 10) to avoid stuffiness.
3. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих словосочетаний:
1) оптимальное условие; 6) нагревание воздуха;
2) обеспечивать контроль; 7) охлаждение воздуха;
3) фильтрация воздуха; 8) увлажнение воздуха;
4) циркуляция воздуха; 9) чистота воздуха;
5) низкая скорость; 10) зимние условия.4. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту:
What is air-conditioning?
What sections may air-conditioning be divided into?
What sections may air-conditioning for human comfort be divided into?
What services does complete air-conditioning provide?
What is the most efficient filtering device?
Where is air-conditioning for human comfort employed?
What should be done to avoid stuffiness?
5. Составьте план текста.
ВАРИАНТ 3
1. Прочитайте и переведите текст:
Architecture: Its Forms and Functions
Architecture is the art or science of planning, building and structures. Without consideration of structural principles, materials, social and economic requirements a building cannot take form. But without aesthetical quality inherent in its form a building cannot be considered as a work of architecture as well.
From the very beginning of construction in human history lots of architectural skills, systems and theories have been evolved for the construction of the buildings, which have housed nations and generations of people in any kind of their activity. Writings on architecture are almost as old as writing itself. Books on the theory of architecture, on the art of buildings, and on the aesthetical view of buildings exist in great number. The oldest book, which sets forth the principles, upon which buildings should be designed and which aim is to guide the architect, is the work of Markus Vitruvius Pollio written in the first century B.C.
Architecture is an art. Its nowadays expression should be creative and consequently new. The heritage of the past cannot be ignored, but it must be expressed in modern terms. There exists an evident paradox in the coexistence of change and survival in every period of human civilization. This paradox of change and repetition is clearly illustrated in any architectural style.
Architecture is also the style or manner of building in a particular country or period of history. There are widely known examples of Gothic architecture all around the globe. During many centuries mankind admires the architecture of ancient Greece or Roman Empire as well.
Nearly two thousand years ago the Roman architect Vitruvius listed three basic factors in architecture. They are convenience, strength and beauty. These three factors have been present and are always interrelated in the best constructions till the 21st century. No true architect could think of any of them without almost automatically considering the other two as well. Thus, architectural design entails not only the necessity to study to study various solutions for convenience, structure, and appearance as three separate processes. Architectural design also includes the necessity to keep in mind the constant interaction of these factors. It’s impossible for an architect first plan a building from the point of view of convenience, and then make the design of a strong construction around his plan to shelter it. Then, as a final touch, try to adjust and decorate the whole to make it pretty. Any design evolving from such kind of work will produce only a confused, incoherent, and unsatisfactory building. When speaking about any truly great building we cannot but say that every element in it has a triple implication or significance.
This triple nature of architectural design is one of the reasons why architecture is a difficult art. It needs some unique type of imagination as well as long years of training and experience to make a designer capable of getting requite in the light of these three factor – use, construction, and aesthetic effect – simultaneously. The designer must have a good knowledge as of engineering so of building materials. This knowledge will enable him to create economically strong and practical construction. The designer, in addition, must possess the creative imagination, which will enable him to integrate the plan and the construction into the harmonious whole. The architect’s feeling of satisfaction in achieving such integration is one of his greatest rewards.
2. Переведите на русский язык следующие английские словосочетания:
1) structural principles; 6) Gothic architecture;
2) a work of architecture; 7) to keep in mind;
3) architectural skills; 8) aesthetic effect;
4) human civilization; 9) creative imagination;
5) period of history; 10) to integrate the plan.
3. Найдите в тексте английские эквиваленты следующих словосочетаний:
1) экономические требования; 6) основные факторы;
2) строительство зданий; 7) точка зрения;
3) теория архитектуры; 8) своеобразное видение;
4) наследие прошлого; 9) строительный материал;
5) архитектурный стиль; 10) чувство удовлетворения.5. Ответьте на вопросы по тексту:
What is architecture?
What is the oldest book to set forth the principles of construction?
How should mankind deal with the heritage of the past?
What three basic factors in architecture were listed nearly two thousand years ago?
Why architecture is a difficult art?
What can we say about any truly great building?
What integration must an architect achieve?
5. Составьте план текста.
2. Инструкция по выполнению домашней контрольной работы.
Контрольная работа включает в себя грамматические задания, и задания на перевод, которые охватывают курс дисциплины «Иностранный язык».
Контрольная работа состоит из текста и заданий к нему. Задания включают письменный перевод текста, ответы на вопросы по тексту, а также поиск эквивалентов, написание аннотации на иностранном языке. Контрольная работа включает в себя 3 варианта. В каждом варианте предложены задания идентичные по сложности. Поэтому студент может выбрать любой понравившийся вариант. Все задания необходимо выполнить в письменном виде.
При выполнении заданий необходимо грамматически верно расписывать полностью выстроенное предложение (без сокращений и упущений слов или фраз).
Контрольная работа должна быть выполнена в отдельной тетради или в напечатанном виде (формат А4). На обложке тетради или титульном листе следует указать специальность, курс, номер группы, фамилию, имя, отчество, дату и номер варианта.
Контрольные задания следует выполнять четким почерком или в напечатанном виде с соблюдением полей, оставленных для замечаний, комментария и методических указаний преподавателя.
3.Перечень рекомендуемых учебных изданий, Интернет-ресурсов, дополнительной литературы
Основные источники:
1.​ Агабекян И.П. Английский язык для технических вузов. – Ростов н/Д: «Феникс», 2005. – 349с.
2.​ Безручко Е.Н. Английский для архитекторов. Пособие по английскому языку для студентов архитектурных и строительных специальностей вузов. – Москва: ИКЦ «МарТ», Ростов н/Д: Издательский центр «МарТ», 2004. – 192с.
3.​ Луговая А.Л. Английский язык для строительных специальностей: Учеб. Пособие. – М.: Высшая школа, 2006. – 166с.
4.​ Мусихина О.Н., Гисина О.Г., Яськова В.Л. Английский язык для строителей. Практикум/Серия «Высшее профессиональное образование». – Ростов н/Д: «Феникс», 2004 – 352с.
5.​ Farrell Mark. British Life and Institutions. – Обнинск: «Титул», 2000 – 144с.

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