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THE CATEGORY OF VOICE- shows the relation between the action and its participants that are syntactically represented as the subject and the object of the construction.ACTIVE PASSIVEPLANE OF CONTENT performs receives the Subject S causes action receives / is affected by contains the action pure stem to be + -ed PLANE OF EXPRESSION SEMANTICS OF THE PASSIVE VOICE when is the ACTIVE ↔ PASSIVE transformation possible? (the meaning of transitivity inherent to the verb governs the possibility)The problem of the NUMBER of voices (Active, passive, middle, reciprocal, reflexive: meanings of the voice forms or separate voices) THE CHOICE OF THE ACTIVE OR PASSIVE CONCTRUCTION is related to:The sentence information focusExistence and/or importance of the doer of the actionSyntactic complexity of the sentenceStylistic demandsExtension of transitivity in modern English (cf. the number of passive constructions in English and Russian; directions of syntactic transformation and restrictions)