Тема: Youth subcultures. (Молодежные субкультуры)
Руководители: В.М. Валеева
учитель английского языка
первой квалификационной категории
I Introduction 3
II The main body 1 Punk subculture 4
2 Goth subculture 8
3 Emo subculture
4 Satanism 14
III Conclusion 16
IV Literature and websites 19
All the peculiarities and specialties youth has, permitted the scientist to single out it as a youth subculture.
For many years youth in Russia was somehow suppressed and its ideas and thoughts were not taken into consideration. Nowadays it has more rights than before and is free to demonstrate itself as it wants but in the rules of a low, of course.
Youth has a lot of problems. On the one hand it is the problem of education – how to get a good one and that which will be necessary and worth in the future. Many institutions nowadays are not free and one must pay to study in them.
The other problem is the problem of a good job with a good salary. It is not an easy thing to find one now. Person should be a very good specialist for that.
One more problem also exists as far as teenagers go because they also belong to youth. It is the problem of communication with “right” people and companies. Teenagers are often influenced by so-called “bad guys” and begin to smoke, take drugs and drink. Taking drugs is a relatively new problem but it is becoming more and more dangerous. Million young people today are using drugs, and most of them will die. Usually they want just to try it, then again and again… and after year may be two years they will die. It is true. Because there is no medicine to help you. That’s why never do it, if you do –it goes bad, very bad. I think that police must work hard to project young people from drugs. Drugs will kill our young generation and our future will be very bad.
Teenagers sometime do not listen to their parents. But this problem is solvable and parents should be a little more attentive to their children and correct their behaviour where it is possible.
But one more thing today’s time has one positive aspect. Young people can realize themselves, there are all conditions for that in Russia now.
In our work we want to show how teenagers and even kids trying avoid some problems join youth subcultures which they are sure will help them to realize themselves.
The aim of this research is to analyze some youth movements, or organizations, to find out why young people chose this way of escaping reality, why this type of life style is so attractive for them.
The actuality of this work is in its interest for modern generation, because even psychologists and teachers can not explain the reason of subcultures’ popularity.
The subject of this work is some youth subcultures, their ideologies, fashion, music and the other aspects.
The punk subculture is based around punk rock. It emerged from the large rock music scene in the in the mid-to-late-1970s in the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, and Japan. The punk movement has spread around the globe and developed into a number of different forms. Punk culture encompasses distinct styles of music, ideologies, fashion, visual art, dance, literature and films. Punk also claims to a lifestyle and community. The punk scene is composed of an assortment of smaller subcultures, such as Oi! and pop punk. These philosophical and artistic movements influenced and subcultures distinguish themselves through unique expressions of punk culture. Several subcultures have developed out of punk to become distinct in their own right, including hardcore, Goth and emo. The punk movement has a tumultuous relationship with popular culture, and struggles to resist commercialization and appropriation.
History of the punk subculture
The punk subculture emerged in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia in the mid-1970s. Exactly which region originated punk has long been a major controversy within the movement. In particular, several strains of modern art anticipated and affected punk. Various writers, books, and literary movements were important to the formation of the punk aesthetic. Punk rock has a variety of musical origins in the rock and roll genre. Previous youth subcultures also had major influences on punk. The earliest form of punk, retroactively named protopunk, arose from garage rock in the northeastern United States in the early-to-mid-1970s. The first ongoing music scene to claim the punk label appeared in New York City between 1974 and 1976. Around that same time, a punk scene developed in London. Soon after, Los Angeles became home to the third major punk scene. These three cities formed the backbone of the burgeoning Fashion. Punks seek to outrage proprietary with the highly theatrical use of clothing, hairstyles, cosmetics, tattoos, jewelry and body modification. Early punk fashion adapted existing objects for aesthetic effect: ripped clothing is held together by safety pins or wrapped with tape; ordinary clothing is customized by embellishing it with marker or adorning it with paint; a black bin liner becomes a dress, shirt or skirt; safety pins and razor blades are movement, but there were also other scenes in cities such as Brisbane, and Boston. Starting around 1977, the subculture diversified, with the development of factions such as 2 Tone, Oi!, pop punk, New Wave, and No Wave, and No Wave. Sometime around the early 1980s, punk underwent a renaissance in the form of the hardcore punk subculture. Hardcore proved fertile in much the same way as the original punk subculture, producing several new bands. The underground punk movement in the United States in the 1980s produced scenes that either evolved from punk or claimed to apply its spirit and DIY ethics to a completely different music, securing punk's legacy in the alternative rock and indie scenes. A new movement in America became
visible in the early and mid-1990s, claiming to be a revival of punk. Used as jewelry. Leather, rubber, and vinyl clothing are also popular, possibly due in part to the fact that the general public associates it with aggressive sexual practices like bondage and S&M. Punks also sometimes wear tight «drainpipe» jeans. Plaid or Tartan pants, T-shirts with risqué images, rocker jackets (which are often decorated by painting on band logos, adorning the lapels and pocket flaps with pins and buttons, and covering sections of the jacket, especially the back and sleeves of the jacket, in large numbers of carefully placed studs or spikes), and footwear such as Converse sneakers, skate shoes, brothel creepers, Dr. Martens’ boots. Some punks style their hair to stand in spikes, cut it into Mohawks or other dramatic shapes, often coloring it with vibrant, unnatural hues. Punks tend to adorn their favorite jacket or vest with pin-back buttons and patches of bands they love and ideas they believe in, telling the world around them a little bit about who they are. They sometimes flaunt taboo symbols such as the Iron Cross. Some early punks occasionally wore clothes displaying a Nazi swastika for shock-value, but most modern punks are staunchly anti-racist and are more likely to wear a crossed-out swastika symbol. In contrast to punks who believe the fashion is a central part of the punk subculture, there are some punks who are decidedly "anti-fashion," arguing that music and/or ideology should define punk, not fashion. This is most common in hardcore punk, where members of the subculture often dressed in t-shirt and jeans, rather than the more elaborate outfits and spiked, dyed hair of their late 1970s UK punk predecessors.
Although Punk-related ideologies are mostly concerned with individual freedom, one needs to understand punk as the working class manifestation of informal anti-establishment sensibility. Common punk views include the DIY ethic, non-conformity, direct action, and not selling out, and nihilism. British punks expressed nihilistic views with the slogan drawn from the title of Sex Pistols song «No Future». In the United States, punks had a different approach to nihilism based on their "unconcern for the present" and their "disaffection from both middle and working class standards". Punk nihilism was expressed in the use of Punk nihilism was expressed in the use of "harder, more self-destructive, consciousness-obliterating substances like heroin, or ... methamphetamine" and by the «mutilation of the body» with razor blades. Punk politics cover the entire punk politics cover the entire political spectrum, although most punks could be categorized as having left-wing or progressive views. Some punks participate in protests for local, national or global change. Some trends in punk politics include anarchism, socialism, anti-authoritarianism, anti-militarism, anti-capitalism, anti-racism, anti-sexism, anti-nationalism, anti-homophobia, environmentalism, vegetarianism, veganism, and
animal rights. However, some individuals within the punk subculture hold right-wing views (such as the Conservative Punk web-site), libertarian values, neo-Nazi views (Nazi punk), or are apolitical. Some offshoots of punk are apolitical, such as death rock, horror punk, and the Goth subculture to name a few.
The punk subculture is centered around listening to recordings or live concerts of a loud, aggressive genre of rock music called punk rock, usually shortened to punk. While most punk rock uses the distorted guitars and noisy drumming that is derived from 1960sgarage rock and 1970s pub rock, some punk bands incorporate elements from other subgenres, such as metal (e.g., mid-1980s-eraDischarge) or folk rock (Billy Bragg). Different punk subcultures often distinguish themselves by having a unique style of punk rock, although not every style of punk rock has its own associated subculture. Most punk rock songs are short, have simple and somewhat basic arrangements using relatively few chords, and they use lyrics that express punk values and ideologies ranging from the nihilism of the Sex Pistols' "No Future" to the anti-vice message of Minor Threat's "Straight Edge". Punk rock is usually played in small bands rather than by solo artists. Punk bands usually consist of a vocalist, one or two overdriven electric guitars, an electric bass player, and a drummer. In some bands, the band members may do backup vocals, but these typically consist of shouted slogans, choruses, or football/soccer-style chants, rather than the arranged harmony vocals of pop bands.
Lifestyle and community
Punks can come from any and all walks of life and economic classes. Compared to some alternative cultures, punk is much closer to being gender equalist in terms of its ideology. Although the punk subculture is mostly anti-racist, it is vastly white (at least in predominantly-white countries). However, members of other groups (such as Blacks, Latinos, and Asians) have also contributed to the development of the subculture. Substance abuse has sometimes been a part of the punk scene, with the notable exception of the straight edge movement. Violence has also sometimes appeared in the punk subculture, but has been opposed by some subsets of the subculture, such as the pacifist strain of anarcho-punk. Punks often form a local scene, which can have as few as half a dozen members in a small town or as many as thousands of members in a major city. A local scene usually has a small group of dedicated punks surrounded by a more casual periphery. A typical punk scene is made up of punk and hardcore bands; fans who attend concerts, protest actions, and other events; zine publishers, band reviewers, and writers; visual artists who create illustrations for zines, posters, and album covers; people who organize concerts, and people who work at music venues or independent record labels. Squatting plays a role in some communities, providing shelter and other forms of support. Illegal squats in abandoned or condemned housing and communal “punk houses” sometimes provide bands a place to stay while they are touring. There are some punk communes, such as the Dial House. The Internet has been playing an increasingly larger role in punk, specifically in the form of virtual communities and file sharing programs for trading music files.
The Goth subculture is a contemporary subculture found in many countries. It began in the United Kingdom during the early 1980s in the gothic rock scene, an offshoot of the post-punk genre. The Goth subculture has survived much longer than others of the same era, and has continued to diversify. Its imagery and cultural proclivities indicate influences from nineteenth century Gothic literature along with horror movies and to a lesser extent the BDSM culture.
The Goth subculture has associated tastes in music, aesthetics, and fashion, whether or not all individuals who share those tastes are in fact members of the Goth subculture. Gothic music encompasses a number of different styles. Common to all is a tendency towards a lugubrious, mystical sound and outlook. Styles of dress within the subculture range from death rock, punk, androgynous, victorian, some Renaissance and medieval style clothes, or combinations of the styles above, most often with black attire, makeup and hair.
Origins and development
By the late 1970s, there were a few post-punk bands in the United Kingdom labeled «gothic». However, it was not until the early 1980s that gothic rock became its own subgenre within post-punk, and that followers of these bands started to come together as a distinctly recognizable movement. The scene appears to have taken its name from an article published in UK rock weekly Sounds: « The face of Punk Gothique», written by Steve Keaton and published on February 21, 1981. The opening of the Batcave in London’s Soho in July 1982 provided a prominent meeting point for the emerging scene, which had briefly been labeled positive punk by the New Musical Express. The term «Batcaver» was later used to describe old-school Goths.
Independent of the British scene, the late 1970s and early 1980s saw death rock branch off from American punk. In 1980s and 1990s, members of an emerging subculture in Germany were called Grufti(e)s ( English «vault creatures» or «tomb creatures»); they generally followed a fusion of the gothic and new wave with an influence of new romantic, and formed the early stages of the «dark culture».
Goth fashion is stereotyped as a dark, sometimes morbid, eroticized fashion and style of dress. Typical gothic fashion includes dyed black hair, dark eyeliner, black fingernails, black period-styled clothing; Goths may or may not have piercings. Styles are often borrowed from the Elizabethan, Victorian or medieval period and often express Catholic or other religious imagery such as crucifixes or ankhs. The extent to which Goths hold to this style varies amongst individuals as well as geographical locality, though virtually all Goths wear some o these elements. Fashion designers, such as Alexander McQueen and Josh Galliano, have also, been described as practicing «Haute».
Defining an explicit ideology for the gothic subculture is difficult for several reasons. First is the overwhelming importance of mood and aesthetic for those involved. This is, in part, inspired by romanticism and neoromanticism. The allure for Goths is dark, mysterious, and morbid imagery and mood lies in the same tradition of Romanticism`s gothic novel. During the late 18th and 19th century, feelings of horror, and supernatural dread were widespread motifs in popular literature. The process continues in the modern horror films. Balancing this emphasis on mood and aesthetics, another central element of the gothic is a deliberate sense of camp theatricality and self-dramatization; present both in gothic literature as well as in the gothic subculture itself.
Goths, in terms of their membership in the subculture, are usually not supportive of violence, but rather tolerance. Many in the media have incorrectly associated the Goth subculture with violence, hatred of minorities, white supremacy, and other acts of hate. However, violence and hate do not form elements of Goth ideology; rather, the ideology is formed in part by recognition, identification, and grief over societal and personal evils that the mainstream culture wishes to ignore or forget. These are the prevalent them in Goth music.
The second impediment to explicitly defining a gothic ideology is Goth’s generally apolitical nature. While individual defiance of social norms was a very risky business in the nineteenth century, today it is far less socially radical. The significance of Goth’s subcultural rebellion is limited, and it draws on imagery at the heart of Western culture. Unlike the hippie or punk movements, the Goth subculture has no pronounced political messages or cries for social activism. The subculture is marked by its emphasis on individualism, tolerance for diversity, a strong emphasis on creativity, tendency toward intellectualism, a dislike of social conservatism, and a mild tendency towards cynicism, but even these ideas are not universal to all Goths. Goth ideology is based far more on aesthetics than ethics or politics.Goths may, indeed, have political leanings ranging from left-liberal to anarchist, but
For the individual Goth, involvement with the subculture can be extremely valuable and personally fulfilling, especially in creative terms. However, it also can be risky, especially for the young, partly because of the negative attention it can attract due to public misconceptions of Goth subculture. The value that young people find in the movement is evident by its continuing existence after other subcultures of the eighties (such as the New Romantics) have long since died out.
Individualism and consumerism
Paul Hodkinson’s book “Goth: Identity, Style and Subculture” explores how the Western cult of individualism, usually expressed via consumerism, is drawn to the culture have already failed to conform to the norms of existing society, and for its participants the gothic subculture provides an important way of experiencing a sense of community and validation not found in the outside world. Hodkinson shows how inside the gothic subculture status can be gained via enthusiastic participation and creativity, in creating a band, making clothes, designing, creating art, or writing fazines. He suggests that the self-conscious artificiality of a subculture is a valid alternative choice in a post-modern world, compared to submitting to the invisible manipulations of popular consumerism and the mass media.
Fashion and stereotype
Long fringe(bangs)brushed to one side. Emo is often associated with a certain fashion; although it is unclear as to whether the contemporary fashion directly emerged from emo music’s original fashion image or whether emo was ever identified with any particular clothing, since the mid-80’s.Today, however, Emo is more commonly tied to fashion than to music, and the term “emo” is sometimes stereotyped with tight jeans on males and females alike, long fringe(bangs) brushed to one side of the face or over one or both eyes, dyed black, straight hair, tight t-shirts(sometimes short sleeved) which often dear the names of emo bands (or other designer shirts),studded belts, belt buckles, canvas sneakers or skate shoes or other black shoes (often old and beaten up) and thick, black horn-rimmed glasses. Emo fashion has changer with time. Early trends included straight hair, tightly fitting sweaters, button-down shirts, and work jackets. This fashion has at times been characterized as a fad. In recent years the popular media has associated emo with a stereotype that includes being emotional, sensitive, shy, introverted. It is also associated with depression, self-injury, and suicide. Fans of emo are also often presumed by others to be homosexual or bisexual, this is largely a reflection of the style of dress popular within the “emo scene”.
While there is no one common religious tie that binds together the Goth movement, spiritual, supernatural and religious imagery has frequently played an important part in gothic fashion, song lyrics and visual art. In particular, aesthetic elements from Catholicism play a major role in Goth culture. Reasons for donning such imagery vary between individuals, and range from expression of religious affiliation, satire or simply decorative effect.
Goth fashion is stereotyped as a dark, sometimes morbid, eroticized fashion and style of dress. Typical gothic fashion includes dyed black hair, dark eyeliners, black fingernails, black period-styled clothing, Goths may or may not have piercings. Styles are often borrowed from the Elizabethan, Victorian or medieval period and often express Catholic or other religious imagery such as crucifixes or ankhs. The extent to which Goths hold to this style varies amongst individuals as well as geographical locality, though virtually all Goths wear some elements. Fashion designers, such as differences between female emo and male emo fashion are very few).
As certain fashion trends and attitudes began to be associated with «emo», stereotypes emerged that created a specific target for criticism. In the early 2000s, the criticism was relatively light-hearted and self-effacing, in ensuing years, the derision increased dramatically.
Fans of emo have been derided for being posers who are overly sentimental; they have also been accused of «robbing» the fashion styles of other music genres, such as the older Punk and Goth subcultures. This has created a disdain within many of these subcultures who see fans of emo as merely following the latest trend popularized through the Internet.
In 2008, Time Magazine reported that “anti-emo” groups attacked teenagers in Mexico City, Queretaro, and Tijuana. One of Mexico’s foremost critics of emo was Kristoff, a music presenter on the popular TV channel “Telehit”. In a rant packed with curses, Kristoff said emo was a worthless movement that was mainly inspired by “image” rather than a genuine music form; stating “emo was fucking bullshit”. However, he went on to condemn the violence against emo on a subsequent broadcast after the riots occurred.
Gerard Way, the lead singer of “My chemical Romance” stated in an interview that “emo is a pile of shit”, and that his band was never emo. Panic! At The Disco also stated in an interview with NME: “emo is bullshit”. These two bands however tend to be classified as emo.
Fans of emo are criticized for purported displays of emotion common in the scene. Complaints pointed to the histrionic manner in which the emotions were expressed.
In October 2003, a Punk Planet contributor leveled the charge that the current era of emo was sexist. Hopper argued that where bands such as Jawbox, Jawbreaker and Sunny Day real Estate had characterized women in such a way that they were not “exclusively defined by their absence or lensed through romantic-specter, contemporary bands approached relationship issues by “damning the girl on the other side ... its women-induced misery has gone from being descriptive to being prescriptive”. Regarding the position of women listening to emo, the contributor went on to note that the music had become “just another forum where women were locked in a stasis of outside observation, observing ourselves through the eyes of others.”
Critics of modern emo have argued that there is a tendency toward increasingly generic and homogenized style. A related criticism is the alleged anti-conformist philosophy of emo while at the same time allegedly conforming to a group that demands a high level of conformity.
Emo music has been blamed for the suicide by hanging of Hannah Bond by both the coroner at the inquest into her death and her mother, Heather Bond, after it was claimed that emo music glamorized suicide and her apparent obsession with My Chemical Romance was said to be linked to her suicide. The inquest heard that she was part of an internet “emo” cult and her page contained an image of an “emo girl” with bloody wrists. It was also revealed that she had discussed “the glamour of hanging” online and had explained to her parents that her self-harming was an “emo initiation ceremony”. Heather Bond criticized emo fashion, saying: “There are ‘emo’ websites that show pink teddies hanging themselves.” After the verdict was reported in NME, fans of emo music contacted the magazine to defend against accusations that it promotes self-harm and suicide.
In Russia, a law has been presented at the Duma to regulate emo websites and forbid emo-style at schools at government buildings, for fears of emo being a “dangerous teen trend” promoting anti-social behavior and suicide.
Well, as far we go into subcultures as they become stronger and straighter. The next movement in youth culture is Satanism. Do not get afraid, the word is evil but the subject is kinder. So, to begin with, let’s break the stereotype that Satanism is about devil, rituals and blood. Actually, the true meaning differs from this stereotype which was given by churches and people who believe in god. The first fact of Satanism: Satanists do not believe in Satan at all. This ideology is very similar with individualism.
And although it is a religion, a closer examination of Satanism reveals that it is more a bedrock philosophy built on everyday principles that appeal to not only hard-core nonconformists but to anyone who has ever felt apart from the herd of the common man. There are 11 rules of Satanism:
Do not give opinions or advice unless you are asked.
Do not tell your troubles to others unless you are sure they want to hear them.
When in another's lair, show them respect or else do not go there.
If a guest in your lair annoys you, treat them cruelly and without mercy.
Do not make sexual advances unless you are given the mating signal.
Do not take that which does not belong to you, unless it is a burden to the other person and they cry out to be relieved.
Acknowledge the power of magic if you have employed it successfully to obtain your desires. If you deny the power of magic after having called upon it with success, you will lose all you have obtained.
Do not complain about anything to which you need not subject yourself.
Do not harm young children.
Do not kill non-human animals unless you are attacked or for your food.
When walking in open territory, bother no one. If someone bothers you, ask him to stop. If he does not stop, destroy him
Well, isn’t it clever? These rules are rather common and useful for our society. Satanists also have statements as Christians do. There are:
Satan represents indulgence instead of abstinence.
Satan represents vital existence instead of spiritual pipe dreams.
Satan represents undefiled wisdom instead of hypocritical self-deceit.
Satan represents kindness to those who deserve it, instead of love wasted on ingrates.
Satan represents vengeance instead of turning the other cheek.
Satan represents responsibility to the responsible instead of concern for psychic vampires.
Satan represents man as just another animal (sometimes better, more often worse than those that walk on all fours), who, because of his “divine spiritual and intellectual development,” has become the most vicious animal of all.
Satan represents all of the so-called sins, as they all lead to physical, mental, or emotional gratification.
Satan has been the best friend the Church has ever had, as he has kept it in business all these years.
So it seems to be a little bit sarcastic, but indeed these statements explain why Satanism has individualistic ideology. Teenagers can like this ideology because they need a protection and Satanism gives it to them.
There are many problems which are common for all young people. For example: how to spend their free time, what to do after school, choosing a profession, how to deal with girl and boy friends and so on. The problem number one of most of the young people is the problem called “generation gap”. All young people want to be independent, they want their parents to listen to their opinion, not to interfere in their private life. Some parents neglect their children, because they can’t find a common language with each other. Many problems were hushed up, but now we can speak openly about them.
When you leave school you understand that the time of your independent life and the beginning of a far more serious examination of your abilities and character has come. You also understand that from now you’ll have to do everything yourself, and to «fight» with everybody around you for better life. The first problem that young people meet is to choose their future professions, it means that they have to choose the future of their life. It’s not an easy task to make the right choice of a job. You know children have a lot of dreams about their future: to become a superman or a policeman or a doctor… It’s very easy they think, but when they become older and see the real world they understand that in all professions you need to know perfectly about what you do, you must be well-educated and well-informed. That’s why we think it’s very important to have a good education at school. And if you work hard everything will be OK.
Another problem of young people is drugs. This is a relatively new problem but it is becoming more and more dangerous. Millions of young people today are using drugs, and most of them will die. Usually they want just to try it, then again and again… and after year may be two years they will die. It is true. Because there is no medicine to help them. That’s why never do it, if you do –it goes bad, very bad. We think that police must work hard to project young people from drugs. Because drugs will kill our young generation and our future will be very bad.
People of almost every age are susceptible to this pernicious disease but it hits the youth the hardest. Its name is unemployment. The percentage of unemployed youth in the total number of the jobless is high. In many developing countries the situation is more serious. Many young people commit suicides. Unless the economic situation in the world changes, youth unemployment will increase. This prediction refers to all categories of workers - with high and low skills in town and country. For all there possible distinctions, these young people over outside the production structure of society. The are derived the possibility of creating there are “surplus” from time to time some may get a hit of luck, but the lot of the majority is to feel their unless they lose their ideals and become disillusioned. Unemployment has a great tendency among the youth. This is a time bomb and is a heavy accusation of any social economic system. There are many young people in our country. Each of them has their own view points on their life and their future.
There are many youth organizations in our country, which unite young men on different principles. A member of every organization has their own world out looks.
Each of them has their own moral qualities. There are some informal organizations,
for example: skinheads, hippies, punks and so on. Now we face the problems of misunderstanding between different youth groups. We also face the problem how to spend our free time. We can do it in different ways. Some of teenagers spend their free time in different night clubs. Other young people spend their free time in the streets. As for us, we spend our free time at home or in the sports centers. We are sure that many young people join different subcultures because they can not find themselves or have some problems with their relatives and friends. But is that the right way to solve all these problems? Of course, not. We consider that the most part of youth movements are not positive and even destructive. And this is not good for young people who have no formed world looks and their own opinions. We want to warn our coevals. If you have decided to join any youth group, be careful! And remember!
Now we are young people and we are the future of our country. Teenagers play an important role in the modern society. Grown up’s must remember that we are the future of our country and in present moment our character is formed and that’s why our parents must not assert pressure on us. And we must take into account “We are responsible for our future!”
LITERATURE AND WEBSITES
1. Гольденцвайг Г.,Варденбург Д., Семеляк М., Выдолоб Ю. «10 субкультур: драм-н-бейс, хип-хоп, готы, транс, регги, синтипоп, кельты, панк, хеви-метал, акустическое подполье».
2.Громов Д.В., Мартынова М.Ю. «Субкультуры нашего общества»3. Сабиров Р., Верховский, А. « Мы их еще не знаем»
4. Молодежные движения и субкультуры http://pobegporusski.ru/
5. «Молодежные субкультуры Москвы». – журнал «Афиша», август, 2004
6. «Youth subculture in the modern life» - журнал «Speak out», 2/2010