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Writing skills Stories Module 5 Lesson E By I. Kukushkina What do you think we will do at the lesson?Do the test Read the text Work on the words Learn the theory about writing stories Do grammar exercises What should you learn to do ? Learn to write a formal letter Learn to speak about carnivals Learn to write stories
Theory Stories can be written in the 1st person (I / we) about real or imaginary events that happened to us or in the 3rd person (he / she / they) about events that happened to someone else. A variety of past tenses are used to describe actions or events that started and finished in the past (past simple), to set the scene and to describe events in progress at a certain time (past continuous) or to give background information and describe events that happened before other past events (past perfect) Stories always have an introduction which sets the scene( who, when, where, what happened etc) in an interesting way; a main body that develops the storyline and a conclusion to end the story and describe the character’s feelings. A surprising ending makes a long-lasting impression on the reader.
Paragraph plan1. 2. 3. Ex. 2 – 3 p. 90 read the story and answer the questions Introduction Para 1 – sets the sceneMain body Para 2-3 – events in the order they happenedConclusion Para 4 – ends the story, describes feelingsKeys ex. 4: a-6 / b-5 / c-3 / d-2 / e-10 / f-8 / g-4 / h-1 / i-7 / j-9
Setting the sceneTo start a story you need to set a scene. That is: to say who the main characters were, where they were, what time of year it was, what the weather was like and why they were there.
Using adjectives / adverbsA variety of adjectives and adverbs livens up your story. Use more sophisticated adjectives and adverbs such as fabulous, wonderful, cautiously instead of simple ones such as good, nice, happy, bad, big etc. Keys 7a. Patiently / slowly / hungrily / anxiously / loudly / happily
Vocabulary – expressing feelings ex. 8 p. 92Certain – уверенныйExhausted – обессиленный, изнурённый, измученныйAnxious – тревожный, беспокойныйThrilled – взволнованный, возбуждённыйMiserable – несчастный, жалкий, печальныйFrightened – испуганный Calm – спокойный Tired – усталый Refreshed – освежённый Bored – заскучавший Annoyed – раздраженный, недовольныйExcited – возбужденный, взволнованныйDepressed – подавленный, угнетённыйAfraid – испуганный Keys 8aFrightened Tired Worried Calm Bored Certain Glad Keys 8b 2-e / 3-f4-b / 5-a6-c
Vocabulary – verbs ex. 9 p. 93Say – сказать Beg – умолять Reply – отвечатьCry – кричать Cry out – закричать, вскрикнуть, взывать, вопитьScream – кричать, выкрикивать, вопитьWonder – удивляться, интересоватьсяExclaim – воскликнутьWhisper – шептать, прошептатьAsk – спросить, попроситьShout – кричатьThink – думать, подуматьKeys a: told / shouted thought / repliedKeys b: 2. Whispered 3. Exclaimed 4. Cried 5. Screamed 6. Thought
Linkers – ex. 10 p. 92-93When narrating the events use linking words to link your ideas and / or write longer more complex sentences. You can use: and then, and, too, also (to add points)but, however (to express opposing ideas) because, so, as (to express cause / effect) after, before, when, until, then, after a while, eventually, finally, immediately, meanwhile, by the time, just (to express time)Keys 10 b: 2. but 3.so 4. until / and then 5. until 6. and then 7. but 8. while
Beginning / ending a story – ex. 11 p. 93Techniques to begin / end a story:A good beginning is as important as a good ending. You can start your story by: Describing the weather, surroundings, people et. using the sensesUsing direct speech Asking a rhetorical question Addressing the reader directly Creating mystery or suspenseYou can end your story by: Using direct speech Asking a rhetorical question Creating mystery or suspense You can use more than one technique to start and end your story. Ex. 11 keys: 1 b / 2 a / 3c
Participles – ex. 13 p. 94Use present and past participles to join sentences into longer ones to make your narration more exciting. E.g. I shook with anger. I ran after Toby. – Shaking with anger, I ran after Toby.He was confused. He asked for help. – Confused, he asked for help. Keys 13 a: looking, trying, dripping wet but relieved Keys 13 b: shaking / standing / annoyed / thrilled / shaking
Reflection / HomeworkDo you know now how to write a story? How many parts are there in a story? What makes a story more expressive? (using adjectives, pronouns, different verbs, participles, numbers, photos, pictures…) Homework St. B. p. 94 ex. 14 – choose a rubric and write a story. Your mark for the story: 14 points‘5’ – 13-14 ‘4’ – 11-12 ‘3’ – 8-10