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Grammar in Use Inversion. Plural / Singular Nouns. Module 8 Lesson CBy I. Kukushkina Warming Up Answer!What is a noun? What do you know about nouns? Which characteristics belong to the noun: plural / time / countable / uncountable / singular / degrees of comparison? 2 marks for the lesson: Ex. 1 – 12 points ‘5’ – 12 points ‘4’ – 10 -11 points ‘3’ – 7-9 points Ex. 2 – 14 points ‘5’ – 13 – 14 points ‘4’ – 11-2 points ‘3’ – 8-10 points
Vocabulary Inversion – перестановка; изменение нормального порядка; инверсияAuxiliary verb – вспомогательный глаголEmphasis – акцент; выразительностьMeasles – корьAdverb of place – наречие местаCustom – обычай; обыкновение; привычкаCustoms – таможня; таможенные сборыA great deal – гораздо; весьма, немало, большое количествоA large amount – большое количествоExhausted – измученный; изнурённый; истощённыйIn advance – заранееRefund – возмещение расходовCancellations – отмена; прекращениеTake time off – отдыхать Inversion We can invert the subject and the auxiliary verb in a sentence to give emphasis: a. When the sentence starts with rarely, seldom, so, such… Rarely does she travel on her own. b. With so, neither, nor to express agreement. “I like pasta. – So do I.” c. With should, were, had when they come at the beginning of an if-clause instead of if. Were I you, I’d apologise. d. When the expressions only, after, only by, only if, only when, not until come at the beginning of a sentence the inversion is in the main clause. Only when you meet her will you realise how well-behaved she is. Ex. 2, 3 p. 142
Plural / Singular Nouns These nouns are always singular: advice, information, knowledge, news, money. (She gave me some advice.) If the noun has a singular form, we use the verb after it in a singular form too. (is / has / was / works…)Certain nouns can be used in the singular and plural with a different meaning. Singular: Glass – стеклоPaper – бумагаCustom – обычайHair – волосыWork – работа Experience – опытPlural: Glasses – очки Papers – письменные работыCustoms – таможняHairs – волоскиWorks – мастерские, выполненные работы, общественные работыExperiences – впечатления, возможности
Put the verb into the correct form: singular or pluralHis knowledge of English _______ (be) very poor. “Where _______ (be) my glasses?” granny asked. Some advice ______ __(be) given us on how to solve such equations. Her hair _______ (be) long and wavy. These jeans ______ (be) too tight to me. The news I got __________ (be) amazing. The information about the accident ________ (need) to be checked. Different people _________ (have) different tastes. Physics _____ (be) my favourite subject. There __________ (be) no paper left. There ______ (be) some grey hairs on his shoulder. Where ______ (be) my luggage? I can’t find it. isis / wasisis / wasis is arearearehas beenhaveneeds
Quantifiers Some We use ‘some’ in the affirmative sentences (+) before countable nouns in plural form or before uncountable nouns. There were some books on the table. (+) Books – countable, plural There is some tea in the cup. (+) tea – uncountable. Any We use ‘any’ in questions and negative sentences (? / _) before countable nouns in plural form or before uncountable nouns. Are there any books on the table? There is no tea in the cup. A lot of We use ‘a lot of’ with countable nouns in plural and uncountable nouns in affirmative sentences.
Quantifiers Much We use ‘much’ with uncountable nouns in negative sentences and questions. (much salt)Many We use ‘many’ with countable nouns in negative sentences and questions. (many books)We can use ‘much’ and ‘many’ in affirmative sentences with ‘very’, rather’, ‘too’, ‘so’, ‘as’, ‘how’. A few We use ‘a few’ with countable nouns. (немного) (There are a few boys.)A little We use ‘a little’ with uncountable nouns. (немного) (There is a little milk in the bottle)
QuantifiersHardly any – едва ли сколько-нибудь We use ‘hardly any’ in affirmative sentences with uncountable nouns and countable nouns in plural. Anything – всё, что угодно Anyone – любой Every Each We use ‘each’ when we talk about two people or things. We use ‘every’ when we talk about three or more people or things. Both – оба A couple of = (a few, one or two) + a countable noun in the plural.Several = (a number of) + an uncountable noun in the plural.A great deal of = (a lot of) is followed by an uncountable noun Plenty of = (much / many) + a countable or uncountable noun каждый Choose the correct word.There isn’t much / many water in the glass. There were only a few / a little apples in the bag. There was several / a great deal of snow in winter. Mike has got a lot of / plenty of money. Today there are none / no trains to London. Dan has got a brother. Each / Every has his own room. Many / A lot of flights are delayed because of the fog. The teacher collected all / both papers. There is hardly any / anything coffee in the cup. Can you buy some sugar? We don’t have none / any left. Some / Any pupils are absent today because they are ill. I can’t find my glasses nowhere / everywhere. Neither / either he nor she wants to go to Turkey. We were very tired because we have been working the whole / every day.
Phrasal verb ‘check’Check in Check off Check on Check out Check over Check upрегистрироватьсяпроверять по спискуубедиться, что с кем-то всё в порядкерассчитываться, выписыватьсявзглянуть ещё раз, чтобы проверить правильностьпроверять, находить информацию
Complete the sentences with the correct particle. in /off / on / out / over / upWe checked ______ before leaving the hotel. The guide checked his group______. Please, check _____ the time of the flight.I checked _____ my work before handing it.Passengers at the airport have to check _____ their luggage before the flight.We collected our bags and checked them _____. The teacher checked _____ the students to see if they were in time. All the passengers were checked _______ and given the boarding passes. outoffupoverinoveronin
Dependent prepositionsRemember! Be dissatisfied with – быть недовольным чем-либоDream of something – мечтать о чём-либо Be crowded with – быть переполненным Be typical of – быть типичным By the sea – у моря / по морюFill in the gaps with: of / by / with 1. After the explosion all streets by the metro station were crowded ________ people. 2. It’s typical _______ Russian people to consolidate in hard times. 3. People who were dissatisfied ______ the government took part in the demonstration. 4. We all dream ______ a happy life. 5. My parents bought a nice cottage ______ the sea and moved there after retiring. ofbyofwithwith
Reflection / Homework Answer! What is an inversion? What types of inversion do you know? Can you name any nouns we use only in singular or plural form?What quantifiers can you name? Do you know how to use them? What was most difficult at the lesson? Homework:Work Book p. 62 – 63 ex. 1-9