Preparation for the Final Exam

Н.Г. Егошина
МБОУ "Гимназия № 14 г. Йошкар-Олы"
Йошкар-Ола, 2016
C 3 - C 4
Задание С 3 предполагает чтение вслух отрывка информационного, научно-популярного текста. Ученику дается 1,5 минуты на предварительное ознакомление с текстом и 1,5 минуты на чтение текста вслух. В задании С 3 оценивается фонетическая сторона речи, от ученика требуется правильное произношение слов, верное логическое ударение, смысловое деление предложения на синтагмы (смысловые группы слов), верное интонационное оформление предложения. Максимальный балл за задание С 3 - 1 балл.
Задание С 4 представляет собой условный диалог-расспрос на основе зрительной опоры (в данном случае - на основе прочитанного текста). Ученику дается 1,5 минуты на ознакомление с заданием и по 30 секунд на формулировку каждого из пяти вопросов. Необходимо задать вопросы по предложенной тематике. В задании С 4 проверяется умение задавать грамматически правильно построенные вопросы. Каждый вопрос оценивается в 1 балл. Максимальный балл за задание С 4 - 5 баллов.
The Siberian tiger, a subspecies of tiger, is the largest cat in the world. Adult male Siberian tigers can weigh up to 320 kg , while females are significantly smaller. Siberian tigers are distinguishable by their striped fur. Similar to people’s unique fingerprints, no two tigers have the same striped pattern. Siberian tigers differ from other tigers because they have fewer, paler stripes, and they also have manes. The mane, in addition to their thick fur, helps keep them warm. Also known as the Amur tiger, the Siberian tiger resides in a small region in the southeast region Russia. They are also located in small numbers in China and North Korea. Siberian tigers are solitary animals, marking their scent on trees to keep other tigers away. They roam many miles and hunt. Siberian tigers are considered endangered by IUCN’s Red List. One cause of their dwindling population is loss of habitat due to deforestation. In addition, Siberian tigers are poached, or illegally hunted, for their fur and for body parts that are used for traditional medicines. Efforts have been made to curb poaching of tigers and to protect tiger habitats. Many countries, including the United States, have created laws that outlaw the importation and selling of tiger parts. There are also breeding programs to help sustain the tiger population.
Ask questions to find out:
the average weight of the adult female tiger
the difference between Siberian and other types of tigers
why the tigers are considered to be endangered animals
how people try to protect the animals
if there are special programs to preserve tigers in the wild
Good morning, I'm Carlos Alvarez and I'm a member of the Hermosa Tourist Board. Today I'm going to talk about our proposal for a new resort on the island. First of all, I'd like to talk about how tourists will get to the island. Then I'll talk about the location of the new resort and its main attractions. Finally, I'll talk about accommodation. First of all, how will visitors get to our island? In the past, the ferry was the only option. Well, now we plan to build a new airport to the south of Bellavista. Secondly, the location. We have decided the best location for the resort is to the north of the ancient monuments. The main advantage of this is that the monuments are the most famous sight on the island and will attract the most tourists. A car park will be built near the stones. Yes, a car park, because of course a lot of buses and cars will need to park nearby. We are also going to build a visitors' centre with a museum, a shop and a restaurant and a cafe. Where are all these visitors going to stay? There will be three options on Hermosa: two hotels and a camp site. To sum up, we think that the new resort by the monuments is the best option for both the people living on the island and its future visitors. It will be in the very centre of the island. It will be easily accessible by road and air and, more importantly, it will improve our island's economy and finally make Hermosa famous.
Ask questions to find out:
where the Hermosa Tourist Board located
how often the plane will fly to the island
what kinds of monuments tourists can see on the island
if one can buy local hand-made souvenirs at the newly-built shop
the facilities available at the hotel
This is the weather forecast for Mexico today, Tuesday September 20th. There have been heavy storms in Mexico City this week and these are expected to continue today. Temperatures will be up to 73 degrees during the day, falling to around 56 at night. Moving to the north of the country, it will be overcast in Chihuahua but temperatures are high, rising to 90 degrees during the day. In the centre of the country temperatures are not expected to be as high. In Guadalajara it will get up to 79 degrees and there will be lots of heavy rain. The level of humidity will be around 97 per cent. On the south coast it will also be extremely hot, humid and wet. There will be heavy rain in Acapuico and the average daytime temperature will be around 90 degrees, with humidity reaching 94 percent. Moving on to Merida in the Yucatan Peninsula, expect a lot of sunshine and high temperatures. The daytime high will be around 91 degrees with a humidity level of 85 percent. The sunshine will continue for a few days but satellite pictures show rain and strong winds are due to reach the region later in the week. And that's all from the weather desk.
Ask questions to find out:
the exact location of the city
the reasons for the heavy storms this week
how high the temperature will rise in Acapuico
if a lot of sunshine is expected in the Yucatan Peninsula
what satellite pictures show for a few following days

Chamomile or camomile is the common name for several daisy-like plants of the family Asteraceae that are commonly used to make herb infusions to serve various medicinal purposes. Popular uses of chamomile preparations include treating hay fever, inflammation, muscle spasm, menstrual disorders, insomnia, ulcers, gastrointestinal disorder. The word "chamomile" derives, via French and Latin, from Greek and means "earth apple".
Chamomile tea can be made from dried chamomile flowers. There are two main types of chamomile that are used to produce the tea, German chamomile and Roman chamomile. Chamomile tea is also a digestive relaxant. Chamomile has anticancer effect – studies have shown that chamomile extracts have in vitro growth inhibitory effects on cancer cells in skin, breast, ovarian with minimal effects on normal cells. It also produces anticoagulant effect – coumarin compounds in chamomile such as herniarin and umbelliferone may have blood-thinning properties. However, the mechanism is not well understood. German chamomile oil is used as a diffuser for aromatherapy benefits; and is also used to treat wounds and be blended with other essential oils such as lavender and rose.
People who are allergic to ragweed (also in the daisy family) may also be allergic to chamomile, due to cross-reactivity.
Ask questions to find out:
what the name of the herb means
what illnesses the herb helps to treat
if the herb has antiseptic qualities
what herb characteristics scientists would like to investigate more
why the herb is sometimes inappropriate to use
The following foods are thought to help healthy blood circulation. Oranges and other citrus fruits high vitamin C are natural blood thinners and are said to strengthen capillary walls and prevent plaque build-up which leads to poorer circulation. Cayenne is available as a fresh pepper or dried spice and has been associated with increasing metabolic rate and strengthening arteries and blood vessels. Cayenne pepper is best eaten raw in salads or juiced. Sunflower seeds are rich in vitamin E which is shown to help keep blood clots from forming. They are great at helping improve circulation. Likewise so are foods such as olives, nuts and pumpkin seeds. Ginger is known for helping nausea and digestion problems as well as increasing blood circulation. Ginger can be eaten raw or added to foods or why not try ginger tea. Garlic has many uses and one of them is it cleanses the blood and helps prevent plaque build-up. Other foods in the bulb group such as radishes, onions and leeks are also good at stimulating blood flow. Watermelons are rich in lycopene which is a natural antioxidant linked to improving circulation. Lycopene is a natural pigment which gives certain foods their reddish colour. Tomatoes, pink grapefruit and apricots also contain lycopene. Both salmon and avocados contain heart-healthy omega 3 fatty acids which research has shown to support the cardiovascular system and increase blood circulation.
Ask questions to find out:
why oranges improve blood circulation
the best way to eat Cayenne pepper
if pumpkin seeds are also good at improving blood circulation
the way ginger can be used in culinary
why lycopene is important for people's health
A park. It’s impossible to say definitely whether it’s raining or snowing. I’m having a walk. Everything and everybody around is grey. I’m walking very slowly, inhaling wet air of autumn, saturated with gloominess. It’s gorgeous to walk slowly on wet asphalt in the fog of the old park.
Yellow, red, brown, wine – all of these are the colours of that charming autumn, which famous writers and poets so often describe in their immortal masterpieces; that autumn, which wakes up nostalgic memories; that autumn, which is with the wedge of birds in the sky, flying away to the south. Golden autumn cries with the falling leaves, covering the earth with a rustling colorful carpet.
The wind tears away drops of the rain from the roofs of the houses like precious stones, making branches of the trees bow low as if orders them to obey the powerful autumn. The wind, getting into the people’s soles like an impudent guest, makes us remember and think about what we want to forget.
Ask questions to find out:
the characteristic features of autumn
the names of the famous poets who devoted their verses to this season
why the leaves fall down in autumn
what species of birds fly away to the south
if the author hates or adores autumn
Guy Fawkes Night, also known as Guy Fawkes Day, Bonfire Night and Firework Night, is an annual commemoration observed on 5 November, primarily in Great Britain. Its history begins with the events of 5 November 1605, when Guy Fawkes, a member of the Gunpowder Plot, was arrested while guarding explosives the plotters had placed beneath the House of Lords.
Guy Fawkes' Day is not a public holiday. Businesses, organizations and schools are open as usual. Public transport services run to their normal timetables. Some organizations, communities and municipalities may organize public bonfires or displays of fireworks on or around November 5. These tend to be very popular. Due to its proximity to Halloween, many people organize a combined party for Guy Fawkes Night and Halloween. These parties often include elements from both festivals, such as a bonfire and dressing up in spooky outfits. Popular foods include toffee apples, bonfire toffee and potatoes baked in the ashes of the fire.
Many injuries and even deaths occur as a result of fireworks being used incorrectly. For this reason, many safety campaigners call for the sale of fireworks to the public to be restricted even more than at present and for more professional displays to be organized.
Ask questions to find out:
if Guy Fawkes was at the head of the plot
why the plot failed
what happened to Guy Fawkes himself
if people have a day off on 5 November
what special entertainments are available on this day
Picnics are popular with women and children and some men who know how to make a fire. Children are fond of picnics chiefly because, as a rule, there are no tables at picnics and consequently no table manners and because they have an excellent opportunity to eat things that do not agree with them.
Much depends, of course, upon the day. Typical picnic weather is of three kinds. Either it is dark and threatening with occasional showers in the morning, clearing in the afternoon or it is hot and clear in the morning, with thunder showers in the afternoon; or there is a steady drizzle all day long. But nothing much can be done about it.
Picnic grounds are usually situated on a body of water at some high altitude. One of these features is essential, for no picnic can be a success unless the children have something to fall into, or fall off. Also, a body of water naturally suggests taking fishing tackles along. No fish was ever known to have been caught on a picnic, but fishing serves as an excellent excuse for getting out of the way while the heavy work is being done.
Ask questions to find out:
if picnics are popular with men
why picnics are usually not delayed because of the bad weather
the usual location of the typical picnic ground
the duration of a typical picnic
if there are some accidents during the typical picnic time
The Battle of Waterloo was fought on Sunday, 18 June 1815, near Waterloo in present-day Belgium. A French army under the command of Napoleon Bonaparte was defeated by two of the armies of the Seventh Coalition: an Anglo-led Allied army under the command of the Duke of Wellington, and a Prussian army under the command of Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher, Prince of Wahlstatt. The battle resulted in the end of Bonaparte's reign and of the First French Empire, and set a chronological milestone between serial European wars and decades of relative peace.
Upon Napoleon's return to power in March 1815, many states that had opposed him formed the Seventh Coalition and began to mobilize armies. Wellington and Blücher's armies were cantoned close to the north-eastern border of France. Napoleon chose to attack them in the hope of destroying them before they could join in a coordinated invasion of France with other members of the coalition. Waterloo was the decisive engagement of the Waterloo Campaign and Napoleon's last. The defeat at Waterloo ended Napoleon's rule as Emperor of the French, and marked the end of his Hundred Days return from exile. Napoleon abdicated 4 days later, and on 7 July coalition forces entered Paris.
Ask questions to find out:
what historic event the text is devoted to
if the French army win or lose in that battle
how the battle influenced Bonaparte's life
what countries participated in that battle
the length of the Waterloo CampaignTEST 10
American teens spend much of their free time using media, particularly watching television. Studies indicate that TV viewing is American youths’ primary activity for 1.5 to 2.5 hr per day on average. Current theories emphasize that viewers are active, not passive—they “use” media. Research indicates, however, that TV is rarely used for positive developmental experiences and that viewing is associated with developmental liabilities. TV time is developmentally unconstructive.
The second kind of entertainment, of course, is computer and Internet use. Children spend more time playing computer games, whereas adolescents devote more time to e-mail and other Internet activities. As with television, there are important concerns: about effects of violent and pornographic content, commercial exploitation, participation in deviant Internet groups, and social isolation among frequent users. At the same time, computers and the Internet permit more active individualized use than television and thus have more developmental promise. Young people can use these media to obtain information, develop relationships with people different from themselves, learn job skills, and even start companies, irrespective of their age, gender, ethnicity, and physical appearance.
Ask questions to find out:
the duration of TV viewing by American teens
if TV watching helps young people to develop themselves
the difference of computer using by teens and adults
why Internet causes some concern among parents and teachers
what is the best way of spending free time from your point of view
It can be a chore taking children shopping with you, particularly in a big city, as they can get easily bored. Keep them stimulated by adding a few of these shops into your day. First, you can visit Hamleys Toy Store. Probably the greatest toy shop in the world, Hamleys, situated on Regent Street, has seven floors of toys to explore! People come from all over the world come to visit Hamleys and buy the most wonderful toys and games, as well as to experience the magical atmosphere. The staff will often dress up in costumes to entertain, and there are always lots of toy demonstrations, so you can try before you buy.
Then you can go to Hope and Greenwood. Hope and Greenwood is a shop of classic confectionery. Their Covent Garden shop has a huge number of much loved traditional sweets in old fashioned glass jars, as well as various chocolates.
If you are with a daughter, don't miss Mystical Fairies. It's a little girl’s dream! Mystical Fairies is full of fairy and princess dresses, as well as lots of accessories including wings, wands, and tiaras!
Lastly, find yourselves on the unique planet - Forbidden Planet. Forbidden Planet is the world’s largest and best-known science fiction, fantasy, and cult entertainment retailer, and the largest UK stockiest of the latest comics and graphic novels.
Ask questions to find out:
why children are often bored while shopping
the location of Hamley Toy shop
what gives unforgettable atmosphere to the famous toy shop
the range of things you can buy for a little girl at Mystical Fairieswhere you should go if your child has a sweet tooth
The most significant types of robots are manipulated and mobile robots. Manipulated robot is an automatic device (stationary or movable) which consists of performing mechanism in the form of a manipulator (it has several levels of mobility) and a set of management software that provides operating and controlling functions. Such robots are produced as floor or suspended or gantry models. They are mainly used in machine-building industry. Mobile robot is an automatic machine which includes moving chassis with automatically controlled gear. These robots can be a wheel model, a step model and a caterpillar one.
The set of gears or drives is called the “muscles” of robots. The most widely used are electric drives though there are some that run on chemical substances or compressed air. Electric “muscles” are used in many kinds of equipment with numbered programmed management. Air “muscles” represent a very simple but powerful appliance that supports with necessary tractive force. Being pumped up with compressed air, these “muscles” can shorten up to 40% of their length. This way of work is similar to the work of biological muscles. They can be used in robots with muscles and skeletons which are analogous to those of animals.
Ask questions to find out:
if robots have entered all spheres of our life
if it is difficult to produce a robot
how the robots can move
the range of robots available nowadays
if robots resemble people in some way
On 29 August 1526 took place one of the most sadly known war battles in the history of Hungary, which got the name Mokhach Battle. The Turkish Army was headed by the sultan Suleiman the beautiful, the Hungarian one – by the King Layosh II. The Hungarian army was completely defeated. Layosh II drowned in the river and the Turkish soldiers entered the city – capital – Buda. In 1514 the Turkish Army occupied both central cities – Buda and Pesht. So, Hungary found itself under the Turkish yoke for 150 years. In the area of culinary preferences the Hungarians inherited from the Turkish people the love for sweet pepper (paprika) and coffee.
Good paprika is neither too spicy nor too harmful for the stomach. Its fresh and tasteful fruit can be eaten either cooked or raw. Half-ripe paprika is of green or yellow colour and is an excellent supplement to any meat or fish dish. The ripen pod becomes of bright red colour. The seeds are removed from the fruit, the pods are dried and grind. The result is the well-known all over the world powder. Healthy people with good indigestion, who don’t follow a diet, shouldn’t be afraid of Hungarian dishes even if they are of bright red colour.
Ask questions to find out:
if the history of Hungary is full of numerous battles
why the battle of 1526 is a sad one
the length of the Turkish yoke
what Hungarian people borrowed from the Turkish soldiers
the variety of paprika available nowadays
“Guernica” was painted by Picasso in the style of cubism in 1937. In 1981 it was displayed in the famous museum “Prado”; since 1992 it has been exposing in the Museum of Queen Sophia in Madrid.
All the scenes depicted in the canvas are taking place within one room. In the left part you can see a woman sobbing over her dead child. Above her there is an ox with widely opened eyes. The center of the canvas is occupied by the figure of a horse convulsing in agony as if it had just been transpierced with a spear or a dart. On the right above the horse there is an antique mask that seems to be a witness of all the happening events; it looks as if the mask is floating into the room through the window. On the right edge you can see a figure with arms raised in horror. It is trapped in a fire both above and beneath.
The head of the ox in the upper left corner of the picture was the reason for much disagreement among critics and art experts. It is the character that is looking indifferently at everything; its black eyes are directing to nowhere. It doesn’t sympathize with the characters of the picture; it can’t realize the absolute terror of the situation. Some experts are of the opinion that it is the personification of fascism and total world evil. Others think that the ox is the symbol of deafness, ignorance, lack of understanding.
Ask questions to find out:
if P. Picasso is an outstanding artist
what other canvases by this painter you know
what event Guernica is devoted to
the variety of animal images depicted on the canvas
the location of this masterpiece
Epos is the oldest form of historic narration. Epic verses of some nations were developed in the course of time into long detailed epopees. To them can be referred “Ramayana” created by the Hindus, “Iliad” and “Odysseys” by the Greeks, “Edda” by the Scandinavians, “The Song about Nibelungs” by the Germans. In the middle ages the Christian epos was born. Its heroes were the courageous warriors such as in the French epos “Song about Rolland”, English epic narration “Legends about King Arthur”, “Divine Comedy” by Dante, etc.
The mostly well preserved is the French epos under the title “The Song about Rolland”. It comprised about one hundred verses. It was composed in France at the beginning of the XII century. It tells the readers about the heroic death of Duke Rolland’s detachment during Karl the Great’s retreat from Spain and about the king’s revenge for the death of his nephew. The invasion to Spain is depicted here as religious war of the Christians against the Muslims. Rolland is portrayed in the epos as a noble knight: he is just, loved by everybody, generous and brave. He performs unbelievable heroic deeds and loses his life not to break his oath of loyalty to his lord. The poem reflects people’s love for “dear France” and hate towards its enemies. The poem condemns those feudal lords who betray their Motherland.
Ask questions to find out:
what epos is
eposes of what nations are the most well-known
the number of verses in “The Song about Rolland”
if this epos is based on true-to life events
how the main idea of the epos can be described

William Shakespeare is widely regarded as the finest poet and playwright who ever lived. Yet he was the son of illiterate parents and never attended college! Much of this remarkable man’s life is shrouded in mystery. He had been dead almost a hundred years before anyone wrote a short account of his life. But we do know that his mother, Mary Arden, was the daughter of a prosperous farmer. His father, John Shakespeare, was a successful glove maker who also traded in wool, hides, and grain. They lived in an English market town called Stratford-on-Avon, where William was born in 1564. Their house still stands. Until the age of 13 or 14, Shakespeare probably attended the Stratford grammar school. Some stories say that he had to leave school early because of his father’s financial difficulties. But there is no official record of his life until 1582, when he married Anne Hathaway at the age of 18. By 1585, he and Anne had three children. No one knows for sure what happened to him during the next seven years, although one account says that he was a schoolmaster. In 1592, however, records reveal that he was working in London as both an actor and a playwright. In 1597, he bought one of the grandest houses in Stratford. (It had 10 fireplaces!) The next year he bought 10 percent of the stock in the handsome Globe Theater and a fine house in London. His artistic life was very busy and productive. His theatrical company, known as the King’s Men, presented a variety of plays, week after week. It is thought that he rehearsed in the mornings, acted in the afternoons, and wrote at night. After 1612, he spent most of his time in Stratford with his family. He died there, at the age of 52, on April 23, 1616. The tomb of the great literary genius still stands at Holy Trinity Church in Stratford.

Ask questions to find out:
if William Shakespeare got a good education
why he had to leave school early
the age he got married
the number of plays William Shakespeare wrote
the length of his life
In the late summer of 55 BC Julius Caesar stood on the north coast of France and looked out over the Channel. Some 30 miles across the water lay an island, which, according to travelers' tales was rich in pearls, lead, gold, and tin, but Caesar’s interest in Britain was dictated not so much by a desire to exploit her mineral wealth as by the strategic position of the island. He could clearly see that Britain posed a backdoor threat to his latest and greatest conquest (France) whose subjugation Caesar had now enforced after eight years’ hard campaigning. During those years the Celts of Britain had aided their Gallic kinsmen against Caesar and he judged that until Britain was his, the north coast of France would always be vulnerable to surprise attack. Caesar, however, was aware that there was little time left — before winter brought campaigning to a halt — to complete a British invasion, not time enough, in fact, to mount the usual Roman form of attack that called for long-term tactics, infiltrating enemy territory and sapping morale through propaganda and subversion. There was no time either for proper reconnaissance of the island, for gathering information about the nature and size of the country, its harbours and the methods of fighting used by its inhabitants. Caesar’s reputation in Britain was well known and the Celts knew they would have little chance against the magnificently equipped Roman Army unless their defense was carefully planned. While they armed in secret, they also began to play for time, sending representatives to Caesar to offer their submission to Rome. The Celts knew that Caesar would not doubt the sincerity of this; arrogant and accustomed to success as he was, he took this submission as his natural right.
Ask questions to find out:
when Julius Caesar came to the British Isles
why he was interested in Britain
if the Celts realized the danger
how the Celts tried to deal with the situation
what kind of person Julius Caesar was
The giant panda also known as panda bear or simply panda, is a bear native to south central China. It is easily recognized by the large, distinctive black patches around its eyes, over the ears, and across its round body. The name "giant panda" is sometimes used to distinguish it from the unrelated red panda. Though it belongs to the order Carnivore, the giant panda's diet is over 99% bamboo. Giant pandas in the wild will occasionally eat other grasses, wild tubers, or even meat in the form of birds, rodents or carrion. In captivity, they may receive honey, eggs, fish, yams, shrub leaves, oranges, or bananas along with specially prepared food. The giant panda lives in a few mountain ranges in central China, mainly in Sichuan province, but also in neighbouring provinces, namely Shaanxi and Gansu. As a result of farming, deforestation, and other development, the giant panda has been driven out of the lowland areas where it once lived.
While the dragon has often served as China's national symbol, internationally the giant panda appears at least as commonly. As such, it is becoming widely used within China in international contexts, for example as one of the five mascots of the Beijing Olympics.
Ask questions to find out:
the exact habitat of the animal
if panda is a predator
what plant is the main ingredient of panda's diet
why panda is protected carefully in China
the length of panda's life in captivity
The heart is a muscular organ about the size of a closed fist that functions as the body’s circulatory pump. It takes in deoxygenated blood through the veins and delivers it to the lungs for oxygenation before pumping it into the various arteries (which provide oxygen and nutrients to body tissues by transporting the blood throughout the body). The heart is located in the thoracic cavity medial to the lungs and posterior to the sternum.
The heart sits within a fluid-filled cavity called the pericardial cavity. The walls and lining of the pericardial cavity are a special membrane known as the pericardium. Pericardium is a type of serous membrane that produces serous fluid to lubricate the heart and prevent friction between the ever beating heart and its surrounding organs. Besides lubrication, the pericardium serves to hold the heart in position and maintain a hollow space for the heart to expand into when it is full.
The heart contains 4 chambers: the right atrium, left atrium, right ventricle, and left ventricle. The atria are smaller than the ventricles and have thinner, less muscular walls than the ventricles. The atria act as receiving chambers for blood, so they are connected to the veins that carry blood to the heart. The ventricles are the larger, stronger pumping chambers that send blood out of the heart. The ventricles are connected to the arteries that carry blood away from the heart. The chambers on the right side of the heart are smaller.
Ask questions to find out:
what the main function of the heart is
if it works constantly like a pump
the location of the organ in the human body
the number of the constituent parts of the heart
how the chambers on the left side differ from those on the right
The Norwegian monarch is the monarchical head of state of Norway, which is a constitutional and hereditary monarchy with a parliamentary system. The Norwegian monarchy can trace its line back to the reign of Harald Fairhair.
The present Sovereign is King Harald V, who has reigned since 17 January 1991. The heir apparent is his only son, Crown Prince Haakon. The Crown Prince undertakes various public ceremonial functions, as does the King's wife, Queen Sonja. The Crown Prince also acts as regent in the King's absence.
Whilst the Constitution of Norway grants important executive powers to the King, these are almost always exercised by the Council of State in the name of the King (King's Council, or cabinet).
The King's functions are mainly ceremonial. He ratifies laws and royal resolutions, receives and sends envoys from and to foreign countries and hosts state visits. He has a more tangible influence as the symbol of national unity. The King has no official role in the Church of Norway, but is required by the Constitution to be a member.
Ask questions to find out:
if Norway is a democratic republic
the length of reign of the present monarch
who is the only heir to the throne
what functions should be fulfilled by the king's spouse
if the King belongs to the Church of NorwayTEST 21
In England children are required to attend school between the ages of 5 and 15. The two main types of schools are Primary and Secondary, which can sometime be split into different types.
Many primary age schools are split up into Infant and Junior schools. Before attending a primary school, many children attend a Nursery school. Nursery schools can take in children between the ages of 3 and 5 years and may or may not be attached to a state infant/primary school.
Most Secondary schools are known as Comprehensives, but in some towns there are Grammar Schools where admission is based on a successful selection test (11+). Some secondary schools do not have a Sixth form, so children leave at the end of their fifth year. Those secondary schools that do have a sixth form have children who stage at school until their eighteenth year.
In some counties of Britain, instead of primary schools, they have First and Middle schools. For example, the counties of Suffolk and Dorest have this school system. First schools take in children between the ages of 5 and 9, whilst middle schools take in children between the ages of 9 and 12. After this the children then go on to attend a secondary school.
Ask questions to find out:
the age British children start school
if a Nursery school is a must
the types of primary schools available in Britain
if students take exams in Secondary schools
in what way schools may differ in different counties
The Parliament of Australia consists of two chambers, the House of Representatives and the Senate. The House of Representatives has 150 members, the Senate has 76 senators, elected through a preferential system of proportional representation with a system of single transferable vote, with each state constituting a single constituency normally returning 6 senators every three years and each territory constituting a single constituency returning two senators. State senators serve fixed six-year terms, except in the case of a double dissolution, with half of the seats in each State expiring every three years. In the event of a double dissolution, the terms of all the members of the Senate and the House of Representatives seats end immediately.
Although elections for the House of Representatives have usually corresponded to half-elections of the Senate, the rules which determine when the elections occur differ. Under the Constitution, the House of Representatives lasts no more than three years after it first meets, but may be dissolved earlier.
The terms of senators representing the states are of fixed duration (unless Parliament is dissolved in a double dissolution), and elections must occur within a year before the term expires. The terms of senators representing the territories are not fixed, and are tied to the dates of elections for the House of Representatives.
Ask questions to find out:
the number of chambers in the Parliament in Australia
the length of working period of the Senators
how the elections to the House of Representatives differ
if the Parliament can be dissolved earlier
what the main functions of the Parliament are
Funnel-web spiders, the most notorious members of our spider fauna, are found in eastern Australia. They are medium to large spiders, varying from 1 cm - 5 cm body length. Males are more lightly built than females. Body colour can vary from black to brown but the hard carapace covering the front part of the body is always sparsely haired and glossy.
Not all species are known to be dangerous, but several are renowned for their highly toxic and fast acting venom. Despite the availability of an effective antivenom, correct and immediate first aid is still an essential requirement for funnel-web spider (and mouse spider) envenomation. The recommended first aid technique is pressure/immobilization (as for snake bite) and this must be done as quickly as possible.
Funnel-webs burrow in moist, cool, sheltered habitats - under rocks, in and under rotting logs, crevices, rot and borer holes in rough-barked trees. In gardens, they prefer rockeries and dense shrubberies, and are rarely found in more open situations like lawns. Funnel-webs are very vulnerable to drying out, so high humidity is more favourable to activity outside the burrow than dry conditions. Most activity is nocturnal. Gardeners and people digging in soil may encounter Funnel-webs in burrows at any time of the year.
Ask questions to find out:
what the typical colour of the spider is
if all spiders are poisonous
if children learn how to give first aid at spider's bite at school
where spiders prefer to live
who can easily meet the spiders at any time of the year
Amber is not a mineral, because it has an organic origin and amorphous structure. Its composition can vary greatly depending on the botanical source, though all have compounds that are linked as the resin matures.
Amber color varies from shades of yellow, orange, red to white, brown, green, bluish. Rainbow colors within the amber are caused by the light interference of air bubbles or strain created during an insect's death struggle. Some believe the color is related to the type of tree source. Recent pine trees produce golden yellows, white, ivory-colors, and occasionally a blue resin. Scientists at the Polish Museum of Science believe that reddish tints are the resin of deciduous trees, such as cherry and plum. Dominican amber with a reddish tint is thought to be related to a leguminous source.
Amber has been used as jewelry, as an ingredient in perfumes and in folk medicine for thousands of years – but it also has its place in science. It was the first substance on which electrostatic phenomena were observed, by the Greek philosopher Thales of Miletus, 600 BC, and it gave electricity its name: in 1601, the English physicist William Gilbert, the first to distinguish between magnetic and electrical attraction, coined the term ‘electricus’ for the property of attracting small objects after being rubbed, derived from amber’s Greek name elektron (meaning shiny).
Ask questions to find out:
what type of inner structure amber has
if it is a mineral or not
the range of colours it can have
what the colour of amber depends upon
what the name "amber" means in Greek
Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. It is surrounded in the north, west, and southwest by the Canadian province of Ontario, and in the south and east by the American state of New York, whose water boundaries meet in the middle of the lake. Ontario, Canada's most populous province, was named for the lake. In the Wyandot (Huron) language, ontarío means “Lake of Shining Waters”. Its primary inlet is the Niagara River from Lake Erie. The last in the Great Lakes chain, Lake Ontario serves as the outlet to the Atlantic Ocean via the St. Lawrence River.
The lake basin was carved out of soft, weak Silurian-age rocks by the Wisconsin ice sheet during the last ice age. The action of the ice occurred along the pre-glacial Ontarian River valley which had approximately the same orientation as today's basin.
Because of its great depth, the lake as a whole never freezes in winter, but an ice sheet covering between 10% and 90% of the lake area typically develops, depending on the severity of the winter. During the winters of 1877 and 1878, the ice sheet coverage was up to 95–100% in most of the lake. In the winter of 1812, the ice cover was stable enough that the American naval commander stationed at Sackets Harbor feared a British attack from Kingston, over the ice.
Ask questions to find out:
what the names of the other Great Lakes are
the location of Lake Ontario
what river connects the lake with the Atlantic Ocean
why the Lake never freezes completely in winter
what happened in the winter of 1812
Cape Horn, the southernmost tip of South America, remain a maritime legend to this day, as sailing around this remote point and then through the Drake Passage was (and is) one of the most challenging nautical routes on the planet. The violent stretch of chaotic water between Antarctica and South America, one frequented by icebergs, huge waves and plagued by gale-force winds, is crossed by sailors with great trepidation. Many still prefer to use the sheltered Strait of Magellan, shown with little (red arrows) on the map. The opening of the Panama Canal in 1914 subsequently reduced the need for maritime travel around Cape Horn, the notorious site of many ship wreaks, and the final resting place of countless sailors lost in its perilous waters.
Visit Cape Horn to soak up the mystique that goes with this historic place. Loved and hated by seamen for the past 400 years, many died in an attempt to round the Horn. They are believed to return as the albatross that glide with motionless wings above the ocean swell that surrounds us. Like an ascent of Mt Everest, sailing around Cape Horn earns you a place amongst the elite, and with good reason. Often wreathed in fog and smashed by towering seas, the southern-most headland of Cape Horn Island marks where the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans collide. Consider that prevailing conditions feature 200 days of gale, waves that rise more than 20 m and the odd iceberg, and you begin to understand the pride of “Cape Horners”.
Ask questions to find out:
the location of Cape Horn
why it was the most dangerous route for sailing
what event reduced the need of travel around Cape Horn
what marks the land of Cape Horn
if the weather is rather windy at this place
Most of us suffer from a lack of oxygen. Whether from improper breathing, poor diets, air pollution or lack of exercise, our cells are being deprived of this vital element and thus weakening our immune system.
Oxygen (O2) is one of the most important elements required to sustain life. Without it, our health begins to suffer and/or we die. Unhealthy or weak cells due to improper metabolism lose their natural immunity and are thus susceptible to viruses and lead the way to all kinds of serious health problems. O2 not only gives us life but destroys also the harmful bacteria in our bodies without affecting the beneficial bacteria that we need. No antibiotic or drug can make that claim. Life styles today, in a modern world environment with depleted O2 levels in the atmosphere, actually requires our cells to use more of this odorless/colorless gas to deal with several stresses on our body’s ability to function. Health status, activity level, and hydration are factors that affect how much oxygen a person needs. Without adequate oxygen, health problems are guaranteed. Some people have to use extraordinary measures to get their oxygen levels up. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy, for example, is one way to increase oxygen levels and may even address a variety of health concerns.
Ask questions to find out:
why many people suffer from the lack of oxygen
what the negative results of the oxygen deprivation are
if oxygen helps our body to destroy harmful bacteria
the variety of factors that determine the amount of oxygen a man needs
how people can increase the oxygen level of their organisms
Krubera Cave is the deepest known cave on Earth. It is located in the Arabika Massif of the Gagra Range of the Western Caucasus, in the Gagra district of Abkhazia, a breakaway region of Georgia. The difference in elevation of the cave's entrance and its deepest explored point is 2,197 meters. It became the deepest-known cave in the world in 2001 when the expedition of the Ukrainian Speleological Association reached a depth of 1,710 m. The original name "Krubera" had been assigned to the cave by Georgian speleologists who explored the entrance pit in 1960. This name was given after the noted Russian geographer Alexander Kruber. The name "Krubera Cave" thus has a priority. "Voronya Cave" means "Crows' Cave" in Russian. This name was used as a slang name by Kiev speleologists during the 1980s due to a number of crows nesting in the entrance pit, and then remained in the literature and media as a second name for the cave.
The speleological explorations and a series of dye tracing experiments conducted during the 1980s under the coordination of Alexander Klimchouk have radically changed previous notions of the hydrogeology of Arabika, revealed its outstanding speleological perspectives and strongly stimulated further efforts for exploration of deep caves. Tracers injected in the Kujbyshevskaja Cave and the Iljukhina System were detected in the Kholodnaja Rechka and Reproa springs, proving groundwater flow to the south-southwest across major tectonic structures over a distance of 13–16 km. The tracer from Kujbyshevskaja Cave was also detected in a borehole located between these two springs, which yields groundwater from a depth of 200 m (660 ft) below sea level. This has been interpreted as an indication of the connection of the cave with the submarine discharge. Another tracer was injected in the Moskovskaja Cave (−970 m) and detected at the Gegsky Vodopad spring, indicating the presence of a karst hydrologic system comprising the northeastern flank of the Arabika anticline (the "Northern System").
Ask questions to find out:
if the Cave is located in Russia or not
the exact depth of the Cave
the number of names the Cave has
if the speleologists investigate the Cave regularly
what are the results of the process if cave's investigation
By British law every school should have a parent's evening at least once in the school year. These are an opportunity for parents to meet with their child's teacher. The main purpose is to discuss your child's progress over the past term/year and to discuss any difficulties your child may be having either academically or socially. Most schools tend to have a time limit of 10 minutes for the interview. Please try to stick to this, as it is unfair to other parents if you overrun and this has a knock on effect for other parents who are waiting. If you find that you have run out of time and you need to speak to the teacher for longer, you could make another appointment to speak to the teacher when there is less pressure on time.
Parent's evenings should also be a chance for parents to view their child's work, especially if it is at the end of the academic year. Some schools, (especially secondary schools), encourage parents to bring their child with them to the interview, though this does not happen in every school. Whatever the teacher says, it is always best to praise your child for any positive points that the teacher has made and then discuss any negative comments in a calm and reasonable manner. If there are concerns from the teacher, it might be worth speaking to the teacher again at a later date, say two or three weeks later to see if the problem/difficulty has been sorted.
Ask questions to find out:
when British parents have a chance to meet with their child's teacher
what the main goal of this meeting is
how long the meeting lasts
if a child can be present at the meeting
if parents can be away from the parent's evening for no reason
Sugar maple is the most abundant of the seven maple species found in New York State, and is common throughout New England, the Lake States, Mid-Atlantic states, and several Canadian provinces.  Its historical and economical importance, both in the production of maple syrup and as a timber species, has earned sugar maple its status as the official state tree of New York.  The sugar maple leaf on the Canadian flag is evidence of this species' importance in Canada.
Under optimal growing conditions, sugar maple can attain heights in excess of 100 feet. The largest reported individual was found near Bethany, West Virginia; it had a diameter of 5.6 feet, a crown spread of 75 feet, and a height of 110 feet.
The leaves of sugar maple are simple (single) and like the buds are in an opposite arrangement on the twigs. They are usually five-lobed although certain trees may possess leaves with three, four, or five lobes. They are generally smooth on both sides, although the veins underneath may be slightly hairy. Twigs are fairly slender, a shiny reddish-brown color, and covered with lenticels. The bark on young trees is dark grey, but as the tree ages the bark may appear dark brown.  The flowers of sugar maple are greenish yellow with long stalks. The fruit, a double samara, has a characteristic winged shape.
Ask questions to find out:
why sugar maple is the official state tree of New York
the approximate height of a tree
the type of leaves the tree has
how the colour of the bark can change
what the name of the fruit is
Chinese tea culture refers to how tea is prepared as well as the occasions when people consume tea in China. Tea culture in China differs from that in European countries like Britain and other Asian countries like Japan in preparation, taste, and occasion when it is consumed. Tea is still consumed regularly, both on casual and formal occasions. In addition to being a popular beverage, it is used in traditional Chinese medicine as well as in Chinese cuisine.
There are several special circumstances in which tea is prepared and consumed in Chinese culture. Firstly, it can be a sign of respect. In traditional Chinese society, members of the younger generation shows their respect to members of the older generation by offering a cup of tea. Inviting their elders to restaurants for tea is a traditional holiday activity. In the past, people of a lower social class served tea to the upper class in society. Today, with the increasing liberalization of Chinese society, this rule and its connotations have become blurred. Sometimes parents may pour a cup of tea for their children to show their care, or a boss may even pour tea for subordinates at restaurants to promote their relationship; however, on formal occasions, the basic rule remains in effect. Secondly, tea drinking accompany family gatherings. When sons and daughters leave home for work or marriage, they may spend less time with their parents; therefore, going to restaurants and drinking tea becomes an important activity to reestablish ties at family gatherings. Every Sunday, Chinese restaurants are crowded with families, especially during the holiday season, for this reason. This phenomenon reflects the function of tea in Chinese family values. Thirdly, in Chinese culture, tea may be offered as part of a formal apology. For example, children who have misbehaved may serve tea to their parents as a sign of regret and submission.
Ask questions to find out:
if people consume a lot of tea in China
on what occasions this beverage is drunk
if tea drinking promotes better understanding between people
if people can apologize with the help of this ceremony
how this ceremony differs from tea drinking in Europe
Ikebana is the common term used for Japanese flower arrangement. The art is also referred to as kado ("the way of flowers"). Different schools of ikebana exist today with a variance in style. Some schools advocate that flowers should be arranged in a way that they look as if they were in the wild; others pay attention to precision of shape, line and form, going as far as to prescribe rules that dictate the angles that the branches should make. In addition, modern styles of ikebana (avant-garde ikebana) have evolved, some of which even use glass, iron, and other materials instead of flowers. The container of the plant plays a role in the composition as well. The type of container used also varies according to taste, ranging from simple squarish ones with subdued colors to those with unique shapes or extravagant designs. Well known schools of ikebana include the Ikenobo, Sogetsu and Ohara schools. The two latter schools offer day classes in English on selected days each week at their centers in Tokyo. Reservations have to be made via e-mail or phone. A class takes around two hours and costs about 4000 yen (see links below). In addition, the Hanatoro event that takes place twice a year in Kyoto is a good occasion to see ikebana creations.
Ask questions to find out:
if Japanese people like flowers
if there are some schools for teaching the process of flower arrangement
what other materials are used in ikebana
how can a person reserve a place at such a school
the cost of the course
The Bermuda Triangle, also known as the Devil's Triangle, is a loosely defined region in the western part of the North Atlantic Ocean, where a number of aircraft and ships are said to have disappeared under mysterious circumstances. According to the US Navy, the triangle does not exist, and the name is not recognized by the US Board on Geographic Names. Popular culture has attributed various disappearances to the paranormal or activity by extraterrestrial beings. Documented evidence indicates that a significant percentage of the incidents were spurious, inaccurately reported, or embellished by later authors.
Persons accepting the Bermuda Triangle as a real phenomenon have offered a number of explanatory approaches. Triangle writers have used a number of supernatural concepts to explain the events. One explanation pins the blame on leftover technology from the mythical lost continent of Atlantis. Sometimes connected to the Atlantis story is the submerged rock formation known as the Bimini Road off the island of Bimini in the Bahamas, which is in the Triangle by some definitions. Followers of the purported psychic Edgar Cayce take his prediction that evidence of Atlantis would be found in 1968 as referring to the discovery of the Bimini Road. Believers describe the formation as a road, wall, or other structure, but the Bimini Road is of natural origin. Other writers attribute the events to UFOs. This idea was used by Steven Spielberg for his science fiction film Close Encounters of the Third Kind, which features the lost Flight 19 aircrews as alien abductees. Among natural explanations we can mention the influence of the Gulf Stream, human errors or violent weather.
Ask questions to find out:
what the Bermuda Triangle region is famous for
what ocean is included into this mystical territory
if there are a lot of explanation theories of the phenomenon
if any of the theories sounds realistic
if the ocean current can have an impact on the accidents
The River Nile is in the beautiful continent of Africa. It originates inside Burundi, south of the equator, and flows northward to northeastern Africa, eventually flowing through Egypt and then draining into the Mediterranean Sea. Lake Victoria, Africa’s main lake, is generally is known as the source of the River Nile. On the northern edge of this lake, water pours over a waterfall, known as the Ripon Falls; into a narrow opening which many people believe is the beginning of the River Nile. Ancient Egypt couldn’t have existed without the Nile River. Since rainfall is almost non-existent in Egypt, the Nile River provided the only source of moisture to be able to sustain crops. Heavy summer rains (that fell every year) in the Ethiopian highlands, sent a torrent of water that flooded the banks on the River Nile. When the floods went down it left thick, wealthy mud (black silt) which is excellent soil to plant seeds in after being ploughed.
The Nile also gave the early Egyptians food. They applied spears and nets to be able to catch fish. They would also use and create nets to catch different birds that flew close to the surface of the water. Another way the Nile River helped the ancient Egyptians was with trade. The Nile was the quickest and easiest way to travel from a place to another. There are nine countries the Nile and tributaries flow through. These countries are Egypt, Ethiopia, Tanzanian, Uganda, Kenya, Burundi, Sudan, Rwanda and Zaire. Many parts on the Niles banks are full of Crocodiles. They are the biggest crocodiles in Africa. Numerous animals live close by the river which include Nile crocodiles, hippopotamus frogs, Nile monitors, turtles, tortoises, wildebeest, mongooses, baboons, and over more than 200 species of birds.
Ask questions to find out:
where the river starts
why ancient Egyptians couldn't exist without the river
the number of countries the Nile flows throw
if the river has any tributaries
the variety of animals that live in the river
The Hindu Vedic system recognizes the validity of several forms of marriage. Brahmana, in which the father of the bride sends an invitation to a properly qualified man and entrusts the girl to him; the purpose of the marriage is the joint performance of the traditional religious duties. Daiva, in which the girl is married to a properly qualified brahmana who was invited to perform a sacred ritual; the purpose of the marriage is to perpetuate the good results of the sacrifice and to protect society in general. Arsha (of the Rishis), in which the married couple offer a symbolic gift of a bull and a cow (sacred animals considered the father and mother of human society) to the girl’s parents; the purpose of the marriage is cooperation in the study and practice of spiritual life. Prajapatya, in which the girl chooses a suitable husband directly or indirectly (for example in svayamvara tournaments); the purpose of the marriage is the birth of a qualified progeny that will continue the dynasty. Gandharva, in which the girl and boy declare their love for each and exchange vows and garlands; the purpose of the marriage is romantic desire and sensual pleasure. Rakshasa, in which the girl is abducted from her home against the will of her family. Asura, in which a girl and her family receive gifts, boons or wealth from the prospective husband to convince them of his good intentions. Pisacha, in which a girl is seduced into a sexual relationship by flattery, emotional pressure, mental manipulation, intoxication (with wine, etc.), or approached while she is sleeping and more vulnerable. The purpose of the pisacha marriage is mere satisfaction of sensual pleasure but still the women involved and the children conceived in such relationship are considered perfectly respectable by society.
Ask questions to find out:
if there are several forms of marriage in the Hindu Vedic system
in what way the marriages differ
what the main purpose of each marriage is
if the bride receives a lot of presents before marriage
whether it is always a colorful ceremony
The Apache Indians are one of the most well known Indian tribes in America, and they are also related to the other well known Native American tribe of the Navajos. Their primary location was in southwest America and mainly in the areas of Texas, Oklahoma, Arizona, New Mexico, there were also many in Northern Mexico. They were known to be a very violent Native American tribe.
There were actually ten different divisions of Apache tribes that made up the Apache. The Apache Indians were nomadic people and they lived off of hunting wild animals such as buffalo. They even wore buffalo skins for clothing and their homes were made from these too. The Apache Indians are believed to have settled in the southwest of America, and the reason they settled there is they were thought to have been separated from their fellow Native American nomads. The Apache Indians are also believed to be one of the first Native American tribes that learned to ride horses, and it is thought that they learned this from Pueblo Indian prisoners since the Pueblos were the first. The Apaches would frequently raid the Pueblos for supplies and valuables. They also had many problems with other groups such as the Spanish, Texans and other Americans. The enemies that they made because of all the violence and raids grew even worse and soon they had even more enemies when a new and powerful tribe of Native Americans started to move in, this tribe was the Comanche Indians. The Apaches kept being forced from their settlements and eventually they started to settle into reservations they were given by the government. There are still many Apaches from various tribes that live on these reservations in states such as New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas.
Ask questions to find out:
where the Apache Indians used to live
the number of divisions among the Apache Tribe
if they were nomadic people
if they used to fight with tribes around
why they started to settle in the reservations in the long run
Held throughout the world on Burns Night (or on an evening close to it) a traditional Burns supper is an evening event that celebrates Robert Burns’ life and work. Everyone enjoys a hearty feast (which includes haggis, neeps and tatties, rounded off with drams of whisky), some of Burns’ poems and songs are recited and tributes are made to the great Bard. Each Burns supper is individual, but the running order normally goes something like this:
To start – everyone gathers, the host says a few words, everyone sits and the Selkirk Grace is said.
The meal – the starter is served, the haggis is piped in, the host performs Address to a Haggis, everyone toasts the haggis and the main meal is served, followed by dessert.
After the meal – the first Burns recital is performed, the Immortal Memory (the main tribute speech to Burns) is given, the second Burns recital is performed, then there’s a Toast to the Lassies, followed by a Reply to the Toast to the Lassies, before the final Burns recital is performed.
To end the night – the host gives a vote of thanks, everyone stands and sings Auld Lang Syne, crossing their arms and joining hands at the line ‘And there's a hand, my trusty fere!’.
But remember – if you hold your own, you can follow as much or as little of this running order as you like. You could even make your own additions – hold a quiz, add a ceilidh, include a treasure hunt – people wouldn't mind at all, as long as they’re having fun!
Ask questions to find out:
if Robert Burns was a famous Scottish poet
when Burn's supper takes place
what entertainments are available at the party
what national dish is addressed at each party
what the Haggis is made of
Zeus was the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who ruled as king of the gods of Mount Olympus. His name is cognate with the first element of his Roman equivalent Jupiter.
Zeus is the child of Cronus and Rhea, the youngest of his siblings to be born. In most traditions, he is married to Hera, by whom he is usually said to have fathered Ares, Hebe, and Hephaestus. He was respected as an all father who was chief of the gods and assigned the others to their roles: "Even the gods who are not his natural children address him as Father, and all the gods rise in his presence." His symbols are the thunderbolt, eagle, bull, and oak. Zeus is frequently depicted by Greek artists in one of two poses: standing, striding forward with a thunderbolt leveled in his raised right hand, or seated in majesty.
Zeus was the most powerful of the Greek gods and had a number of powers. His most famous power is the ability to throw lightning bolts. His winged horse Pegasus carried his lightning bolts and he trained an eagle to retrieve them. He could also control the weather causing rain and huge storms. Zeus also had other powers. He could mimic people's voices to sound like anyone. He could also shape shift so that he looked like an animal or a person. If people made him angry, sometimes he would turn them into animals as punishment.
Ask questions to find out:
if Zeus is the main Greek God
where he lives
what powers he possesses
why should people be afraid of Zeus
how Zeus is usually depicted
Seahorse is the name given to 54 species of small marine fishes in the genus Hippocampus. "Hippocampus" comes from the Ancient Greek word hippos meaning "horse" and kampos meaning "sea monster". Having a head and neck suggestive of a horse, seahorses also feature segmented bony armour, an upright posture and a curled prehensile tail. Seahorses are mainly found in shallow tropical and temperate waters throughout the world, and live in sheltered areas such as seagrass beds, estuaries, coral reefs, or mangroves.
Seahorses range in size from 1.5 to 35.5 cm. They are named for their equine appearance with bent necks and long snouted heads followed by their distinctive trunk and tail. Although they are bony fish, they do not have scales, but rather thin skin stretched over a series of bony plates, which are arranged in rings throughout their bodies. Each species has a distinct number of rings. They swim upright propelling themselves by using the dorsal fin. The pectoral fins located on either side of the head are used for maneuvering. They lack the caudal fin typical of fishes. Their prehensile tail can only be unlocked in the most extreme conditions. Interestingly, they are adept at camouflage with the ability to grow and reabsorb spiny appendages depending on their habitat.
Since they are poor swimmers, they are most likely to be found resting with their prehensile tails wound around a stationary object. They have long snouts, which they use to suck up food, and their eyes can move independently of each other like those of a chameleon.
Ask questions to find out:
why the creature has such a name
what the size of the animal is
if it has a trunk
what functions its fins perform
if it can swim very well
The epidermis is the relatively thin, tough, outer layer of the skin. Most of the cells in the epidermis are keratinocytes. They originate from cells in the deepest layer of the epidermis called the basal layer. New keratinocytes slowly migrate up toward the surface of the epidermis. Once the keratinocytes reach the skin surface, they are gradually shed and are replaced by newer cells pushed up from below.
The outermost portion of the epidermis, known as the stratum corneum, is relatively waterproof and, when undamaged, prevents most bacteria, viruses, and other foreign substances from entering the body. The epidermis (along with other layers of the skin) also protects the internal organs, muscles, nerves, and blood vessels against trauma. In certain areas of the body that require greater protection (such as the palms of the hands and the soles of the feet), the outer keratin layer of the epidermis (stratum corneum) is much thicker.
Scattered throughout the basal layer of the epidermis are cells called melanocytes, which produce the pigment melanin, one of the main contributors to skin color. Melanin's primary function, however, is to filter out ultraviolet radiation from sunlight, which damages DNA, resulting in numerous harmful effects, including skin cancer.
Ask questions to find out:
what the name of the outer layer of the skin is
if the epidermis is re-changeable
what the main functions of the skin are
what pigment gives colour to the skin
if skin cancer is widely spread nowadays
The American Senate's power derives from more than just its relatively exclusive membership; it also is granted specific powers in the Constitution.
While the House of Representatives has the power to recommend impeachment of a sitting president, vice president or other civic official such as a judge for "high crimes and misdemeanors," as written in the Constitution, the Senate is the sole jury once impeachment goes to trial. With a two-thirds majority, the Senate may thus remove an official from office. Two presidents, Andrew Johnson and Bill Clinton, have been tried; both were acquitted.
The President of the United States has the power to negotiate treaties and agreements with other nations, but the Senate must ratify them by a two-thirds vote in order to take effect. This isn't the only way the Senate balances the power of the president. All presidential appointees, including Cabinet members, judicial appointees and ambassadors must be confirmed by the Senate, which can call any nominees to testify before it.
Ask questions to find out:
what Houses the American Parliament consist of
in what way the Senate differ from the House of Representatives
what powers the American President has
if the Senate has any influence on the President's decisions
who appoints Cabinet members
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701 in Saybrook Colony as the Collegiate School, the University is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States. The school was renamed Yale College in 1718 in recognition of a gift from Elihu Yale, who was governor of the British East India Company.
Yale is organized into fourteen constituent schools: the original undergraduate college, the Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, and twelve professional schools. While the university is governed by the Yale Corporation, each school's faculty oversees its curriculum and degree programs. In addition to a central campus in downtown New Haven, the University owns athletic facilities in western New Haven, including the Yale Bowl, a campus in West Haven, Connecticut, and forest and nature preserves throughout New England.
Yale has graduated many notable alumni, including five U.S. Presidents, 19 U.S. Supreme Court Justices, 13 living billionaires, and many foreign heads of state. In addition, Yale has graduated hundreds of members of Congress and many high-level U.S. diplomats. 52 Nobel laureates, 5 Fields Medalists, 230 Rhodes Scholars, and 118 Marshall Scholars have been affiliated with the University.
Ask questions to find out:
what state the University is situated
if it the oldest University in the USA
the number of schools the University has
what famous people graduated from the university
why the University got such a name
Mountain biking is the sport of riding bicycles off-road, often over rough terrain, using specially designed mountain bikes. Mountain bikes share similarities with other bikes, but incorporate features designed to enhance durability and performance in rough terrain.
Mountain biking can generally be broken down into multiple categories: cross country, trail riding, all mountain, downhill, free-ride and dirt jumping. However, the majority of mountain biking falls into the categories of Trail and Cross Country riding styles. This individual sport requires endurance, core strength and balance, bike handling skills, and self-reliance. Advanced riders pursue both steep technical descents and high incline climbs. In the case of free-riding, downhilling, and dirt jumping, aerial manoeuvres are performed off both natural features and specially constructed jumps and ramps.
Injuries are a given factor when mountain biking, especially in the more extreme disciplines such as downhill biking. Protective equipment can protect against minor injuries and reduce the extent or seriousness of major impacts.
Ask questions to find out:
what kinds of risky sports you know
how the mountain bike differs from other types of bikes
what categories mountain biking can be divided into
if it is a traumatic kind of sport
what equipment is necessary for the mountain biker
Hyde park covers more than 360 acres (142 hectares) and hosts many large events, including celebrations and concerts. It is also a popular place for jogging, swimming, rowing, picnicking and even horse riding. In 1536 King Henry VIII confiscated Hyde Park from the monks of Westminster Abbey. It was used primarily for hunting. King Charles I opened the park to the public in 1637. The current park layout was planned by architect Decimus Burton in 1825. The Serpentine, a large artificial lake, is located at the south end of the park and extends into the neighboring Kensington Gardens where the lake is called the Long Water. Queen Caroline, wife of King George II had the lake constructed in 1730. It is popular for boating and swimming.
Just southwest of the Serpentine is a memorial installed in honor of princess Diana. The modern fountain, which more resembles an artificial stream rather than a fountain, was inaugurated in 2004 by Queen Elisabeth II.
At the south end of Hyde park is Rotten Row, a famous bridle path. The road is almost four miles long (6,4 km) and is now used as a horse riding, cycling, rollerblading and jogging route. In the 17th century the road was often used by William III. The king found the walk from Kensington Palace to St. James's Palace too dangerous, so he had oil lamps installed along the route, thus creating the first lit public road in England.
Ask questions to find out:
what the territory of the park is
if the perk hosts a lot of events
what the park used to be in the years of Henry VIII
if Serpentine is an artificial or a natural lake
the length of the Rotten Row
Eucalyptus, eucalyptus tree - large genus of mostly very large trees, of the myrtle family, native to Australia, Tasmania, and nearby islands. More than 500 species have been described. In Australia the eucalypti are commonly known as gum trees.
Australian researchers have found that microscopic gold particles from underground ore deposits are present in tree leaves. Leaves preferentially stored microscopic gold particles about eight micrometers wide on average. Study authors speculate the particles came from underground, seemingly taken up by the root system of the trees. About 20 leaves needed to be sampled to statistically reveal the presence of gold underneath the trees. "Gold is probably toxic to plants and is moved to its extremities (such as leaves) or in preferential zones within cells in order to reduce deleterious biochemical reaction," the authors conclude.
Don't start stuffing eucalyptus leaves in your wallet, however. The average concentration of gold in the leaves was only about 46 parts per billion, less than 0.000005 percent of each leaf by weight.
Ask questions to find out:
what family eucalyptus comes from
the number of specious existing today
what Australian researchers found in its leaves
if the concentration of gold in the leaves was high
why the tree is of great value for the country
Americans have a curious way of celebrating St. Patrick’s Day. We pinch each other if we forget to wear something green, we make green foods regardless if they have anything to do with Ireland, and we adapt traditional Irish recipes to our own taste.
The last is the case with this Irish beef stew. As any Irish person will tell you, lamb is the preferred meat for a good Irish stew. But here in the states we eat a lot more beef than lamb, so when we want to make a stew to celebrate all things Irish, it’s usually done with beef. This particular stew has all of the classic trimmings of a good stew—meat, stock, plenty of root vegetables—with the addition of some Guinness extra stout, for its malty flavor and some Irish authenticity. The recipe originally came to me through my friend Tomas, who got it from a chef friend in Europe, who had adapted a Bon Appetit recipe for stew by adding Guinness and some red wine. Every time we make this recipe it gets raves! The way people made Irish stew originally is with the one thing they had, potatoes. And if they were lucky enough to have a little meat, they would make it go as far as they could .
You could argue about Irish stew all day. Folks have been for centuries. Or you could get on with it and make one for St. Patrick's Day.
Ask questions to find out:
when St. Patrick’s Day is celebrated
if it is a national holiday of Ireland or America
what dish people cook for the occasion
what ingredients the stew has
the variety of recipes of the stew existing today
Who was really responsible for introducing this popular custom to Britain? A Christmas tree for German soldiers in a temporary hospital in 1871Prince Albert, Queen Victoria’s consort, is usually credited with having introduced the Christmas tree into England in 1840. However, the honour of establishing this tradition in the United Kingdom rightfully belongs to ‘good Queen Charlotte’, the German wife of George III, who set up the first known English tree at Queen’s Lodge, Windsor, in December, 1800. Legend has it that Queen Charlotte’s compatriot, Martin Luther, the religious reformer, invented the Christmas tree. One winter’s night in 1536, so the story goes, Luther was walking through a pine forest near his home in Wittenberg when he suddenly looked up and saw thousands of stars glinting jewel-like among the branches of the trees. This wondrous sight inspired him to set up a candle-lit fir tree in his house that Christmas to remind his children of the starry heavens from whence their Savior came.
By the time Queen Charlotte died in 1818, the Christmas-tree tradition was firmly established in society, and it continued to flourish throughout the 1820s and 30s. When in December, 1840, Prince Albert imported several spruce firs from his native Coburg, they were no novelty to the aristocracy, therefore. But it was not until periodicals such as the Illustrated London News, Cassell’s Magazine and The Graphic began to depict and minutely to describe the royal Christmas trees every year from 1845 until the late 1850s, that the custom of setting up such trees in their own homes caught on with the masses in England. By 1860, however, there was scarcely a well-off family in the land that did not sport a Christmas tree in parlour or hall. And all the December parties held for pauper children at this date featured gift-laden Christmas trees as their main attraction.
Ask questions to find out:
what the main symbol of Christmas is
when the popular custom was introduced to Britain
who was the first to install the Christmas tree in Windsor
if the Christmas tree was the main attraction for pauper children
what the trees were decorated with
An equator is the intersection of the surface of a rotating sphere with the plane that is perpendicular to the sphere's axis of rotation and midway between its poles. The equator usually refers to the Earth's equator: an imaginary line on the Earth's surface equidistant from the North Pole and South Pole, dividing the Earth into the Northern Hemisphere and Southern Hemisphere. The Equator is about 40,075 km long; some 78.7% lies across water and 21.3% over land. Other planets and astronomical bodies have equators similarly defined. The Equator is one of the five notable circles of latitude on Earth; the other four are the two Polar Circles: the Arctic Circle and the Antarctic Circle; and the two Tropical Circles: the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn.
In the cycle of Earth's seasons, the plane of the equator passes through the Sun twice per year: at the March and September equinoxes. To an observer on the Earth, the Sun appears to travel North or South over the equator (or the celestial equator) at these times. Light rays from the center of the Sun are perpendicular to the surface of the Earth at the point of solar noon on the Equator. Locations on the Equator experience the quickest sunrises and sunsets because the sun moves nearly perpendicular to the horizon for most of the year. The length of daylight (sunrise to sunset) is almost constant throughout the year.
Ask questions to find out:
the exact location of the equator
if it an imaginary line or a real one
the length of the Equator
if there are other notable circles of latitude on Earth
why the sunrise is the quickest on the Equator
Bonsai are potted miniature trees which are carefully styled to achieve an aesthetic effect. The concept was first imported into Japan from China more than a thousand years ago. Since then, a distinctive style of this art form has been developed in Japan. Various techniques such as the trimming of roots and wiring are used to keep the trees small but in proportion to how they might have looked if grown in nature. This achieves the effect of condensing the appearance of a natural tree or forest within the pot, leaving room for artistic imagination. Typical trees used in bonsai include those with needled leaves such as pine trees (matsu), with broader leaves such as maple trees, with flowers such as cherry trees (sakura), and with fruits such as quince trees (karin). Some art pieces also use grass as the subject. Some trees purposely feature white colored, dead parts without bark to represent the struggle of a tree in nature. A partially dead trunk is called shari, while a partially dead branch is known as jin. Bonsai come in various styles There are some of the most commonly encountered ones: formal and informal straight (when the trunk is straight, and the pinnacle of the tree is in line with the body and the base. In case of an informal straight bonsai, the trunk slants slightly, but the top of the tree still ends up directly above the center of the base); slant(as the name suggests, the entire tree is slanted to one side); cascade (the tree grows downwards to one side to a degree where its pinnacle ends up at the same height or lower than the pot, like a tree at the edge of a cliff); forest and multi-trunk (in a forest style bonsai, multiple trees are grown in the same pot, carefully fashioned to mimic a forest. A multi-trunk bonsai is similar to the forest style, except that the multiple trunks have a common root, i.e. they are actually a single tree); rock (when the tree grows on a rock with its roots anchored in the rock's cracks or in the soil below).
Ask questions to find out:
what bonsai is
where the concept was born
what country has developed this art to perfection
if various trees can be used in bonsai
what various styles of bonsai are available for the art lover
The art of drinking and serving tea is an important and special event in China. It is a time to relax and enjoy the taste and the smell of the tea.
The Chinese tea ceremony is all about the tea. The smells and taste are the most important parts of the ceremony, so the rules for making and pouring the tea are not always the same. In most areas of China the tea is made in small clay teapots. The pot is rinsed with boiling water and then the tea leaves are added to the pot using chopsticks or a bamboo scoop. The tea leaves are rinsed in hot water in the pot and then hot water is added to the leaves to make the tea. The temperature of the water is important. It needs to be hot but if it is too hot it can spoil the taste. The art of preparing and making tea is called Cha Dao. In less than a minute, the server pours the tea into small narrow cups but he doesn't pour one cup at a time. Instead the cups are arranged in a circle and the server pours the tea in all of them in one go. He fills the cups just over half way. The Chinese believe that the rest of the cup is filled with friendship and affection. The server passes a cup to each guest and invites him or her to smell the tea first. You should thank him by tapping on the table three times with your finger. Next each guest pours their tea into a drinking cup and they are asked to smell the empty narrow cup. Finally they drink the tea. It is most polite to empty the cup in three swallows. When you drink tea in a teahouse or restaurant is it called Yum Cha, yum is to drink and cha is tea.
Ask questions to find out:
what country is famous for its tea ceremony
what is important for this special event
if the rules of making tea coincide everywhere
how the art of preparing tea is called
how you should thank the server for the cup of tea
The Great Barrier Reef is the world's largest coral reef system composed of over 2,900 individual reefs and 900 islands stretching for over 2,300 km over an area of approximately 344,400 square km. The reef is located in the Coral Sea, off the coast of Queensland, Australia.
The Great Barrier Reef can be seen from outer space and is the world's biggest single structure made by living organisms. This reef structure is composed of and built by billions of tiny organisms, known as coral polyps. It supports a wide diversity of life and was selected as a World Heritage Site in 1981. The breathtaking array of marine creatures includes 600 types of soft and hard corals, more than 100 species of jellyfish, 3000 varieties of mollusks, 500 species of worms, 1625 types of fish, 133 varieties of sharks and rays, and more than 30 species of whales and dolphins.
A large part of the reef is protected by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, which helps to limit the impact of human use, such as fishing and tourism. Other environmental pressures on the reef and its ecosystem include runoff, climate change accompanied by mass coral bleaching, and cyclic population outbreaks of the crown-of-thorns starfish.
Ask questions to find out:
the number of individual reefs
the length of the coral islands
the number of fish that inhabit the Reef
if the natural wonder is protected by people
why the Reef is in danger of destruction

The Peripheral nervous system is made up of two parts: somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system. The somatic nervous system consists of peripheral nerve fibers that pick up sensory information or sensations from the peripheral or distant organs (those from the brain like limbs) and carry them to the central nervous system.
These also consist of motor nerve fibers that come out of the brain and take the messages for movement and necessary action to the skeletal muscles. For example, on touching a hot object the sensory nerves carry information about the heat to the brain, which in turn, via the motor nerves, tells the muscles of the hand to withdraw it immediately. The whole process takes less than a second to happen. The cell body of the neuron that carries the information often lies within the brain or spinal cord and projects directly to a skeletal muscle.
Autonomic nervous system controls the nerves of the inner organs of the body on which humans have no conscious control. This includes the heartbeat, digestion, breathing, etc.
Ask questions to find out:
how many parts the Peripheral nervous system consists of
what the functions of peripheral nerve fibers are
where the cell body of the neuron that carries the information often lies
if autonomic nervous system controls the nerves of the inner organs
what inner organs belong to this control
A rainbow occurs when raindrops and sunshine cross paths. Sunlight consists of all the colors of light, which add together to make white illumination. When sunlight enters water drops, it reflects off their inside surfaces. While passing through the droplets, the light also separates into its component colors, which is similar to the effect of a glass prism. Each falling water drop actually flashes its colors to the observer for just an instant, before another drop takes its place.
A rainbow is usually seen in the opposite direction in the sky from the sun. The rainbow light is reflected to the eye at an angle of 42 degrees to the original ray of sunlight. The bow shape is actually part of a cone of light that is cut off by the horizon. If you travel toward the end of a rainbow, it will move ahead of you, maintaining its shape. Thus, there is no real end to a rainbow, and no pot of gold waiting there. Because the 42 degree angle is measured from each individual observer's eye, no two people see exactly the same rainbow. Every person is at the center of his or her own particular cone of colored light. From the high vantage point of a mountaintop or an airplane a complete circle of rainbow light sometimes can be seen. The bright, primary rainbow has red on the outer edge and blue within. Higher in the sky there is always another, dimmer rainbow with the order of colors reversed. This secondary rainbow results from additional reflection of sunlight through the raindrops. It is most visible when there are dark clouds behind it. Look for the second bow high in the sky the next time rainbow colors appear. Some observers have even reported seeing third and fourth rainbows above the first two.
Ask questions to find out:
when a rainbow usually occurs
what effect the rainbow is similar to
at what angle the rainbow is reflected to the eye
if a rainbow has an end
if different people can see the same rainbow
Why do volcanoes erupt? Let us start with what the earth is made of.The earth is made up of three layer parts. The outer crust is the layer on which we live. It is estimated to be about 1800 miles deep. Then there is the mantle; and then the core (inner and outer core). The mantle is made up of molten material and gases. Molten materials are solids (like rock) that have turned into liquid because of extreme heat. The name for molten rock and other gases in the earth’s mantle is Magma. Magma is liquid made up of many crystals, fragments and gases including oxygen, silicon, iron, aluminium, magnesium and manganese. When they cool off on the earth’s surface, they turn into magmatic or igneous rocks.Whenever extreme pressure builds in the mantle, along fault lines (openings or cracks in weak spots in the earth’s crust) an eruption is likely to happen next. During an eruption, molten materials (soon to become lava) gush out through spaces in the crust to the surface. Molten rock is called magma when it is inside the crust but once it gets to the surface of the earth it is called lava.Eruptions can be in the form of lava fragments shooting into the atmosphere and forming thick clouds of lava. Fresh lava is believed to be about 2,200°F. It can be red hot as it shoots from the vent and turn into gray or black as it cools. Lava rich in silicon is like honey, and flows a lot more slowly from the vent. In other types, lava also comes in thick, pasty form.
Ask questions to find out:
how many layers the earth is made of
the depth of the outer crust
what the mantel is made of
what happens during the eruption
the temperature of the fresh lava
In the pre-Revolutionary years, colonists had held annual celebrations of the king’s birthday, which traditionally included the ringing of bells, bonfires, processions and speechmaking. By contrast, during the summer of 1776 some colonists celebrated the birth of independence by holding mock funerals for King George III, as a way of symbolizing the end of the monarchy’s hold on America and the triumph of liberty. Festivities including concerts, bonfires, parades and the firing of cannons and muskets usually accompanied the first public readings of the Declaration of Independence, beginning immediately after its adoption. Philadelphia held the first annual commemoration of independence on July 4, 1777, while Congress was still occupied with the ongoing war. George Washington issued double rations of rum to all his soldiers to mark the anniversary of independence in 1778, and in 1781, several months before the key American victory at Yorktown, Massachusetts became the first state to make July 4th an official state holiday.
After the Revolutionary War, Americans continued to commemorate Independence Day every year, in celebrations that allowed the new nation’s emerging political leaders to address citizens and create a feeling of unity. By the last decade of the 18th century, the two major political parties–Federalists and Democratic-Republicans–that had arisen began holding separate Independence Day celebrations in many large cities.
Falling in mid-summer, the Fourth of July has since the late 19th century become a major focus of leisure activities and a common occasion for family get-togethers, often involving fireworks and outdoor barbecues.
Ask questions to find out:
what holiday Americans celebrate on 4 July
what kinds of entertainments are available on this day
what state proclaimed this holiday as an official one first
if one can see a colorful firework on this day
if the families get together on this day
AD 105 is often cited as the year in which papermaking was invented. In that year, historical records show that the invention of paper was reported to the Chinese Emperor by Ts'ai Lun, an official of the Imperial Court. Recent archaeological investigations, however, place the actual invention of papermaking some 200 years earlier.
Early Chinese paper appears to have been made by from a suspension of hemp waste in water, washed, soaked, and beaten to a pulp with a wooden mallet. A paper mold, probably a sieve of coarsely woven cloth stretched in a four-sided bamboo frame, was used to dip up the fiber slurry from the vat and hold it for drying. Eventually, tree bark, bamboo, and other plant fibers were used in addition to hemp.
The first real advance in papermaking came with the development of a smooth material for the mold covering, which made it possible for the papermaker to free the newly formed sheet and reuse the mold immediately. This covering was made from thin strips of rounded bamboo stitched or laced together with silk, flax, or animal hairs. Other Chinese improvements in papermaking include the use of starch as a sizing material and the use of a yellow dye which doubled as an insect repellent for manuscript paper.
Ask questions to find out:
when papermaking was invented
what ingredients Chinese paper was made of
what the first advance in papermaking came with
what other Chinese improvements in papermaking you can mention
if it was a rather important invention in the history of mankind
A recent but already very popular tourist attraction is the London Eye, a giant observation wheel located in the Jubilee Gardens on the South Bank. The 135 meter tall structure was built as part of London's millennium celebrations.
The structure was designed by the architectural team of David Marks and Julia Barfield, husband and wife. They submitted their idea for a large observation wheel as part of a competition to design a landmark for the new millennium. The futuristic looking capsules, accommodating up to 25 passengers, were transported all the way from France by train through the channel. Each egg-shaped capsule is 8 meters long and weighs 500kg.
The observation wheel turns slow enough for people to embark while it is moving. A complete turn takes about 30 minutes. Thanks to the construction of the glass capsules on the outer side of the rim, the passengers have a great 360° view over London. Many famous landmarks are clearly visible, including Buckingham Palace, St. Paul's Cathedral and the Houses of Parliament. On a clear day you can see as far as 40 km.
Ask questions to find out:
what the London Eye is
the location of the attraction
how tall it is
who designed the structure
how long a complete turn of the Wheel takes
Condensation is the process by which water vapor in the air is changed into liquid water. Condensation is crucial to the water cycle because it is responsible for the formation of clouds. These clouds may produce precipitation, which is the primary route for water to return to the Earth's surface within the water cycle. Condensation is the opposite of evaporation.
You don't have to look at something as far away as a cloud to notice condensation, though. Condensation is responsible for ground-level fog. You probably see condensation right at home every day. If you wear glasses and go from a cold, air-conditioned room to outside on a humid day, the lenses fog up as small water droplets coat the surface via condensation. People buy coasters to keep condensed water from dripping off their chilled drink glass onto their coffee tables. Condensation is responsible for the water covering the inside of a window on a cold day (unless you are lucky enough to have double-paned windows that keep the inside pane relatively warm) and for the moisture on the inside of car windows, especially after people have been exhaling moist air. All of these are examples of water leaving the vapor state in the warm air and condensing into liquid as it is cools.
Ask questions to find out:
what is changed in the process of condensation
why condensation is crucial to the water cycle
what is the opposite to condensation
if a person sees condensation every day right at home
what are the main conditions of condensation
The Peterhof Palace is a series of palaces and gardens located in Petergof, Saint Petersburg, Russia, laid out on the orders of Peter the Great. These palaces and gardens are sometimes referred as the "Russian Versailles". The palace-ensemble along with the city center is recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage SiteThe dominant natural feature of Peterhof is a sixteen-metre-high bluff lying less than a hundred metres from the shore. The so-called Lower Gardens, at 1.02 km² comprising the better part of Peterhof's land area, are confined between this bluff and the shore, stretching east and west for roughly 200 m.
Atop the bluff, near the middle of the Lower Gardens, stands the Grand Palace. Behind (south) of it are the comparatively small Upper Gardens. Upon the bluff's face below the Palace is the Grand Cascade. This and the Grand Palace are the centerpiece of the entire complex. At the centre of the cascade is an artificial grotto with two stories, faced inside and out with hewn brown stone. It currently contains a modest museum of the fountains' history. The grotto is connected to the palace above and behind by a hidden corridor.
The fountains of the Grand Cascade are located below the grotto and on either side of it. In the 1730s, the large Samson Fountain was placed in this pool. It depicts the moment when Samson tears open the jaws of a lion, representing Russia's victory over Sweden in the Great Northern War, and is doubly symbolic. The lion is an element of the Swedish coat of arms, and one of the great victories of the war was won on St Samson's Day. From the lion's mouth shoots a 20-metre-high vertical jet of water, the highest in all of Peterhof.
Ask questions to find out:
the location of the Peterhof Palace
what are the main constituent parts of the estate
what represents the center of the whole complex
what the large Samson Fountain looks like
what symbolic meaning the large Samson Fountain has
A lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes directly behind the Earth into its umbra (shadow). This can occur only when the sun, Earth and moon are aligned exactly, or very closely so, with the Earth in the middle. Hence, a lunar eclipse can occur only the night of a full moon. The type and length of an eclipse depend upon the Moon's location relative to its orbital nodes.
A total lunar eclipse has the direct sunlight completely blocked by the earth's shadow. The only light seen is refracted through the earth's shadow. This light looks red for the same reason that the sunset looks red, due to rayleigh scattering of the more blue light. Because of its reddish color, a total lunar eclipse is sometimes called a blood moon.
Unlike a solar eclipse, which can be viewed only from a certain relatively small area of the world, a lunar eclipse may be viewed from anywhere on the night side of the Earth. A lunar eclipse lasts for a few hours, whereas a total solar eclipse lasts for only a few minutes at any given place, due to the smaller size of the Moon's shadow. Also unlike solar eclipses, lunar eclipses are safe to view without any eye protection or special precautions, as they are dimmer than the full moon.
A partial lunar eclipse occurs when only a portion of the moon enters the umbra. When the moon travels completely into the Earth's umbra, one observes a total lunar eclipse. A central lunar eclipse is a total lunar eclipse during which the moon passes through the centre of the Earth's shadow. These are relatively rare.
Ask questions to find out:
when can a lunar eclipse occur
what the type and length of an eclipse depend on
what colour the total lunar eclipse is
if a lunar eclipse may be viewed everywhere
why lunar eclipses are safe to view without any eye protection
A tornado is a violently rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or, in rare cases, the base of a cumulus cloud. Tornadoes come in many shapes and sizes, but they are typically in the form of a visible condensation funnel, whose narrow end touches the earth and is often encircled by a cloud of debris and dust. Most tornadoes have wind speeds less than 110 miles per hour.
Tornadoes can have a wide range of colors, depending on the environment in which they form. Those that form in dry environments can be nearly invisible, marked only by swirling debris at the base of the funnel. Condensation funnels that pick up little or no debris can be gray to white. While traveling over a body of water (as a waterspout), tornadoes can turn very white or even blue. Slow-moving funnels, which ingest a considerable amount of debris and dirt, are usually darker, taking on the color of debris. Tornadoes in the Great Plains can turn red because of the reddish tint of the soil, and tornadoes in mountainous areas can travel over snow-covered ground, turning white.
Tornadoes normally rotate cyclonically (when viewed from above, this is counterclockwise in the northern hemisphere and clockwise in the southern).
Ask questions to find out:
what tornado is
if tornado can have different colours
what the colour of the funnel depends on
how tornadoes usually rotate
if tornadoes usually cause a lot of damage
The Great Wall, one of the greatest wonders of the world, was listed as a World Heritage by UNESCO in 1987. Just like a gigantic dragon, it winds up and down across deserts, grasslands, mountains and plateaus, stretching approximately 13,170 miles from east to west of China.
With a history of more than 2,000 years, some of the sections are now in ruins or have disappeared. However, it is still one of the most appealing attractions all around the world owing to its architectural grandeur and historical significance.The Great Wall was originally built in the Spring and Autumn, and Warring States Periods as a defensive fortification by the three states: Yan, Zhao and Qin. It went through constant extensions and repairs in later dynasties. Emperor Qin Shihuang succeeded in his effort to have the walls joined together to fend off the invasions from the Huns in the north. Since then, the Wall has served as a monument of the Chinese nation throughout history.
The mystery of the construction of the wall is amazing. The construction, which drew heavily on the local resources for construction materials, was carried out in-line with the local conditions under the management of contract and responsibility system. A great army of manpower, composed of soldiers, prisoners and local people, built the wall. The construction result demonstrates the wisdom and tenacity of the Chinese people.
Ask questions to find out:
when the Great Wall of China was included into a World Heritage by UNESCO
what the construction looks like
the exact length of the Wall
if the construction had a long history
what the construction result demonstrate
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days. It has the longest rotation period (243 days) of any planet in the Solar System and rotates in the opposite direction to most other planets. It has no natural satellite. It is named after the Roman goddess of love and beauty. It is the second-brightest natural object in the night sky after the Moon.
Venus is a terrestrial planet and is sometimes called Earth's "sister planet" because of their similar size, mass, proximity to the Sun, and bulk composition. It is radically different from Earth in other respects. It has the densest atmosphere of the four terrestrial planets, consisting of more than 96% carbon dioxide. The atmospheric pressure at the planet's surface is 92 times that of Earth. Venus is by far the hottest planet in the Solar System, with a mean surface temperature of 462 °C; even though Mercury is closer to the Sun. It may have had water oceans in the past, but these would have vaporized as the temperature rose due to a runaway greenhouse effect.
Venus's thick clouds render observation of its surface impossible in visible light, and the first detailed maps did not emerge until the arrival of the Magellan orbiter in 1991. It found out that about 80% of the planet's surface is covered by smooth, volcanic plains, consisting of 70% plains with wrinkle ridges and 10% smooth plains.
Ask questions to find out:
why the planet rotates in the opposite direction to most other planets
if the planet has any satellites
if Venus is similar to Earth
why there are no oceans on the surface of the planet today
when the first detailed map of the surface appeared
Gravity or gravitation is a natural phenomenon by which all things with energy are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another, including stars, planets, galaxies and even light and sub-atomic particles. Gravity is responsible for many of the structures in the Universe, by creating spheres of hydrogen — where hydrogen fuses under pressure to form stars — and grouping them into galaxies. On Earth, gravity gives weight to physical objects and causes the tides. Gravity has an infinite range, although its effects become increasingly weaker on farther objects.
Gravity is most accurately described by the general theory of relativity (proposed by Albert Einstein in 1915) which describes gravity not as a force but as a consequence of the curvature of space time caused by the uneven distribution of mass/energy; and resulting in gravitational time dilation, where time lapses more slowly in lower (stronger) gravitational potential. However, for most applications, gravity is well approximated by Newton's law of universal gravitation, which postulates that gravity causes a force where two bodies of mass are directly drawn (or 'attracted') to each other according to a mathematical relationship, where the attractive force is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. This is considered to occur over an infinite range, such that all bodies (with mass) in the universe are drawn to each other no matter how far they are apart.
Ask questions to find out:
what Gravity is responsible for
when Gravity was most accurately described
who the author of the general theory of relativity was
if Newton studied universal gravitation as well
what Newton's law of universal gravitation means
Kensington Gardens are one of the Royal Parks of London, lying immediately to the west of Hyde Park. It is shared between the City of Westminster and the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, lying within western central London. The park covers an area of 111 hectares. The open spaces of Kensington Gardens, Hyde Park, Green Park and St. James's Park together form an almost continuous "green lung" in the heart of London between Kensington and Westminster.
Kensington Gardens was originally the western section of Hyde Park, which had been created by Henry VIII in 1536 to use as a hunting ground. It was separated from the remainder of Hyde Park in 1728 at the request of Queen Caroline and designed by Henry Wise and Charles Bridgeman in order to form a landscape garden, with fashionable features including the Round Pond, formal avenues and a sunken Dutch garden.
At its north-western end in an area known as "The Italian Garden", there are four fountains and a number of classical sculptures. The land surrounding Kensington Gardens was predominantly rural and remained largely undeveloped until the Great Exhibition in 1851. Many of the original features survive along with the Palace, and now there are other public buildings such as the Albert Memorial (at the south-east corner of Kensington Gardens, opposite the Royal Albert Hall), the Serpentine Gallery. The park also contains the Elfin Oak, an elaborately carved 900-year-old tree stump.
Ask questions to find out:
the location of the park
the territory of the park
what functions the park fulfill for the city dwellers
if there are any fountains in the park
what public buildings tourists can visit in the park
Walt Disney World, formally called Walt Disney World Resort and also known as Disney World, is an entertainment complex in Bay Lake, Florida near Orlando. Opened on October 1, 1971, Walt Disney World is the most visited vacation resort in the world, with an attendance of over 52 million people annually.
The resort is owned and operated by Walt Disney Parks and Resorts, a division of The Walt Disney Company. The property covers 27,258 acres, housing twenty-seven themed resort hotels, nine non–Disney hotels, four theme parks, two water parks, several golf courses, a camping resort and other entertainment venues. Magic Kingdom was the first theme park to open in the complex. Its layout and attractions are similar to Disneyland Park in Anaheim, California, and is dedicated to fairy tales and Disney characters. The park is represented by Cinderella Castle.
The Disney's Animal Kingdom is the fourth of four theme parks built at the Walt Disney World Resort in Bay Lake, Florida. It was dedicated and opened to the public during Earth Day on April 22, 1998. It is the largest theme park in the world, covering 580 acres. The park is dedicated and themed entirely around the natural environment and animal conservation, a philosophy once pioneered by Walt Disney himself.
The Disney's Wedding Pavilion is a facility at the Walt Disney World resort in Bay Lake, Florida, near Orlando, that hosts weddings and "commitment ceremonies". The Wedding Pavilion is equipped with three built-in video cameras, as well a control booth that allows the camera operators to capture everything that is going on during the ceremony.
Ask questions to find out:
the location of the park
the date of its opening
the number of theme parks included into the entire complex
what the largest theme park is devoted to
what facilities are available at The Disney's Wedding Pavilion
During 1860s, James Maxwell, a Scottish physicist forecasted presence of radio waves. And in year 1886, Heinrich Hertz showcased projection of swift variation of the electric current into space in form of radio waves. Twenty years after invention of telephone, music was set down on telephone line and Guglielmo Marconi was responsible for the radio signals. This Italian discoverer demonstrated radio communication’s feasibility. Fascinated by Hertz’s discovery of the radio waves, he realized that it could be used for receiving and sending the telegraph messages, referring to it as wireless telegraphs. His earliest radio transmissions, the coded signals transmitted to only a mile far in 1896. Marconi then recognized its high potential and offered the discovery to Italian Government that had turned it down. He then realized a patent and experimented further after moving to England. He then established link with USA in year 1901. And Marconi shared Nobel Prize in Physics for wireless telegraph in year 1909.
But his wireless telegraph only transmitted signals. Voice in radio came in the 1921. Soon after, in 1922, he introduced short wave transmissions. Marconi however was not the first one to invent radio. Nikola Tesla who moved to US in 1884, launched radio’s theoretical model prior to Marconi. In 1915, Tesla tried to acquire court’s injunction against Marconi. And in year 1943, Supreme Court US reviewed decision. And due to this Tesla was acknowledged as inventor of radio even when he did ever build working radio. 
There has been tremendous growth of the radio over the years. Transmitters earlier were known as spark gap machines. Wireless signals demonstrated effective communication for the purpose of rescue in case of sea disasters. Range of ocean liners installed the wireless equipments and in 1899, US Army established the wireless communication. Just after two years, Navy adopted wireless system and it was relief as Navy had been using homing pigeons and visual signaling for communication.
Ask questions to find out:
who forecasted presence of radio waves
what Guglielmo Marconi was responsible for
how far the earliest radio transmissions were transmitted
why Marconi moved to England
with whom Marconi shared the Nobel Prize in year 1909
Scuba diving is now the most popular recreational water sports in the world as shown by the increasing numbers of enthusiasts, scuba diving sites, and companies selling scuba diving equipment. Scuba divers have different criteria when choosing for the best site, so here are the 25 best places to go scuba diving and see why they are so fascinating.
Maldives is a very popular dive site with exotic underwater flora and fauna; and beautiful coral reefs. Since it is isolated from large landmasses, it has seasonal sea currents that pass through new channels to form different atolls which are teeming with rich marine ecosystems. You will encounter fascinating fish species such as tuna jacks, dogtooth tuna, butterfly fish and other rare species like the giant Napoleon Wrasse. There are also whale sharks, anemones, eels, manta rays and turtles.
The Philippines is made up of seven thousands plus islands and today, is considered one of the top destinations to go scuba diving. Puerto Galera is the best place to see bounteous marine life and magnificent coral reefs, making it a favorite among underwater photographers.
Belize is famous for the Blue Hole, which is one of its best preserved marine ecosystems. While it is slowly gaining popularity among tourists, scuba divers can still take advantage of its anonymity.
Off the gulf of Thailand is a resort island that is specifically dedicated to scuba diving as it is surrounded on all sides with colorful reefs. If you want to dive with grey reef sharks and whale sharks among others, this is the place to do it.
Hawaii is a huge marine reserve that was once considered the largest in the world (Australia now holds that title). Some of the marine animals to see include school of colorful tropical fish, giant sea turtles, sharks, stingrays, whales and many more. Lodge in the historic coastal town of Kailua Kona in order to be close to great diving spots.
Ask questions to find out:
the number of the best places to go scuba diving available
what fish species you can encounter at the Maldives
the amount of islands the Philippines are made up of
the location of the best preserved marine ecosystem
if Hawaii has the largest marine reserve for scuba diving in the world
The original chess was invented in China, right around 200 B.C., by a military commander named Hán Xin ("Hahn Sheen"). The game was designed to represent a particular battle, anticipated by Hán Xin's troops as they waited out the winter holding their ground. This first chess was called The game to capture Xiang Qi, Xiang Qi being the name of the commander of the opposing army. This battle is well established in Chinese history.
A few years after his victory in this battle, Hán Xin fell out of favor with the emperor, and his game became less popular, or even forbidden, but was resurrected in the Tang Dyanasty (7th through 10th centuries A.D.). At that time several new rules came into effect and variations of the game spread throughout the world.
In subsequent years, the name of the game was shortened to Xiang Qi, hence xiangqi. The Chinese characters, xiang and qi, also mean "elephant game," and this became the most common interpretation, losing the original reference to that ancient battle.
Then, when chess was taken from China to Persia and India, it was adapted to India's popular game board, the ashtapada, a board of 8 x 8 squares. The Commander's (King's) central position was lost, as was the symmetry of his flanking army. The Ministers lost their neat symmetrical coverage of the Commander, and they lost the original meaning of their name, as the name "elephant" was the translation that stuck.
Ask questions to find out:
when the chess was invented
whom the chess was invented by
with what aim the game was designed
the time when the game got popularity again
what the Chinese name of the game means
A comet is an icy body that releases gas or dust. They are often compared to dirty snowballs, though recent research has led some scientists to call them snowy dirtballs. Comets contain dust, ice, carbon dioxide, ammonia, methane and more. Astronomers think comets are leftovers from the gas, dust, ice and rocks that initially formed the solar system about 4.6 billion years ago.
Halley's Comet is likely the most famous comet in the world, even depicted in the Bayeux Tapestry that chronicled the Battle of Hastings of 1066. It becomes visible to the naked eye every 76 years when it nears the sun. When Halley's Comet zoomed near Earth in 1986, five spacecraft flew past it and gathered unprecedented details, coming close enough to study its nucleus, which is normally concealed by the comet's coma. The roughly potato-shaped, 9-mile-long comet contains equal parts ice and dust, with some 80 percent of the ice made of water and about 15 percent of it consisting of frozen carbon monoxide.
The comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 collided spectacularly with Jupiter in 1994, with the giant planet's gravitational pull ripping the comet apart for at least 21 visible impacts. A recent, highly visible comet was Hale-Bopp, which came within 122 million miles of Earth in 1997. Comet ISON was expected to give a spectacular show in 2013. However, the sun-grazer did not survive its close encounter with the sun and was destroyed.
Ask questions to find out:
what comet is made of
what comets are often compare to
when comets were formed in the Solar System
what the most famous comets people know
when Halley's Comet becomes visible to the naked eye
Interesting Internet Facts are the following. The first domain ever registered was on March 15, 1985.  The “//” forward slashes in any web address serve no real purpose according to Berners-Lee.  He only put them in because, “It seemed like a good idea at the time.”  He wanted a way to separate the part the web server needed to know about, for instance “”, from the other stuff which is more service oriented
Berners-Lee chose the “#” for separating the main part of a document’s url with the portion that tells what part of the page to go to, because in the United States and some other countries, if you want to specify an address of an individual apartment or suite in a building, you classically precede the suite or apartment number with a “#”. 
Berners-Lee chose the name “World Wide Web” because he wanted to emphasize that, in this global hypertext system, anything could link to anything else.  Most web addresses begin with “www” because of the traditional practice of naming a server according to the service it provides. 
The word “internet” was used as early as 1883 as a verb and adjective to refer to interconnected motions, but almost a century later, in 1982, the term would, of course, be used to describe a worldwide network of fully interconnected TCP/IP networks. In 1988, the very first massive computer virus in history called “The Internet Worm” was responsible for more than 10 percent of the world’s Internet servers shutting down temporarily.
Ask questions to find out:
when the first domain was registered
what for Berners-Lee chose the “#”
what he wanted to emphasize by the name “World Wide Web”
if the word "Internet" appeared as early as 1883
what “The Internet Worm” was responsible for
Most modern windsurfers (1990s and later) are derived from the shortboard design, and are intended to be used ideally in planing mode, where the board is mostly skipping over the surface of the water, rather than cutting through, and displacing the water. Planing is faster and gives more maneuverability, but requires a different technique from the displacement mode. Generally, smaller (i.e., lower volume, shorter length, narrower width) boards and smaller area sails are used as the wind increases.
While windsurfing is possible under a wide range of wind conditions, most recreational windsurfers prefer to sail in conditions that allow for consistent planing with multi-purpose, not overly specialized, free-ride equipment. Larger (100 to 140 liters) free-ride boards are capable of planing at wind speeds as low as 12 knots if rigged with an adequate, well-tuned sail in the six to eight square meter range. The pursuit of planing in lower and lower winds has driven the development and spread of wider and shorter boards, with which planing is possible in wind speeds as low as 8 knots, if sails in the 10 to 12 square meter range are used.
Two designs of a sail are predominant: camber induced and rotational. Cambered sails have 1–5 camber inducers, plastic devices at the ends of battens which cup against the mast. They help to hold a rigid aerofoil shape in the sail, better for speed and stability, but at the cost of maneuverability and generally how light and easy to use the sail feels. The trend is that racier sails have camber inducers while wave sails and most recreational sails do not. The rigidity of the sail is also determined by a number of battens.
Ask questions to find out:
what the board of modern design looks like
under what conditions windsurfing is possible
what designs of a sail are predominant
what kind of shape cambered sails hold for speed and stability
if the rigidity of the sail is also determined by a number of battensTEST 73
On May 16, 1960, the laser was born. A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation. The term "laser" originated as an acronym for "light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation". The first laser was built in 1960 by Theodore H. Maiman at Hughes Research Laboratories, based on theoretical work by Charles Hard Townes and Arthur Leonard Schawlow. A laser differs from other sources of light in that it emits light coherently. Spatial coherence also allows a laser beam to stay narrow over great distances, enabling applications such as laser pointers.
Laser surgery is commonly used on the eye. Techniques used include LASIK, which is used to correct near and far-sightedness in vision, and photorefractive keratectomy, a procedure which permanently reshapes the cornea using an excimer laser to remove a small amount of tissue.
Recognized as one of the top ten technological achievements of the twentieth century, the laser's presence in the world is ubiquitous. Its continual expansion of the boundaries of science, medicine, industry, and entertainment has resulted in fiber-optic communication, CDs, CD-ROMs, and DVDs. Without the laser, millions would be blind who now see. There would be no smart bombs, supermarket bar code readers, certain life-saving cancer treatments, or precise navigation techniques for commercial aircraft. New and popular procedures that enable one to be rid of eyeglasses, remove unsightly moles, wrinkles, and tattoos, and even streamline bikini lines, would have never come to be.  
Ask questions to find out:
the time the laser was born
how this device emits light
who the first laser was built by
if laser surgery is commonly used on the eyewhy the laser's presence in the world is ubiquitous
In 1938 DuPont started construction on a nylon production facility in Seaford, Delaware, that could produce up to 12 million pounds of the synthetic fiber a year. It was time to introduce nylon to the American public.
Nylon’s characteristics made for an ideal material to suit any number of uses, but DuPont decided early on that it would focus on a single market: ladies’ full-fashioned hosiery. DuPont jumped back into consumer nylon production almost as soon as the war ended, with the first pairs of stockings returning to stores in September 1945. Everywhere the stockings appeared, newspapers reported on “nylon riots” in which hundreds, sometimes thousands, of women lined up to compete for a limited supply of hosiery.
Nylon stockings represented only the beginning of what would soon become a fashion revolution. Cheap and colorful, synthetic fibers offered the promise of an easy-care, wash-and-wear, disposable future. By the 1950s nylon and other synthetic fibers could be found in underwear, socks, petticoats, fake fur coats, mock-wool sweater sets, and even men’s drip-dry suits. Women’s fashion was especially transformed by synthetic fabrics, as new Lycra girdles—more comfortable and lightweight than traditional rubber models—cinched women’s bodies into dramatic hourglass figures that could then be surrounded with yards and yards of billowing synthetic material.
Ask questions to find out:
who invented the synthetic fiber called nylon
what DuPont started in 1938
if nylon’s characteristics were ideal to suit any number of uses
why nylon caused the fashion revolution
the range of items nylon can be used
One of the most mysterious planets is Neptune. Neptune was not known to the ancients. It is not visible to the naked eye and was first observed in 1846. Its position was determined using mathematical predictions. It was named after the Roman god of the sea. Neptune spins on its axis very rapidly. Its equatorial clouds take 18 hours to make one rotation. This is because Neptune is not solid body. Neptune is the smallest of the ice giants. The atmosphere of Neptune is made of hydrogen and helium, with some methane. The methane absorbs red light, which makes the planet appear a lovely blue. High, thin clouds drift in the upper atmosphere.
Neptune has a very active climate. Large storms whirl through its upper atmosphere, and high-speed winds track around the planet at up 600 meters per second. One of the largest storms ever seen was recorded in 1989. It was called the Great Dark Spot. It lasted about five years.
Neptune has a very thin collection of rings. Neptune has 14 moons. The most interesting moon is Triton, a frozen world that is spewing nitrogen ice and dust particles out from below its surface. It was likely captured by the gravitational pull of Neptune. It is probably the coldest world in the solar system. Only one spacecraft has flown by Neptune. In 1989, the Voyager 2 spacecraft swept past the planet. It returned the first close-up images of the Neptune system. The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope has also studied this planet.
Ask questions to find out:
the time Neptune was first observed
what the atmosphere of Neptune is made of
if Neptune has a very active climate
the name of the most interesting moon
if any spacecrafts have ever flown to Neptune

Приложенные файлы