A). Born in 1743, Thomas Jefferson helped shape the new American nation and also shaped some of the country's most famous buildings. The twentieth century architects who designed the circular Jefferson Memorial in Washington D.C. drew inspiration from Thomas Jefferson's architectural ideas. And from where did Jefferson get his ideas? The Pantheon in Rome! This building with its classical portico became a model that influenced Western architecture for 2,000 years.
B)Postmodern architecture evolved from the modernist movement, yet contradicts many of the modernist ideas. Combining new ideas with traditional forms, postmodernist buildings may startle, surprise, and even amuse. Familiar shapes and details are used in unexpected ways. Philip Johnson's AT&T Headquarters is often cited as an example of postmodernism. Like many buildings in the international style, this skyscraper has a classical facade.
C) The Industrial Revolution in Europe brought about a new trend: the use of metals instead of wood and stone in construction. Built in 1889, the Eiffel Tower is perhaps the most famous example of this new use for metal. For 40 years, the Eiffel Tower measured the tallest in the world. The metal lattice-work, formed with very pure structural iron, makes the tower both extremely light and able to withstand tremendous wind forces
D) By the early 1800s, Belfast had become a major port at the beating heart of the region's industry. The launching of the Titanic from the shipways was attended by an estimated 100,000 people, showing how important this event was for Belfast. Many more impressive ships would leave the yard in the coming years before the decline of the shipbuilding industry began in the 1950s, but the Titanic marked the zenith of the great shipbuilding era in Belfast.
E) Thomas Andrews was the chief naval architect at the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast during the early 1900s. He brought the idea of 'Olympic class' ocean liners to life. The most famous of these was Titanic, which he joined on its first voyage. His actions when the ship sank on 15 April 1912 are believed to have saved many lives, but at the cost of his own. In his home town of Comber, the life of Thomas Andrews is commemorated by the Memorial Hall, opened in 1915.
F)An e-book or “electronic book” is available digitally downloaded, and accessed through a device such as a computer, a smart phone or, popularly, a portable e-book reader. In 1971, Michael Hart began storing vast contents of libraries in electronic formats. Hart named his efforts Project Gutenberg, after the inventor of the printing press. Libraries were early adopters of the technology. But it took nearly thirty years for the idea of the e-book to take firm hold with the consumer.
G) The Frankfurt Book Fair is held in October of each year. It usually hosts more than 7,300 exhibitors from 100 countries ranging from Albania to Zimbabwe. For the American book publishing industry, the Frankfurt Book Fair is predominantly a trade fair, that is, a professional meeting place for publishers, editors, librarians, book subsidiary rights managers, booksellers, film producers, authors and many others who are involved in the creation and licensing of book content.
1) It had its finest hour
2) A long way to popularity
3) A stairway to heaven
4) Extraordinary combinations
5) Ideas on sale
6) Brilliant ideas and brave deeds
7) Borrowed ideas
8) Revolutionary materials Ответы: 7481625
A. Musical performance E. Film for all ages
B. Attractive landscape F. Exciting hobby
C. Perfect holidays G. Colourful festival
D. Portrait of a girl H. Interesting book
1. This is a full-length (ninety minutes) cartoon, which is entertaining for both adults and children over six. The animation and colour are of very high quality and the story has lots of fun and excitement. The plot is quick moving and full of surprises. There’s romance, action, comedy, music and lots of fantastic songs and dances.
2. This is a full-blooded magnificently written portrait of history’s most fascinating woman. Readers will lose themselves for hours in this richly entertaining novel full of dramatic twists and turns. From the spectacular era that bears her name comes the spellbinding story of Elizabeth I – her tragic childhood, her confrontation with Mary, Queen of Scots and her brilliant reign.
3. The young woman is shown in a “shepherdess” hat and white dress, recalling a classical chiton. The background landscape, common in such paintings, seems to indicate the heroine’s closeness to nature, to the ordinary joys of life. The painter’s colour range – at times us translucent as porcelain, at others muted like mother-of-pearl – is based upon subtle plays of gray and green, light blue and pink.
4. In this picture one is struck by artist’s absolute mastery in portraying natural details, whether the dry, sandy soil of the forest, the clear stream of water in the foreground, the yellow bark and fluffy needles of the pines, or the sense of a bright, clear, calm summer day. The artist managed to create an image familiar to anyone who has seen a Russian forest.
5. Have a good time on the most lively and exciting island in the Caribbean. Relax under a palm tree on the white sandy beaches. Swim in the clear, blue sea. Listen to the bands playing Calypso music. Or get really adventurous and go scuba diving for sunken treasure on the sea bed. Join in the many cultural celebrations we offer, for example the sugar harvest festival.
6. This event is considered the greatest attraction for visitors to the Isle of Man. No definite date can be given, but it is normally held between 5th and 15th July. The Pageant begins at about 8 p.m. First we are given a glimpse of village life in Celtic times. Then suddenly Viking long ships appear and then there are scenes of war. Then Celts and Vikings unite, and the Manx nation is born. The actual Pageant is followed by a grand torchlight procession and firework display.
7. Do you like Latin American dancing? Do you want to dance like you see in the films and on the stage? Do you want to feel the rhythm of the music in your body and in your soul? Do you want to meet other people who have a love for the same music as you? If you have answered “Yes” to any of these questions, join our Latin dance classes on Thursday night between seven and ten. All are welcome.
Grammar B 4 – B 10 . Funny seagull thinks he is a cat.
A seagull was adopted by June and Steve Grimwood, who found a soot-covered young bird in their fireplace and called him Mr. Pooh. The gull B4 up with cats. BRING
He slept in a cat’s basket, from which he acquired a taste for Whiskas. Since then, Mr. Pooh has learned the sound of the fridge door B5 . OPEN
He B6 the family home, but he can’t resist returning three times a day for his favourite food, announcing his arrival by tapping on the door. LEAVE
The largest snowfall in decades
This week’s snowfall in Brazil is one of the largest in decades. As snow on the ground is not a very common landscape in a so-called tropical country, everybody B 7 excited when they saw streets in snow. FEEL
In the cities by the sea people are used to B8 the summer sun bathing. They B 9 very much when they saw snow covering the city. SPEND
It B 10 long before social media became loaded with pictures of white fields and roads, and snowmen. NOT BE
Vocabulary - B11 – B 16. Great Britain at the 2012 London Olympics
This is certainly the greatest Games for Britain in more than a century, and realistically the greatest ever. The British were more B11 only once in 1908, in London, when a third of all the competitors were from the UK. SUCCESS
Gold medals came from 13 different sports as several made B12 breakthroughs, including in canoe slalom, road cycling, triathlon and taekwondo. IMPRESS
B 13, however, brought no gold medals in the Aquatics Centre. SWIM
They won just one silver and two bronze medals and a review was launched into their B 14 . TRAIN
Optimists may also conclude from London 2012 that the British team came within a whisker of at least five or six more Olympic titles. However, nobody can B 15 suggest second place for the UK at the next Olympics. SERIOUS
If funding levels are maintained and progress continues for the next four years, the defense of third place could be a realistic B16 . EXPECT
A) The Mona Lisa, also known as La Giaconda, became world famous after it was stolen from the Louvre in 1911. The painting was missing for two years before police traced the theft to Italian painter, Vincenzo Peruggia, who stole the work to return it to its country of origin. The Louvre Museum in Paris built a separate room to house the Mona Lisa, giving up to five million visitors a year the chance to see the painting.
B)The tradition of telling stories with a series of sequential images has been a part of Japanese culture long before Superman comic strips. The earliest examples of pre-manga artwork that influenced the development of modern Japanese comics are commonly attributed to Toba Sojo, an 11th-century painter-priest with an odd sense of humor. Toba’s animal paintings satirized life in the Buddhist priesthood by drawing priests as rabbits or monkeys engaged in silly activities.
C)When the story in which Holmes died was published in a popular magazine in 1893, the British reading public was outraged. More than 20,000 people canceled their subscriptions. The demand for Holmes stories was so great that Conan Doyle brought the great detective back to life by explaining that no one had actually seen Holmes go down the Reichenbach Falls. The public, glad to have new tales, bought the explanation.
D) Caviar refers to the salted eggs of the fish species, sturgeon. At the beginning of the 19th century, the United States was one of the greatest producers of caviar in the world. Because of overfishing, commercial sturgeon harvesting was banned. Today, mostly through farm-raised varieties, caviar production has returned in America. Some American caviar is very high in quality and has been compared favorably to wild Caspian caviar.
E) T.S. Eliot wrote in his poem, "The Waste Land," that April was the "cruelest month." He was living in England at the time, and the weather there can be dreadfully rainy and cold during spring. But from a cook's point of view, April is anything but cruel. The month brings us some of the freshest, most wonderful foods. Consider the first ripe strawberries, asparagus, artichokes, tiny peas, and so much more.
F) When the eruption of Vesuvius started on the morning of 24 August, 79 AD, it caught the local population completely unprepared. The catastrophic magnitude of the eruption was connected with the long period of inactivity that preceded it. The longer the intervals between one eruption and another, the greater the explosion will be. Luckily, the frequent but low-level activity of Vesuvius in recent centuries has relieved the build-up of pressure in the magma chamber.
G)Iron Age Britain can only be understood from the archaeological evidence. There are few spectacular ruins from Iron Age Britain. Unlike in Classical Greece or Ancient Egypt, in Iron Age Britain there was no construction of major cities, palaces, temples or pyramids. Rather, it was an essentially rural world of farms and villages, which had no economic or religious need to build palaces, cities, major tombs or ceremonial sites.
1) A happy comeback
2) Dangerous when rare
3) Recovery of a masterpiece
4) Back and deep into the past
5) Return of the popularity
6) From Eastern to Western culture
7) They come back in spring
8) Return to the market
Grammar B4 – B10. Text 1
Machu Picchu, often called "The Lost City of the Incas", is probably the most famous symbol of the Incan Empire. Machu Picchu is situated B4 7,875 above sea level in Peru. FOOT
Machu Picchu B5 around the year 1460 by the Inca as a secret ceremonial city, very well hidden and protected. BUILD
The ruins of Machu Picchu were rediscovered in 1911 by an American archaeologist. Since then, Machu Picchu B6 an important tourist attraction. Thousands of visitors come here every year to admire its wonders. BECOME
Among the e-mails waiting for me at work one morning was one from a member of my staff. It was sent from his personal e-mail address and there was only his home phone number. Thinking something was wrong, I immediately called B7 . HE
A sleepy female voice answered and told me he was at work and B 8 home late in the evening. COME
The B9 moment was when I remembered that I had recently asked staff members to give me their home numbers. I went right down to the employee’s office to apologize for my call. BAD
B10, however, he thanked me. I had awakened his daughter, who had an exam that morning but had forgotten to set her alarm. Thanks to my call, she hadn't missed the exam. LATE
B. Way of life
C. Public transport
E. Places to stay in
F. Favourite food
G. Hot spots for kids
1. Denmark, a small kingdom in northern Europe, has a lot of interesting places for tourists with children. For example, Legoland, a theme park, has become the largest tourist attraction in Denmark outside its capital Copenhagen. And Copenhagen itself is world famous for its Tivoli Gardens amusement park, which opened in 1843 in the heart of the city. The park offers ballet and circus performances, restaurants, concerts, and fireworks displays.
2. Denmark is the smallest Scandinavian country, consisting of the Jutland peninsula, north of Germany, and over 400 islands of various sizes, some inhabited and linked to the mainland by ferry or bridge. Throughout the country, low hills provide a constant change of attractive views; there are also cool and shady forests of beech trees, large areas of open land covered with rough grass, a beautiful lake district, sand dunes and white cliffs on the coast.
3. More than four-fifths of all Danes live in towns. The main cities represent a combination of medieval buildings, such as castles and cathedrals, and modern office buildings and homes. Denmark's high standard of living and wide-ranging social services guarantee that the cities have no poor districts. Most people in the cities live in flats. But in the suburbs many also live in single-family houses.
4. Denmark's fine beaches attract many visitors, and there are hotels and pensions in all major seaside resorts. Besides, excellent inns are to be found all over the country. Some are small and only serve local travellers, but others are adapted to the tourist and have established reputations for both international dishes and local specialities. There are also private rooms to let, usually for one night, and chalets all over Denmark.
5. There is a wide selection of places to go out in the evening, particularly in Copenhagen. Jazz and dance clubs in the capital city are top quality and world-famous performers appear regularly. There are numerous cafes, beer gardens and speciality beer bars. Entertainment available includes opera at the recently opened opera house in Copenhagen, ballet and theatre at a number of places in the larger cities, and live music of all kinds.
6. Most Danes eat four meals a day - breakfast, lunch, dinner, and a late-evening supper. Breakfast generally consists of cereal, cheese, or eggs. Dinner, which includes fish or meat, is usually the only hot meal. A traditional Danish dinner consists of roast duckling stuffed with apples, served with red cabbage and boiled potatoes. The other Danish meals consist mostly of sandwiches.
7. Almost all adult Danes can read and write. Danish law requires children to attend nine years of school. Primary school consists of the first seven grades, and secondary school lasts from three to five years. A five-year secondary school student can enter a university. Denmark has three universities. The University of Copenhagen is the oldest and largest. It was founded in 1479 and has about 24,000 student
Grammar B4-B10 .Zanzibar history
In 1896, Said Khalid seized power in Zanzibar. A British fleet soon arrived at the port of Zanzibar and ordered him out of the royal palace. Khalid refused to leave. At 9:02 on the morning of August 27, British ships started a fire on the palace, B 4 a war between Britain and Zanzibar. BEGIN
The palace B 5 very quickly. At 9:40 that morning, Said Khalid surrendered and the war ended. DESTROY
This “war” was the B6 in history. It lasted a total of 38 minutes! SHORT
The British B 7 requested money from the people of Zanzibar to pay for the shells the British warships had used to win the war. LATE
A palace with 1,300 rooms
It was King Louis XIV of France who ordered a palace with 1,300 rooms in the 1600s. Louis wanted a bigger palace than any other king. In 1661, the French started B 8 this new palace. BUILD
It was located at a place outside Paris, B 9 Versailles. CALL
It had to be big – Louis’s court had 20,000 people, and Versailles B 10 the centre of court life. BECOME
Vocabulary B 11-B16. Future population
The United Nations (UN) has published its prediction about the size and age of the world’s population three hundred years from now. This report can help environmental B11 and policy-makers to understand dramatic changes in the world’s population in the future. SCIENCE
The report suggests that if the birth rates stay the same, there’ll be a huge expansion of the B 12 population. GLOBE
You may think it B 13 but three centuries from now there may be over one hundred and thirty trillion people. POSSIBLE
The report says that the world’s population is likely to be B14 older. The average age will be fifty while today it is twenty six. SIGNIFICANT
Almost a quarter of all the B 15 of the planet will live in Africa. INHABIT
B16 think that India, China and the United States will continue to be countries with the biggest population. RESEARCH
A)The Salem Witch Museum brings you back to Salem of 1692 for a dramatic overview of the Witch Trials, including stage sets with life-size figures, lighting and a narration. There is also a possibility to go on a candlelight tour to four selected homes. The museum is open all year round and closed on Thanksgiving, Christmas and New Year’s Day. Salem is also famous for its Haunted Happenings, a 24-day Halloween festival.
B) The Discover Sea Shipwreck Museum opened its doors in 1995, and has one of the largest collections of shipwreck and recovered artifacts in the Mid-Atlantic. It contains about 10,000 artifacts from local and worldwide locations, including an intact blown-glass hourglass from a 200-year-old shipwreck, which is also the world's deepest wooden wreck at the heart of the Bermuda Triangle.
C) The Seashore Trolley Museum is the oldest and largest electric railway museum in the world. It was founded in 1939 with one open trolley car, No. 31 from the Biddeford & Saco Railroad Company. The Seashore Trolley Museum contains over 250 transit vehicles, mostly trolleys, from the United States, Canada and abroad. Visitors can even take a trip along the Maine countryside aboard a restored early-1900s electric streetcar.
D) American Hop Museum is dedicated to the brewing industry and located in the heart of the Yakima Valley's hop fields, which gather the best harvest for producing beer. It chronicles the American hop industry from the New England colonies to its expansion into California and the Pacific Northwest, and includes historical equipment, photos and artifacts that pay tribute to hop, the everlasting vine that is still an integral part of the brewing industry.
E) The Money Museum in Colorado Springs is America's largest museum dedicated to numismatics (the study of collecting coins and metals). The collection contains over 250,000 items from the earliest invention of money to modern day, with items including paper money, coins, tokens, medals, and traditional money from all over the world. Highlights include the 1804 dollar, the 1913 V Nickel, the 1866 no motto series, a comprehensive collection of American gold coins, and experimental pattern coins and paper money.
F)The Kenneth G. Fiske Museum of Musical Instruments in California has one of the most diverse collections of musical instruments in the United States. This museum is home to over 1,400 American, European and ethnic instruments from the 17th–20th centuries. Selections from all parts of the world also include keyboards, brass, woodwind, stringed, percussion, mechanical and electronic instruments. Other highlights are rare pieces from the violin and viola families, reed organs and instruments from the Orient and Tibet.
G)The Hammer Museum in Alaska is the world’s first museum dedicated to hammers. The Museum provides a view of the past through the use of man’s first tool. You will find over 1500 hammers on display, ranging from ancient times to the present. The museum does not have any paid staff, and it is run by volunteers. This quaint and quirky museum is an interesting and informative stop for the whole family.
1) Back from the seas
2) A museum of popular drinks
3) Magic as attraction
4) One tool museum
5) Not a bank but …
6) Still moving along
7) A brand new shore museum
8) To play any tune
Grammar B 4 – B10. Education for everyone
Thomas Jefferson made a considerable contribution to the development of education. He hoped that one day all young people on our planet B 4 the right to education. HAVE
Today, his dream B 5 true. At the global level, the United Nations recognises the right of everyone to education. COME
Although education is compulsory in most places, school attendance is optional, therefore some parents choose home-schooling for their B 6 . CHILD
In northern Québec and Labrador, temperatures B 7 two degrees Celsius since the mid-1990s. That rise has helped more trees grow in the area which B 8 previously too cold for trees. RISE
And the more trees that grow, the B 9 the region becomes. WARM
The cold landscape that we are accustomed to in northern Canada B 10 a thing of the past soon,” specialists predict. BE
Vocabulary B 11- B16. History of animated cartoons
Cartoon animation has a long history. A cartoon is made by drawing many pictures and showing them one after another so quickly that the pictures B11 seem to move. The most prominent of animated cartoons were made by Walt Disney. FINAL
Walt Disney, the B12 of Mickey Mouse, is a legend of the 20th century. CREATE
He invented the special camera which was used in his studios during the thirties and forties to create B13 animated pictures. ORIGIN
Through his work he brought joy, B 14 , and a universal means of communication. HAPPY
Walt Disney’s worldwide B15 is based upon the ideas his name represents: imagination, optimism, and self-made success in the American tradition. POPULAR
Today moving images are created with the help of computers. The first fully computer-animated feature film, “Toy Story”, was very B 16 and since then almost all animated cartoon films have moved to computer graphics, including films such as the "Shrek" series. SUCCESS
Distance education or e-learning offers several advantages. Students participating in e-learning programs are often able to set their own schedules and work at their own pace. The learning experience can be supported by multimedia such as videos, interactive websites, and real-time conferencing with experts from anywhere in the world. Additionally, e-learning programs are less expensive than traditional ones.
Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm did not expect to create a children's collection of fairy tales. Instead, they wanted to preserve Germany's oral tradition by collecting different stories. Not until several editions of their collection were published did the brothers realize that children were to be a major audience. Once the Brothers Grimm saw this new public, they tried to refine and soften their tales, which had originated centuries earlier as folklore.
The five Potter books have sold 250 million copies worldwide in 55 languages, including Latin and Ancient Greek. In Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince, J.K. Rowlings uses spells and charms that are largely based on Latin. But one of the most serious spells, Avada Kedavra, may be a variant of "abracadabra". In the Harry Potter series, it is a spell that causes death. Harry Potter is the only one known to have survived it.
Critics of the Harry Potter books point out that the main characters who are supposed to be “good” are consistently and regularly portrayed as breaking all manner of ethical rules like those against lying, cheating, and stealing. They also regularly break school rules against behavior like going out at night, using magic in the Muggle world, and so forth.
On Christmas Eve of 1968, NASA astronaut William Anders, while orbiting the moon with the Apollo 8 mission, took a photograph that provided a foundation for the modern green movement. His photo shows a small, blue planet Earth peeking over the horizon of the Moon. The image of a small planet, alone in a vast ocean of space, showed billions of people the fragility of our planet and the importance of preserving and protecting Earth.
There are many indoor air pollutants that can be harmful. Indoor air can be up to 100 times more polluted than outdoor air. Organic compounds from some paints, carpets, synthetic fabrics and adhesives are a known health hazard, contributing to the disease known as Sick Building Syndrome. Proper technology can help – open windows to let fresh air in and bad air out.
G) Some people, especially in rural areas, burn their trash in pits or barrels. It seems an easy way to get rid of your garbage, but the smoke it creates has a lot of really unhealthy toxic chemicals. Burning things like foam cups, plastics, and colored and bleached paper in backyards or even fireplaces causes toxic smoke that can spread throughout the neighborhood.
1) Reaching a target audience
2) Let the air in
3) Using modern technology
4) Violating regulations
5) Careless behaviour
6) Original meaning
7) Needs protection
8) Use of a dead language
Grammar B 4 –B 10. Does the plan work?
Brad was a student in my after-school tutoring session. He was working B 4 than diligently. LITTLE
Brad,” I said, “I talked to your mom, and she wants you to stay for the full hour, so you may as well get something done.” “She wants you to keep me every day for an hour?” he complained. “She wants you to learn it’s B 5 to work during regular class hours than to give up after-school time.” Brad seemed to agree. EASY
“So,” I continued, “why not get your work done now so you can bring your marks up and get your mom off your back?” “No!” he replied in horror. “If I B 6 good marks now, she'll think this plan is working, and she'll keep me in here until June!” GET
Who discovered radioactivity?
Marie Curie’s discovery of two naturally radioactive elements, polonium and radium, made headline news. However, her real discovery was that atoms B 7 small solid balls. NOT BE
and that there must be even B 8 particles inside them. This discovery B 9 the door to all atomic and subatomic research and even to the splitting of the atom. SMALL
Curie carried out her research with radioactive elements before the dangers of radioactivity B 10 . She suffered from radiation sickness for most of her adult life. Indeed, for many years after her death, her notebooks were still highly radioactive. UNDERSTAND
А. Education: the Way to the Top
B. From Agony to Love
C. Teaching to Learn
D. Learning That Never Stops
E. Things Worth Learning
F. The Right Word Can Bring Changes
G. What My Father Taught Me
H. The Power of Numbers
1. Education has the power to transform a person’s life. I am the living example of this. When I was on the streets, I thought I was not good at anything but I wrote a poem, and it got published. I went back to school to learn. I have learned the benefit of research and reading, of debate and listening. One day soon a group of fresh-faced college students will call me professor.
2. Language has the capacity to change the world and the way we live in it. People are often afraid to call things by their direct names, use taboos not to notice dangerous tendencies. Freedom begins with naming things. This has to happen in spite of political climates, careers being won or lost, and the fear of being criticized. After Helen Caldicott used the word ‘nuclear arms race’ an anti-nuclear movement appeared.
3. I never wanted to be a teacher. Yet years later, I find myself teaching high school English. I consider my job to be one of the most important aspects of my life, still I do not teach for the love of teaching. I am a teacher because I love to learn, and I have come to realize that the best way to learn is to teach.
4. One day my sister and I got one and the same homework. My sister finished the task in 2 minutes and went off to play. But I could not do it, so I went into my sister's room and quickly copied her work. But there was one small problem: my father caught me. He didn’t punish me, but explained that cheating makes people feel helpless. And then I was left feeling guilty for cheating.
5. Lifelong learning does not mean spending all my time reading. It is equally important to get the habit of asking such questions as “what don’t I know about this topic, or subject?”, “what can I learn from this moment or person?”, and “what more do I need to learn?” regardless of where I am, who I am talking to, or what I am doing.
6. Maths has always been something that I am good at. Mathematics attracts me because of its stability. It has logic; it is dependable and never changes. There might be some additions to the area of mathematics, but once mathematics is created, it is set in stone. We would not be able to check emails or play videogames without the computer solving complex algorithms.
7. When my high school English teacher asked us to read Shakespeare, I thought it was boring and too difficult. I agonized over the syntax – I had never read anything like this. But now I am a Shakespeare professor, and enjoy teaching Hamlet every semester. Each time I re-read the play, I find and learn something new for myself.
Grammar: B4 – B Exotic pets
There is no exact definition for “exotic” pets. This term usually refers to any animal that B4 domesticated yet. NOT BE
Many people keep bears as pets. For example, Ivan the Terrible B 5 two bears in his palace. They B 6 to him by the boyars. Keep
Perhaps the B 7 ruler in history with a soft spot for bears was Ptolemy II, king of Egypt. He was fond of a “white bear” kept in his private collection. EARLY
CampingThis year we decided to go on a camping trip. It was our B 8 experience. ONE
We started B 9 a month before the trip. PACK
When our neighbor saw the assortment of boxes, bins and gear strapped to our car’s roof rack, she came rushing over. “Oh!” she exclaimed. “I B 10 you were leaving! I’m so glad I got to see you before you moved!” NOT KNOW
Vocabulary B 11 – B 16. Christmas.
At this time, too, many carol B 11 make door-to-door visits to people at home, collecting money for this or that charity. SING
Many weeks before Christmas, shops start selling B 12 Christmas cards and Christmas gifts. VARY
Shop B 13 decorate their shops with holly, mistletoe, candles and colourful paper chains and lanterns. OWN
All kinds of traditional Christmas food are also B 14 available. WIDE
А. Not Just Fun
B. Running For Heart and Mind
C. United By The Game
D. I Want To Be A Coach
E. Team Work in Sport and Life
F. Next Year We Win
G. Learning From Father
H. School between Practices
1. I believe playing sports is more than an activity to fill your day, it can teach important life lessons. When I was a child, my dad spent a lot of time teaching me how to play different sports. He told me that if I can succeed in sports, I can succeed at anything in life. He used to say, “It’s not about how good you become. It’s about working hard to get where you want to be.”
2. I like bicycles. Group rides help me to get new skills and make new friends. I try to apply the tactics of group riding to team work in the real world. In the perfect group ride, each rider takes a turn leading the pack, while the others enjoy the benefits of drafting. I think this way of working is a great method for approaching a group task anywhere.
3. I believe in the power of running. Running should not be a battle for your body but rather a rest for your mind. I felt this last fall, when I was running in the park. Suddenly I felt as if I could have run forever, as if I could use running as a source of therapy for my body. Running allows the body to release different types of stress and even change our understanding of life.
4. My father coached basketball every day of his life, and I was right there with him in the gym watching him work his magic. Basketball appears entertaining and exciting. But the path to success is not simple. My father always told me, “Nothing is free.” I took this advice and ran with it. I truly believe that only practice and determination lead to success.
5. Baseball is so much more than a sport. One of the powers of baseball is that it brings people together. It unites fans of all ages, genders, and nationalities. No matter who you are, you can be a baseball fan. My mom and I have one unspoken rule: no matter what has been going on before, no fighting at the game.
6. I believe that you must always be loyal to the sport teams you support. The teams I follow in the United States generally lose many more than they win. The start of each season brings dreams of victory in baseball, basketball or football, dreams that fade away soon. But then there is always next year. It will be our year for sure.
7. I was determined to join the swim team. I knew I would get my strengths and learn my weaknesses there. Waking up early for 6:30 A.M. practices is what swim team is all about, as it helps us get into state. On a long school day you think about the practice in the pool after school. You want to hear the crowd cheering you, telling you that you have to do more than your best.
Grammar B4 – B11. Alaska flag
Do you know any kids’ inventions? One of them is 13-year-old Bennie Benson from the USA, who designed the state flag of Alaska in 1926. His design B 4 in a flag-designing contest. CHOOSE
B5, in 1959, it became the official flag of Alaska. The blue background is for the sky and the forget-me-not, the state flower. LATE
The flag also has the Big Dipper (a symbol of strength) and the North Star (also B 6 Polaris), which represents Alaska's northern location. CALL
For a prize Bennie B 7 a $1000 scholarship and a watch. WIN
Once I was travelling in Italy. It was a lovely day. I had been driving for two hours already. When I came to the next little town, I B 8 help stopping for a cup of coffee. NOT CAN
I wandered along the street until I came upon some parasol-shaded tables which seemed to B 9 very nice. I settled and opened my book. I
It was taking a long time for the waiter to arrive, but I was in no hurry. I was sure that the waiter B 10 soon. COME
But finally, becoming impatient, I turned to signal for service and saw the neon sign. That was the B 11 moment ... I discovered that I was sitting outside a store selling garden furniture. BAD
Vocabulary B11 – B16. Cyberspace communication
Nowadays most of us go to our computers to connect with friends instead of using our phones. Cyberspace relationships have become the norm for many people, even the most B 11 ones. CONSERVE
The convenience and B12 of the Web is amazing. If we want to see a movie, find a place to eat or get in touch with a friend, we go to the Web before we call on the phone. EFFECTIVE
Critics, however, say that cyberspace communication loses some important factors of the social atmosphere. Most Web B 13 don’t understand that when we talk to someone, we get many messages from them just by their tone of voice and body language. USE
A tender B 14 and eye contact cannot possibly be experienced over the Internet. EXPRESS
As with anything we do, without regular practice the act can become unfamiliar and B 15. COMFORT
There is a possibility that much can be B 16 lost when we communicate via the Internet. REAL
The mountains of Scotland (we call them the Highlands) are а wild and beautiful part of Europe. A golden eagle flies over the mountains. A deer walks through the silence of the forest. Salmon and trout swim in the clean, pure water of the rivers. Some say that not only fish swim in the deep water of Loch Ness. Speak to the people living by the Loch. Each person has a story of the monster, and some have photographs.
Tresco is a beautiful island with no cars, crowds or noise – just flowers, birds, long sandy beaches and the Tresco Abbey Garden. John and Wendy Pyatt welcome you to the Island Hotel, famous for delicious food, comfort and brilliant service. You will appreciate superb accommodation, free saunas and the indoor swimming pool.
The Camel and Wildlife Safari is a unique mixture of the traditional and modern. Kenya’s countryside suits the Safari purposes exceptionally well. Tourists will have a chance to explore the bush country near Samburu, to travel on a camel back or to sleep out under the stars. Modern safari vehicles are always available for those who prefer comfort.
Arrival can be the hardest part of a trip. It is late, you are road-weary, and everything is new and strange. You need an affordable place to sleep, something to eat and drink, and probably a way to get around. But in general, it’s a wonderful trip, full of wonderful and unusual places. Whether it is the first stop on a trip or the fifth city visited, every traveller feels a little overwhelmed stepping onto a new street in a new city.
No zoo has enough money to provide basic habitats or environments for all the species they keep. Most animals are put in a totally artificial environment, isolated from everything they would meet in their natural habitat. Many will agree that this isolation is harmful to the most of zoo inhabitants, it can even amount to cruelty.
A new London Zoo Project is a ten year project to secure the future for the Zoo and for many endangered animals. The plan has been devised by both animal and business experts to provide world-leading accommodation for all our animals, to more fully engage and inform people about conservation issues, to redesign certain aspects of Zoo layout.
G) Leave-no-trace camping is an increasingly popular approach to travel in wilderness areas. As the term suggests, the goal is for the camper to leave as little impact as possible on the place he is visiting. One of its mottos is “Take nothing but pictures. Leave nothing but footprints.” Its simplest and most fundamental rule is: pack it in, pack it out, but it goes beyond that.
1) New rules to follow
2) New perspectives
3) Perfect for a quiet holiday
4) Land of nature wonders
5) A visit to the zoo
6) Perfect for an active holiday
7) Difficult start
8) Bad for animals
Grammar B4 – B10. Who invented spaghetti, the Italians or the Chinese?
When you think of agriculture in China, you probably think of rice. However, China is the largest wheat producer in Asia, and the B 4 largest producer overall, THREE
B 5 for about 10 percent of the world’s wheat crop. ACCOUNT
What do the Chinese make from their wheat? Among other things, they make spaghetti! The Chinese B6 noodles from wheat and other grains for longer than the Italians. MAKE
Why a zigzag?
Have you ever noticed that when we climb hills we create zigzags? We B 7 straight ahead but go in zigzags. It can mean walking 20 times as far, and still a zigzag is B 8 than the shortest distance between two points. NOT GO
Researchers developed a mathematical model B 9 that a zigzag provides the most efficient way for humans to go up or down steep slopes. SHOW
They explain that zig-zagging B 10 less effort. REQUIRE
А. Places to stay in
B. Public transport
C. Cultural differences
E. Camping holidays
F. Contacts with neighbours
G. Different landscapes
H. Eating out
1. Sweden is a land of contrast, from the Danish influence of the southwest to the Laplanders wandering freely with their reindeer in the wild Arctic north. And while Sweden in cities is stylish and modern, the countryside offers many simpler pleasures for those who look for peace and calm. The land and its people have an air of reserved calm, and still the world’s best-selling pop group Abba, which used to attract crowds of hysterical fans, come from Sweden.
2. Historically, Sweden has an interesting story. Its dealings with the outside world began, in fact, during Viking times, when in addition to the well-known surprise attacks of the nearby lands, there was much trading around the Baltic, mostly in furs and weapons. Swedish connections with the other Scandinavian countries, Norway and Denmark, have been strong since the Middle Ages. The monarchies of all three are still closely linked.
3. Sweden's scenery has a gentler charm than that of neighbouring Norway's rocky coast. Much of Sweden is forested, and there are thousands lakes, notably large pools near the capital, Stockholm. The lakeside resort in the centre of Sweden is popular with Scandinavians, but most visitors prefer first the Baltic islands. The largest island, Gotland, with its ruined medieval churches, is a particular attraction.
4. Sweden boasts a good range of hotels, covering the full spectrum of prices and standards. Many of them offer discounts in summer and at weekends during the winter. In addition, working farms throughout Sweden offer accommodation, either in the main farmhouse or in a cottage nearby. Forest cabins and chalets are also available throughout the country, generally set in beautiful surroundings, near lakes, in quiet forest glades or on an island in some remote place.
5. Living in a tent or caravan with your family or friends at weekends and on holiday is extremely popular in Sweden and there is a fantastic variety of special places. Most are located on a lakeside or by the sea with free bathing facilities close at hand. There are over 600 campsites in the country. It is often possible to rent boats or bicycles, play mini-golf or tennis, ride a horse or relax in a sauna. It is also possible to camp in areas away from other houses.
6. Swedes like plain meals, simply prepared from the freshest ingredients. As a country with a sea coast and many freshwater lakes, fish dishes are found on all hotel or restaurant menus. Top-class restaurants in Sweden are usually fairly expensive, but even the smallest towns have reasonably priced self-service restaurants and grill bars. Many restaurants all over Sweden offer a special dish of the day at a reduced price that includes main course, salad, soft drink and coffee.
7. Stockholm has a variety of pubs, cafes, clubs, restaurants, cinemas and theatres but in the country evenings tend to be very calm and peaceful. From August to June the Royal Ballet performs in Stockholm. Music and theatre productions take place in many cities during the summer in the open air. Outside Stockholm in the 18th-century palace there are performances of 18th-century opera very popular with tourists.
Grammar B 4 – B10. Barbados
What do you know about Barbados? This island country is located on an island group in the Caribbean Sea B 4 to the east of the West Indies. LIE
It B 5 to have received its name from the Portuguese word for ‘bearded’ because of the bearded fig trees that grow on the island. THINK
Bridgetown is the capital, B 6 city and only seaport. LARGE
One Christmas Eve the trees in a wood were very unhappy. They wished very much to make Christmas stay, but they B7 how to do so. ‘We are so bare,’ complained one tree. ‘If we only B 8 our pretty green summer dresses,’ said other trees. NOT KNOW
Hush, children, hush,’ whispered North Wind in a gentle voice, which was unusual for the B9 of all winds. ‘Go to sleep.’ While they slept something happened. BAD
When the trees awoke they found that someone, perhaps North Wind, had cast over each of B 10 a lovely soft cloak of spotless feathery white. THEY
A. Ordering in E. Lucky escape
B. Too much choice F. Long journey
C. Fast food is unhealthy G. Growing in popularity
D. A new way to buy H. Good way to meet
1. When you are tired and don’t want to cook, just pick up the phone. Restaurants are expensive and take some time and effort to reach if you don’t live in the centre of town. Ordering food for home delivery is cheap and these days there is a huge choice. Indian and Chinese are the most popular but I prefer to get in a pizza.
2. A school group on a skiing holiday to Italy narrowly avoided disaster when their coach left the road and fell eighty meters into a valley. Trees slowed down the falling coach and because of the fresh new snow the vehicle landed quite softly. Amazingly no one was injured.
3. A teenager from London is making news around the world. On his recent holiday in Australia he set off without his mobile phone. Experts are amazed that he is still alive after walking for fourteen days, surviving extreme temperatures and living off the land. However, a lot of Australians are unhappy with him. The rescue cost is estimated at more than 100,000 dollars.
4. You can buy almost anything, new or second hand, on the internet. On one site you can offer the price you want to pay for something. Whoever offers the highest price can buy that item. Recently I made the highest offer for a nearly new pair of skis. However, I only paid half of what they would have cost new in a shop.
5. Making new friends on the internet makes so much sense. You can see someone’s photo and read if they share your interests and opinions. The important thing is you can spend time getting to know people who are attractive to you and looking for the same things in life that you are. Still, for personal safety, most sites recommend that in person you meet initially in a public place like a cafe or a gallery.
6. I like eating out but some restaurants have huge menus. And usually every item sounds mouth watering. The trouble is I like to read about everything on offer and sometimes waiters wait for me rather than on me! The other issue is how they can offer so much whilst maintaining quality? I’d rather take one of five options knowing that each one was brilliant.
7. “Facebook” is a social networking website that has 250 million members and despite lots of criticism by employers, governments and media, continues to attract thousands of new users daily. In spite of claims of concerns about privacy, safety and wasting time at work, “Facebook” is one of the most rapidly establishing phenomena of recent years.
Grammar . B4 – B 10. Popular destination
Barcelona offers an exciting mixture of Catalan history and architecture. It is a regionally dominant city and it B 4 to compete with its neighbours. NOT HAVE
Barcelona B 5 popular since the city hosted the 1992 Olympics. At present this metropolis welcomes millions of tourists every year. BE
B 6 make up the majority of the city’s visitors. It’s not surprising because Barcelona’s shops offer a wide variety of fashionable clothes. WOMAN
A. PARTY DESSERT E. GIVING A PARTY
B. OUTDOOR GAME F. PARTY ANIMALS
C. TAKING CARE OF A PET G. FUN ON THE WAY
D. COLLECTING THINGS H. PARTY GAME
1. Ask your parents for permission to have a party. Decide what kind of party you want and whether it will be held indoors or outdoors. Send written invitations to your friends. Tell them what kind of party you are having, at what time, where, and whether or not the guests should wear costumes. Make a list of games you would like to play. Ask your mother to help you prepare refreshments. Ice cream, cake, cookies, and lemonade are good for any party.
2. This activity makes everybody laugh. Have the guests sit around the room. Choose one person to be a pussycat. The pussy must go over to a guest and do his/her best to make the guest laugh. He/she can make funny meows and walk around like a cat. The pussy goes from one guest to another until someone laughs. The first one to laugh becomes the new pussy.
3. It’s easy to make a cake from a cake mix that you get from the grocery store. You usually add only water or milk. Cake mixes come in many flavours, such as chocolate, lemon, banana, vanilla and others. When you make a cake from a mix, always follow the directions on the package carefully. Then you can be sure that your cake will turn out right and your guests will enjoy it. Many mixes have a small envelope of powdered frosting hidden inside the flour.
4. As you ride on a bus with your friends, get someone to start singing. Everyone joins in. At the first crossroad, another person starts a different song, and everyone joins in. Keep changing songs at every crossroad.
5. Looking after cats is easy. They wash themselves every day and eat almost any food. Cats like to drink milk and cream. But they need to be fed fish, beef, liver, and other kinds of meat. They need a clean, dry bed at night. You can use a basket or a cardboard box for your cat’s bed. Cats like to play with a rubber ball or chase a string.
6. You can have a whole army of toy soldiers made of tin, wood or plastic. Some may be dressed in fancy uniforms, some may be sitting on horses. Others may be ready for battle, carrying guns and shoulder packs. You can have soldiers from other countries, or only Civil War soldiers or only modern soldiers. If you get two soldiers that are alike, trade your extra soldier with another toy soldier lover.
7. Even animals get involved in elections. The donkey and elephant have been political symbols in the USA for more than 100 years. Why? In 1828, Democrat Andrew Jackson ran for president. Critics said he was stubborn as a donkey. The donkey has been the symbol of the Democratic Party ever since. In the 1870s, newspaper cartoonists began using the elephant to stand for the Republican Party.
А. Places to stay in
B. Arts and culture
C. New country image
D. Going out
E. Different landscapes
F. Transport system
G. National languages
H. Eating out
1. Belgium has always had a lot more than the faceless administrative buildings that you can see in the outskirts of its capital, Brussels. A number of beautiful historic cities and Brussels itself offer impressive architecture, lively nightlife, first-rate restaurants and numerous other attractions for visitors. Today, the old-fashioned idea of ‘boring Belgium' has been well and truly forgotten, as more and more people discover its very individual charms for themselves.
2. Nature in Belgium is varied. The rivers and hills of the Ardennes in the southeast contrast sharply with the rolling plains which make up much of the northern and western countryside. The most notable features are the great forest near the frontier with Germany and Luxembourg and the wide, sandy beaches of the northern coast.
3. It is easy both to enter and to travel around pocket-sized Belgium which is divided into the Dutch-speaking north and the French-speaking south. Officially the Belgians speak Dutch, French and German. Dutch is slightly more widely spoken than French, and German is spoken the least. The Belgians, living in the north, will often prefer to answer visitors in English rather than French, even if the visitor's French is good.
4. Belgium has a wide range of hotels from 5-star luxury to small family pensions and inns. In some regions of the country, farm holidays are available. There visitors can (for a small cost) participate in the daily work of the farm. There are plenty of opportunities to rent furnished villas, flats, rooms, or bungalows for a holiday period. These holiday houses and flats are comfortable and well-equipped.
5. The Belgian style of cooking is similar to French, based on meat and seafood. Each region in Belgium has its own special dish. Butter, cream, beer and wine are generously used in cooking. The Belgians are keen on their food, and the country is very well supplied with excellent restaurants to suit all budgets. The perfect evening out here involves a delicious meal, and the restaurants and cafes are busy at all times of the week.
6. As well as being one of the best cities in the world for eating out (both for its high quality and range), Brussels has a very active and varied nightlife. It has 10 theatres which produce plays in both Dutch and French. There are also dozens of cinemas, numerous discos and many night-time cafes in Brussels. Elsewhere, the nightlife choices depend on the size of the town, but there is no shortage of fun to be had in any of the major cities.
7. There is a good system of underground trains, trams and buses in all the major towns and cities. In addition, Belgium's waterways offer a pleasant way to enjoy the country. Visitors can take a one-hour cruise around the canals of Bruges, (sometimes described as the Venice of the North) or an extended cruise along the rivers and canals linking the major cities of Belgium and the Netherlands.
A) The present Ashmolean Museum was created in 1908 by combining two ancient Oxford institutions: the University Art Collection and the original Ashmolean Museum. The older partner in this merger, the University Art Collection, was based for many years in what is now the Upper Reading Room in the Bodleian Library.
B) The collection began modestly in the 1620s with a handful of portraits and curiosities displayed in a small room on the upper floor. In the 17th century there were added notable collections of coins and medals later incorporated into the Ashmolean coin collection. The objects of curiosity included Guy Fawkes’ lantern and a sword given by the Pope to Henry VIII, and a number of more exotic items.
C) In the 1660s and '70s, the collection grew rapidly and, in 1683, the Bodleian Gallery was left to develop as a museum of art. At first, it was a gallery of portraits of distinguished contemporaries, but from the mid 1660s, it began to acquire a more historical perspective with the addition of images of people from the past: college founders, scientists, soldiers, monarchs, writers and artists.
D) In the eighteenth century, several painters donated self-portraits. They also added a number of landscapes, historical paintings and scenes from contemporary life. Other donors, former members of the University, added collections of Old Masters so that by the early nineteenth century, it had become an art gallery of general interest and an essential point of call on the tourist map. The public was admitted on payment of a small charge. Catalogues were available at the entrance and the paintings were well displayed in a large gallery.
E) It was only with the gift of a collection of ancient Greek and Roman statuary from the Countess of Pomfret in 1755 that the need for a new art gallery became urgent. The marble figures were too heavy to be placed in an upstairs gallery and were installed in a dark ground-floor room in the library pending the creation of a new museum.
F) Before the new museum was finished, a major group of drawings by Raphael and Michelangelo was purchased by public subscription for the new galleries, establishing the importance of the Oxford museum as a centre for the study of Old Master drawings. The new museum also attracted gifts of paintings. In 1851, a collection of early Italian paintings, which included Uccello’s “Hunt in the Forest”, one of the museum’s major works of art was presented.
G) In the 1850s, the University established a new Natural History Museum, which is now known as the Oxford University Museum of Natural History. And all the natural history specimens from the Ashmolean were transferred to the new institution. Having lost what had become the most important element in its collection, the Ashmolean was to find a major new role in the emerging field of archaeology.
1)Presents begin to enrich the collection
2) Reason for extension
3) First famous exhibits
4) One on the basis of two
5) Shift towards history
6) Location of the museum
7) New collections for the new building
8) New field for the old museum
A) Carnival is the most famous holiday in Brazil and has become a world-famous annual celebration. It is celebrated in towns and villages throughout Brazil for almost a week 40 days before Easter, which is usually in February, the hottest month in the Southern Hemisphere. Officially, it starts on Saturday and finishes on Fat Tuesday with the beginning of Lent on Ash Wednesday, during which some Christians give up something that they enjoy.
B) The most colourful events take place in the Carnival World Capital, Rio de Janeiro. It was the original place where, in 1723, Portuguese immigrants went out onto the streets soaking each other with buckets of water and throwing mud and food, often ending up in street brawls and riots. The concept kept changing throughout the 1800s with more organized parades, where the Emperor with a group of aristocrats joined in masks with luxurious costumes and music.
C) Now the parade varies from state to state. It is a mixture of arts. The music played during Rio Carnival is samba – a unique Brazilian music originating from Rio. It’s also a dance form that was invented by the poor Afro-Brazilians as a type of ritual music. The word “samba” meant to pray to the spirits of the ancestors and the gods of the African Pantheon. As a noun, it could mean a complaint or a cry.
D) Even today, the most involved groups in Rio Carnival are the poorest, the so-called “favelas”, where houses are made of cardboard or other metal remains, and there is often no water, electricity or sewage system. However, the favelas’ residents always join in the festivities and actually make the Carnival, which really means a lot to them. Because, for once during the year, they get to go out and have as much fun as they can.
E) Residents of the favelas are often members of local samba schools and are deeply involved with the performance and costumes of their groups. Each neighborhood in Rio has its favorite Carnival street band. There are more than 300 of them in Rio nowadays, and each year this number increases. Each band has its place or street for its parade and the big ones usually close the streets to the traffic.
F) Rio de Janeiro is usually divided into three zones. The so-called Zona Sul is by far the most pleasant place to stay in Rio, as it is by the sea and is the most civilized part of the city. Districts Copacabana and Ipanema together form a big stage offering a carnival happening at every corner. Leblon, being a bit more upscale, is also an excellent location.
G) Except the industries, malls and the carnival-related workers, the country stops completely for almost a week and festivities are intense, day and night. If you plan to go to watch the Carnival, you should organize your trip well in advance. The best hotels, especially in the Zona Sul, are booked up early, so it’s a good idea to make a reservation at least 3 or 4 months in advance.
1) The best viewpoints
2) Plan beforehand
3) Carnival roots
4) The time to attend the Carnival
5) Carnival’s music
6) Styles of dancing
7) A music group for a street
8) The time for pleasure
Charles Darwin’s five-year voyage on H.M.S. Beagle has become legendary and greatly influenced his masterwork, the book, On the Origin of Species. Darwin didn’t actually formulate his theory of evolution while sailing around the world aboard the Royal Navy ship. But the exotic plants and animals he encountered challenged his thinking and led him to consider scientific evidence in new ways.
The 19th century was a remarkable time for exploration. Vast portions of the globe, such as the interior of Africa, were mapped by explorers and adventurers. It was the time when David Livingstone became convinced of his mission to reach new peoples in Africa and introduce them to Christianity, as well as free them from slavery.
Louis Pasteur's various investigations convinced him of the rightness of his germ theory of disease, which holds that germs attack the body from outside. Many felt that such tiny organisms as germs could not possibly kill larger ones such as humans. But Pasteur extended this theory to explain the causes of many diseases – including cholera, TB and smallpox – and their prevention by vaccination.
Frederick Law Olmsted, the architect who designed New York City’s Central Park, called the Yosemite Valley “the greatest glory of nature.” Californians convinced one of their representatives, Senator John Conness, to do something about its protection. In May 1864, Conness introduced legislation to bring the Yosemite Valley under the control of the state of California. President Abraham Lincoln signed the bill into law.
The Maya thrived for nearly 2,000 years. Without the use of the cartwheel or metal tools, they built massive stone structures. They were accomplished scientists. They tracked a solar year of 365 days and one of the few surviving ancient Maya books contains tables of eclipses. From observatories, like the one at Chichen Itza, they tracked the progress of the war star, Mars.
Bali has been a surfing hotspot since the early 20th century, and continues to attract surfers from all over the world. The island's small size and unique geography provides wonderful surfing conditions, in all seasons, for surfers of any level of experience. Inexperienced surfers might like to try Kuta's kind waves, while more able surfers will try Nusa Dua's powerful waves.
G) Base jumping is an extreme sport, one which only very adventurous travelers enjoy. Some base jumpers leap off bridges, others off buildings and the most extreme off cliffs in Norway. Once a year, base jumpers in the US get to leap off the New River Bridge in West Virginia. During the annual Bridge Day, hundreds of jumpers can go off the bridge legally. Thousands of spectators show up to watch.
1) Inspired by noble goals
2) Protected by law
3) Small size – great opportunities
4) Little experience – big success
5) Hard to see and to believe
6) Hard to explain how they could
7) Breathtaking just to watch
8) From travelling to discovery
A. A taste of everything E. Activities for the adventurous and hardy
B. Shop till you drop F. On the crossroads of religions
C. City’s tourist attractions G. For the body, mind and soul
D. Ancient traditions live on H. From the high peaks to the deep seas
1. Today Jakarta has much to offer, ranging from museums, art and antique markets, first class shopping to accommodations and a wide variety of cultural activities. Jakarta’s most famous landmark, the National Monument or Monas is a 137m obelisk topped with a flame sculpture coated with 35 kg of gold. Among other places one can mention the National museum that holds an extensive collection of ethnographic artifacts and relics, the Maritime Museum that exhibits Indonesia’s seafaring traditions, including models of sea going vessels.
2. Sumatra is a paradise for nature lovers, its national parks are the largest in the world, home to a variety of monkeys, tigers and elephants. Facing the open sea, the western coastline of Sumatra and the waters surrounding Nias Island have big waves that make them one of the best surfer’s beaches in Indonesia. There are beautiful coral reefs that are ideal for diving. For those who prefer night dives, the waters of Riau Archipelago offer a rewarding experience with marine scavengers of the dark waters.
3. Various establishments offer professional pampering service with floral baths, body scrubs, aromatic oils, massages and meditation; rituals and treatments that use spices and aromatic herbs to promote physical and mental wellness. Various spa hotels are extremely popular. Indonesians believe that when treating the body you cure the mind.
4. Jakarta has a distinctly cosmopolitan flavor. Tantalize your taste buds with a gastronomic spree around the city’s many eateries. Like French gourmet dining, exotic Asian cuisine, American fast food, stylish cafes, restaurants all compete to find a way into your heart through your stomach. The taste of Indonesia’s many cultures can be found in almost any corner of the city: hot and spicy food from West Sumatra, sweet tastes of Dental Java, the tangy fish dishes of North Sulawesi.
5. In the face of constant exposure to modernization and foreign influences, the native people still faithfully cling to their culture and rituals. The pre-Hindu Bali Aga tribe still maintains their own traditions of architecture, pagan religion, dance and music, such as unique rituals of dances and gladiator-like battles between youths. On the island of Siberut native tribes have retained their Neolithic hunter-gathering culture.
6. Whether you are a serious spender or half hearted shopper, there is sure to be something for everybody in Jakarta. Catering to diverse tastes and pockets, the wide variety of things you can buy in Jakarta is mind boggling from the best of local handicrafts to haute couture labels. Modern super and hyper markets, multi-level shopping centers, retail and specialty shops, sell quality goods at a competitive price. Sidewalk bargains range from tropical blooms of vivid colors and scents in attractive bouquets to luscious fruits of the seasons.
7. The land’s long and rich history can’t be separated from the influence of Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam and Christianity. There is one of the oldest Hindu temples in Java, the majestic Buddhist ‘monastery on the hill’, Borobudur, the largest Buddhist monument in the world. About 17 km away from this monastery is a 9th century temple complex built by the Sanjaya dynasty. Prambanan complex is dedicated to the Hindu trinity: Ciwa, Vishnu and Brahma. The spread of Islam also left interesting monuments such as the 15th century Minaret Mosque in Kudus.
Grammar – B4 – B10 .What is the longest river in Europe?
The Volga River, which flows entirely within Russia, is the longest river in Europe. From its source in the hills northwest of Moscow, the Volga travels almost 2,300 miles (3,700 km) to the Caspian Sea. Much of Russia’s freight B 4 on barges on this river. CARRY
The Danube River is Europe’s B5 longest, at almost 1,770 miles (2,860 km). The Danube passes through Austria, Slovakia, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, and Romania before it empties into the Black Sea. TWO
The Danube River flows through B6 countries than any other river in the world. MANY
In the 1400s and early 1500s, the Aztec people controlled a vast empire in the area that is now central and southern Mexico. The Aztec ruled B 7empire from the great capital, Tenochtitlán. THEY
It B 8 on the site of what is now Mexico City. LOCATE
The capital B 9 the empire’s power and wealth, with its gleaming white palaces and temples. The Spanish conquest of the city in 1521 marked the end of the Aztec Empire. The Indians B 10 in the Mexico City region today, however, are largely descendants of those whom the Spanish conquered. Reflect
A) Diwali is a five-day festival that is celebrated in October or November, depending on the cycle of the moon. It represents the start of the Hindu New Year and honors the victory of good over evil, and brightness over darkness. It also marks the start of winter. Diwali is actually celebrated in honor of Lord Rama and his wife Sita. One of the best places to experience Diwali is in the "pink city" of Jaipur, in Rajasthan. Each year there’s a competition for the best decorated and most brilliantly lit up market that attracts visitors from all over India.
B) The Blossom Kite Festival, previously named the Smithsonian Kite Festival, is an annual event that is traditionally a part of the festivities at the National Cherry Blossom Festival on the National Mall in Washington, DC. Kite enthusiasts show off their stunt skills and compete for awards in over 36 categories including aerodynamics and beauty. The Kite Festival is one of the most popular annual events in Washington, DC and features kite fliers from across the U.S. and the world.
C) The annual Ostrich Festival has been recognized as one of the "Top 10 Unique Festivals in the United States" with its lanky ostriches, multiple entertainment bands and many special gift and food vendors. It is truly a unique festival, and suitable for the entire family. The Festival usually holds Ostrich Races, an Exotic Zoo, Pig Races, a Sea Lion Show, a Hot Rod Show, Amateur Boxing and a Thrill Circus.
D) Iceland's Viking Festival takes place in mid-June every year and lasts 6 days, no matter what the weather in Iceland may be. It's one of the most popular annual events in Iceland where you can see Viking-style costumes, musical instruments, jewelry and crafts at the Viking Village. Visitors at the Viking Festival see sword fighting by professional Vikings and demonstrations of marksmanship with bows and muscle power. They can listen to Viking songs and lectures at the festival, or grab a bite at the Viking Restaurant nearby.
E) Dragon Boat Festival is one of the major holidays in Chinese culture. This summer festival was originally a time to ward off bad spirits, but now it is a celebration of the life of Qu Yuan, who was a Chinese poet of ancient period. Dragon boat festival has been an important holiday for centuries for Chinese culture, but in recent years dragon boat racing has become an international sport.
F) The Mangalica Festival is held in early February at Vajdahunyad Castle in Budapest. It offers the opportunity to experience Hungarian food, music, and other aspects of Hungarian culture. The festival is named for a furry pig indigenous to the region of Hungary and the Balkans. A mangalica is a breed of pig recognizable by its curly hair and known for its fatty flesh. Sausage, cheese and other dishes made with pork can be sampled at the festival.
G) Hanami is an important Japanese custom and is held all over Japan in spring. Hanami literally means "viewing flowers", but now it is a cherry blossom viewing. The origin of hanami dates back to more than one thousand years ago when aristocrats enjoyed looking at beautiful cherry blossoms and wrote poems. Nowadays, people in Japan have fun viewing cherry blossoms, drinking and eating. People bring home-cooked meals, do BBQ, or buy take-out food for hanami.
1) Music from every corner of the world
2) From pig to pork
3) Perfect time for a picnic
4) From a holiday to a sport
5) Famous religious celebrations
6) See them fly
7) Animal races and shows
8) Diving into history
Grammar B4 – B10 .Kid inventions
Becky Schroeder was only 10 years old when she came up with the idea of the glo-paper. Two years B4, in 1974, her invention was patented. LATE
She became B5 the female to ever receive a patent in the United States. YOUNG
The idea came to her when she tried to do her homework in the family car, while her mother shopped for groceries. It B6 dark gradually, and she couldn’t see her notebook very well. GET
She B7 a flashlight and imagined how nice it would be to have a paper that glows in the dark and allows you to write effortlessly without light. A year of research and experiment and she did it! NOT HAVE
A white flag
It’s always a problem for me to find my car in a huge parking lot. After reading an article with a piece of advice for people like me, I decided to follow it one day. I attached a tissue to the car’s antenna with a rubber band. The little white flag waving in the breeze B8 to help me spot my car easily. SUPPOSE
So I went B9 . SHOP
When I B10 out, I quickly spotted a little white flag … and about ten others. COME