Конкурс исследовательских работ в рамках
Малой академии наук школьников Республики Башкортостан
Номинация: английский язык
The borrowings from the
vocabulary of fast food restaurants
Исаченко Кристина Игоревна 8б класс
МБОУ средняя общеобразовательная школа № 112
Ялаева Анна Саликаевна, учитель английского языка МБОУ СОШ № 112,
The topic of my research work is “The borrowings from the vocabulary of fast food restaurants”. Actually I have chosen this theme because words borrowed from other languages affect our speech, our lives as well as the quality of life. In my work I tried to find out what the words anglicism and slang mean. Also I studied the ways of borrowings and conducted a survey among the pupils where I asked 50 respondents to answer from what sources they get most information about anglicisms. As the result 61% of students said the main source of information is the Internet, 49% - school, 43% - friends, relatives, 30%- radio, film and television.
As fast food restaurants became very popular in modern life their appearance brought some borrowings into our lives that’s why I made up my mind to focus mainly on the borrowings from the vocabulary of fast food restaurants. First of all I studied the history of MacDonald’s and the menu they present to their visitors. Then I decided to learn what are the most commonly used words of fast food vocabulary among my schoolmates, friends and relatives. I interviewed 50 people. I asked them to name as many words as possible from the fast food vocabulary in 30 seconds. The interview showed that today people use a lot of new words that come to us from fast food vocabulary. It happens because fast food restaurants such as MacDonald’s and KFC have already become popular in Russia and more and more people visit them day by day and they cannot but use these words in their speech.
So through this study I realized that the process of borrowing from English into Russian is strengthened at the present time, because English is the language of international communication, the basis of many professional languages, and it is widely used in youth slang. Moreover with the appearance of fast food restaurants in our country we enlarged the vocabulary of English borrowed words at least for 20 words which are often heard in the speech of Russians of all ages.
Введение…………………………………………………… …………………… 3
The sources of borrowings………………………………………………….. 5
The McDonald’s history ……………………………………………………….6
The research of words …………………... …………………………........... 8
Список использованной литературы………………………………………….....10
This work is devoted to one of important issues of modern linguistics – the study of loanwords from the English language.
The aim of my work is to reveal how many new words from the vocabulary of fast food restaurants are already used by the Russians and is the appearance of such restaurants affected the number of borrowings.
The objectives of the research work are:
-to learn what is anglicism;
- to learn what is slang;
- to study the sources of borrowings;
- to study the history of McDonald’s;
- to study the necessary literature;
- to conduct a survey among the pupils;
- to learn what new words are borrowed into Russian from the fast food vocabulary.
The object of the presented research is the English borrowed vocabulary of fast food restaurants in the Russian language.
The subject of the work is to find out what words are borrowed into Russian.
And the hypothesis is if we study different words and that come to the Russian language and their origin we’ll be able to enlarge our vocabulary of borrowings.
For my research work, I have chosen the theme of "The borrowings from the vocabulary of fast food restaurants". Because words borrowed from other languages, affect our speech, our lives as well as the quality of life. Usually we call such words “slang”.
To begin with I’d like to say that the concept of slang has a special place in modern linguistics. The phenomenon of slang still remains an open question for scientists. Nevertheless in the modern anglistics studies there is no single and exact definition of the term “slang”. And therefore it is not in the Russian linguistics, being a dynamic phenomenon, constantly evolving and growing. One of the ways of its replenishment is the borrowing of foreign words mainly from English. The words that came from English are called anglicisms. Here is the definition of anglicisms given in the dictionary of S. I. Ozhegov, “Anglicism” - a Word or turn of phrase in some language that is borrowed from English or created on the model of the English word or expression." (Ozhegov S. I. Explanatory dictionary of Russian language (edited by Shvedova N. J.). M. 2000. p. 38).
Actually the passion of anglicisms has become a fashionable trend, which is caused by certain beliefs, created in the youth society. This belief is the notion that the standard of living in Western countries, particularly America, is much higher than in Russia. Russian youth is trying to join the idealized American culture and lifestyle by speech slang of English origin.
So the term “slang” means the language either socially or professionally isolated groups of people, which is not used in the literary language, or variant of the spoken language.
Nowadays slang is a kind of speech that is used predominantly for oral communication, and to treat stable social group that has common interests on the basis of profession or age.
"All people are changing words and take them from each other" V. G. Belinsky
The sources of borrowings
This topic is relevant, because the borrowing of foreign words happens constantly. We increasingly feel the new concepts and foreign words-synonyms that replace our words in Russian. This happens because the person is constantly growing the need for something new, particularly in new words.
For example, modern music and "club" culture and the film industry have a direct impact on the lives of young people. This group includes words like release — релиз, playlist — плейлист, remake — ремейк, face-control — фейс-контроль ), данс (dance), шоу-бизнес (show business), клаб (club), фешн (fashion), имидж (image), триллер (thriller), хит (hit), рэп (rap), технорок (techno-rock), дивидишник (DVD-player) and so on.
As for media and television, they are an integral part of the lives of young people and, therefore, affect the condition of slang. The media was supplemented with vocabulary words such as prime-time — прайм-тайм, talk-show — ток-шоу, image-maker — имиджмейкер, summit – саммит, briefing – бриффинг и so on.
The names of popular sports also borrowed Russian language. This group includes the following borrowings: fitness — фитнес, bodybuilding — бодибилдинг, shaping — шейпинг. Given the massive use of slang units in the Russian speech of young people due to the fact that gaining popularity and an increasing number of fans of the so-called "cult of the beautiful body", highly promoted in the West.
The increase in the number of the Internet users has led to the proliferation of computer language: e-mail – майл, CDROM – СД ром, chat – чат , bit – бит , byte – байт , disk – диск , cursor – курсор , flash drive – флешка etc.
A large variety of cosmetics, previously unknown to Russians, caused the borrowing of English words like: lifting – лифтинг , peeling – пилинг , make up — макияж ,scrub-скраб, smoky eyes – смоки айз, consealer – консилер.
I decided to learn from what sources students get most information about anglicisms. In fact I interviewed 50 my schoolmates and friends. There were given some variants. Among 100% of respondents 61% of students said the main source of information is the Internet, 49% - school, 43% - friends, relatives, 30% radio, film and television.( Приложение 1)
So, exploring the speech of modern teenagers we came to the conclusion that the borrowed vocabulary used by the students quite often, is understood and generally accepted. Mass media (radio, cinema and television, the Internet), advertising posters, stores are actively using loans.
2. The McDonald’s history
But I want to focus today mainly on the borrowings from the vocabulary of fast food restaurants.
As fast food restaurants became very popular in modern life their appearance brought some borrowings into our lives. We can’t but repeat these words again and again.
You know modern life runs so quickly that people often don’t have enough time to eat. And most certainly they get little time for cooking. Lots of people think that fast food is the best solution in this situation. That’s why fast-food chains have become so popular. They provide simple menus, which usually contain French fries, hamburgers, sandwiches, salads, milk cocktails, brownies and else. Perhaps the most famous fast-food chain is McDonalds. This place is rather popular among children and grown-ups. People like having food which is cooked beforehand and served quickly.
The history of MacDonalds began when in 1937 the McDonnald brothers, Dick and Mark, opened little restaurant in California. They served hot dogs and milk shakes. In 1945 they have 20 waiters. All the teenagers in town ate hamburgers there. When the 1948 year came they got paper boxes and bags for the hamburgers. They put the price down from 30 to 15 cents. There were no more waiters — it was self-service. So it was cheaper and faster.
In 1960s the 'McDonald's company opened hundreds of McDonald's restaurants all over the States. In 1971 they opened restaurants in Japan, Germany and Australia.
Now the McDonald's company opens a new restaurant every 8 hours. There are more than 14,000 restaurants in over 70 countries.
As to our country, the first McDonald's restaurant was opened in Russia on the 30th of January 1990 in Moscow. For the most Moscow citizens it became not just the place where they could have a snack but it was also the place where they could feel themselves as if they are the citizens of a foreign country. Actually the restaurant served 35000 people daily.
The first McDonald's restaurant appeared in Ufa in July 2004. It became immediately popular. Now there are 8 McDonald's restaurants in different parts of our capital. They differ in size and design. But have the same menu.
In fact I decided to learn what are the most commonly used words of fast food vocabulary among my schoolmates, friends and relatives. I asked them to name as many words as possible from the fast food vocabulary in 30 seconds. And these are the results of my interview. (Приложение 2)
Well the interview shows that today people use a lot of new words that come to us from fast food vocabulary. It happens because fast food restaurants such as MacDonald’s and KFC have already become popular in Russia and more and more people visit them day by day and they cannot but use these words in their speech.
3. The research of words
Nevertheless I researched the fast food vocabulary and revealed some words which are considered to be borrowings.
Actually, fast food is a type of cooking and catering, where the service and cooking is fast. The borrowings can be divided into following groups:
1. Along with the previously borrowed anglicism sandwich in the speech of a Russian man of the late 90-ies there are anglicisms: a hamburger, fishburger, cheeseburger, chicken burgers, performing the differentiating function. Such words are known as
belongings - words that characterize specific national customs of other Nations and are used in the description of the non-Russian reality. A distinctive feature of these words is that they do not have Russian synonyms. Such words as crisps (chips), hot dog (hot-dog), are also belong to this group.
Sandwich is two pieces of bread with cheese, salad, or meat, usually cold, between them . Actually the first sandwich was done by famous English politician John Sandwich. He was a great card player and he even did not want to leave the game to have a bite. One night he stayed at the card table for 24 hours and he ate nothing but slices of bread with pieces of meat inside. And from that time slices of bread with pieces of meat inside were called sandwiches.
Hamburger is a sandwich consisting of one or more cooked patties of ground meat, usually beef, placed inside a sliced bun.
Cheeseburger is the same Burger, but with cheese.
Hot dog is a cooked sausage, traditionally grilled or steamed and served in a sliced bun as a sandwich.
Chips are made from potatoes which are cut vertically and then deep fried within oil.
2. Composites. Words consisting of two English words, for example fast food - is a type of cooking and catering, where the service and cooking is fast.
3. Direct borrowings. The word occurs in the Russian language in approximately the same form and the same meaning as in English. That words such as basket (баскет), snack (снэк), sanders (сандерс).
4. Shortenings. For example: McDuck ( Макдак). From the English. McDonald's.
5. Suffix –er. For example:longer (лонгер), zinger (зингер), twister (твистер), bigger (биггер), burger (бургер).
To sum it up I should say that through this study I realized that the process of borrowing from English into Russian is strengthened at the present time, because English is the language of international communication, the basis of many professional languages, and it is widely used in youth slang. Anglicisms have penetrated into every sphere of human life and firmly entrenched them in the media and the global Internet. As the study shows, it’s impossible to avoid anglicisms, and I am glad that the students adequately cope with their correct use, despite the fact that this is just a tribute to fashion.
Most valuable to me in this study is the compilation of a dictionary of anglicisms – this job helped me not only to understand the exact meaning of the words, but also expanded my vocabulary in English.
Generally speaking with the appearance of fast food restaurants in our country we enlarged the vocabulary of English borrowed words at least for 20 words which are often heard in the speech of Russians of all ages.
Список использованной литературы:
Дубровина К.И. — Студенческий жаргон // ФН. № 1, 2006.
Матюшенко Е.Е. Заимствование как один из самых продуктивных способов образования единиц современного молодёжного сленга // Социальные варианты языка — 2003. — № 2 — С. 386—389.
Онлайн версия журнала “Esquire”. [Электронный ресурс] Режим доступа. URL: http://esquire.ru/.
Сумцова О.В. Причины использования англицизмов в русском молодежном сленге [Текст] / О.В. Сумцова // Молодой ученый. — 2012. — № 4. — С. 247—250.
Энциклопедия «Кругосвет». [Электронный ресурс] Режим доступа. URL: http://www.krugosvet.ru/.
Online Slang Dictionary. [Электронный ресурс] Режим доступа. URL: http://www.slangdictionary.ru/.
Oxford Dictionary & Tesaurus of Current English. — 2007. — p. 403.
50 people were interviewed.
From what sources do you get most information about anglicisms?
61%- the Internet
49% - school
43% - friends, relatives
30% - radio, film, television
What are the most commonly used words from fast food vocabulary?
50 people were interviewed
- fast food (is a type of cooking and catering, where the service and cooking is fast)
-hamburger, fish burger, chicken burger( is a sandwich consisting of one or more cooked patties of ground meat, usually beef, placed inside a sliced bun)
- chicken mac nuggets( chicken fillet marinated in cream)
- coca cola( a carbonated soft drink)
- Big Mac
- Happy meal