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Made by: Ksenia Pavlenkova There are several ways of the emergence of new words. They are: borrowings word-building native loan (borrowed) Native The language Groups Examples Indo-European -Terms of kinship -Names of natural phenomena - Basic verbs - Parts of human body - Numerals Father, mother, sister, son. Fire, moon, hill, day, star, snow, sun, water, wind, wood, etc. Come, know, eat, sleep, sit, stand, bear. Heart, eye, foot, nose, mouth, ear, arm, knee, tongue. One, two, tree, four, five, six, seven, eight, ten, hundred. Germanic -Nouns -Verbs -Adjectives -Pronouns Bone, chicken, cheek, cloth, hand, hope, life, meal, etc. Drink, forget, live, make, send, sing, bake, burn, keep, learn, see. Dead, dear, deep, heavy, sharp, soft, etc. All, each, he. Borrowed The language Period Examples Celtic 5th – 6th c.A.D. Bald, down, glen, bard, Cradle. Latin 7th c.A.C. Priest, bishop, monk, nun, candle, school, Magister. Scandinavian 8th – 11th c.A.D. Call, take, cast, die, law, husband, window, ill, loose. French Restaurant, corps, bouquet, ballet, face, table. Greek Renaissance Major, minor, intelligent, datum. Russian Czar, tsarina, duma, ukaz, pogrom, cassak, etc. The reasons of borrowing words. To fill a gap in the vocabulary. To express some particular concept. Due to wars, invasions or conquests. Due to the trade and international cultural relations. Borrowed words should come through the following adaptations: Phonetic adaptation Grammatical adaptation Semantic adaptation Word-building Major ways Minor ways Affixation Composition Conversion (water - to water; air - to air) (table-cloth; bookcase) (freedom; childhood; slowly) Major ways of word- building Minor ways of word-building Back-formation or Reversion. (baby-sit from baby-sitter)Shortening (Clipping or Curtailment). (lab-laboratory)Graphical Abbreviations. Acronyms. (NATO;BBC)Blending. (smoke + fog = smog)Onomatopoeia (sound imitation). (giggle, crash)Sound interchange. (foot-feet; blood-bleed) Distinctive stress. (‘present – pres’ent) Practical work. My practical work is based on the poem, called “ The Raven” was written by a famous American write Edgar Allan Poe, in January 1845. Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) The purpose of my work: to show how new words, forms and grammatical structures appear in the English language. This can be done by giving the examples from the poem.In order to show it I will examine the emergence of new words in the English language and check words’ origin and their morphological structure. As a result, I divided words into the following groups: 1. Words of a German origin: For example: while, weak, over, came, etc. 2. Words of a Old Saxon origin: For example: once, weary, many, forget, etc. 3. French borrowings: For example: pondered, quaint, gently, volume etc. 4. Latin words: For example: curious, suddenly, chamber, etc. Words of a Greek origin: For example: door, one, etc. Some words appeared by word-formation. For example: 1. AffixationNearly =near+ adverb-forming suffix –lyDistinctly= distinct+ adverb-forming suffix -lyDarkness= dark+ noun-forming suffix -nessUnbroken = prefix -un + broke Obeisance =obey + noun-forming suffix –ance 2. Composition Lamp-light 3. ConversationSleep-to sleep Major ways For example:1. Back-formation Visiter = visit+ - er Tapping= Tap+ -ing 2. Onomatopoeia (sound imitation) Whisper 3. Sound Interchange Food-feet Minor ways