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Temperature measurementCreated by student from group 12.1 PCWPryamukhin DmitriyTeacher: Gavrishchuk I.A. History of temperature measurementIn 170 AD, physician Claudius Galenus mixed equal portions of ice and boiling water to create a "neutral" temperature standard. In the 1600s including Galileo constructing devices able to measure relative change in temperature, but subject also to confounding with atmospheric pressure changes. These early devices were called thermoscopes. The first sealed thermometer was constructed in 1641 by the Grand Duke of Toscani, Ferdinand II. The development of today's thermometers and temperature scales began in the early 18th century, when Gabriel Fahrenheit produced a mercury thermometer and scale, both developed by Ole Christensen Rømer. Fahrenheit's scale is still in use, alongside the Celsius and Kelvin scales. Technologies of measurementMany methods have been developed for measuring temperature. Most of these rely on measuring some physical property of a working material that varies with temperature. One of the most common devices for measuring temperature is the glass thermometer. This consists of a glass tube filled with mercury or some other liquid, which acts as the working fluid. Gas thermometerAnother type of thermometer that is not really used much in practice, but is important from a theoretical standpoint, is the gas thermometer. Other important devices for measuring temperature include:ThermocouplesThermistorsResistance temperature detector (RTD)PyrometerLangmuir probes (for electron temperature of a plasma)InfraredOther thermometers Comparison of temperature scales