Слайд 1 – Тема, чья работа
The theme of my investigation is The reflection of the process of globalization in the languages belonging to different cultures.
The object of my research is the modern English loan-words which have appeared in Russian, German and Korean during the last years. Слайд 2
The aim of my investigation was to find out the preferences in borrowing English words by the representatives of different ethnic groups of our days and to see how the loan-words are adopted by the languages of their cultures. Слайд 2
The problem is to reveal the reasons making the languages borrow so many English words, and to realize whether it is dangerous for a language which borrows. Слайд 3
My hypothesis is that the process of globalization taking place in our civilization in the epoch of information influences people’s life and the languages they speak. And the main role in this influence belongs to the English language. Слайд 3
I’ve decided to investigate this problem because I study English at school, and I’m interested in languages in general. That is why I’m going to speak not only about Russian, but also about German and Korean.
The main part
Any language is a means of communication. That is why all the changes taking place in the language can be seen in newspaper or magazine articles, TV programs and Internet portals.
English has become a language of global systems of entertainment, tourism, business, marketing, science. E-mail and Internet are used all over the world, but at first they were created for the English language. So there are a lot of Americanisms and English loan-words in different languages nowadays. Слайд 3
Why do languages borrow words from other languages? To answer the question we shall take Russian as an example. Слайд 4
There are several reasons for it:
Firstly, in social life there appear phenomena and products that didn’t exist in this culture beforehand. So they need to be named somehow, and the name of the object comes together with it (маркетинг, паблисити, брэнд);
Secondly, some foreign words become to be used to name things that existed in the culture, but didn’t have a name because the society didn’t want to notice them (мафия, рэкет);
Thirdly, the new words can be used instead of a whole phrase (рейтинг - положение фирмы, политического деятеля в списке себе подобных; имидж - образ «себя», который создает тележурналист, политический деятель, фотомодель и др.);
Besides, a loan-word can be used to change the social status of something (офис - контора, служебное помещение, сбербанк - прежде сберкасса);
And at last, some words appear in a language as a result of a certain fashion on a language or the way of life the speakers of the language follow. (See slide 4)
Now, let’s see how the English loan-words in Russian are formed. Слайд 5
- The direct loan-words look the same way they look in English (уикенд, бой-френд);
- Hybrids are born when a Russian suffix, prefix or ending is added to an English word (апгрэйдить, сканировать);
- The so called calques when loan-words preserve their phonetic and graphic image (меню, пароль, диск, вирус, клуб);
- Half calques when loan-words become grammatically adopted so that they while being used follow Russian grammar rules (drive – драйв – драйва;for example: давно не было такого драйва - значение «энергетика»);
- Exotic loan-words which are the names of things non-typical for this very culture and describe phenomena of another ethnic culture (чипсы – chips; хот-дог – hot-dog; чизбургер – cheeseburger);
- Emotionally colored foreign words (окей – ok; вау - wow);
- Sometimes new words are a combination of two words (секонд-хенд – магазин, торгующий одеждой, бывшей в употреблении; видеосалон – комната для просмотра фильмов);
- Slang words which appear as a result of distortion of some sounds (крезанутый от crazy). (See the slide)
As you see we have enumerated eight ways the new words come from English into Russian.
Modern English loan-words in the Russian language Слайд 6
Great changes in the political, economic and cultural life have caused the appearance of many new English loan-words in Russian.
Such words as парламент, кабинет министров, премьер-министр, вице- премьер; мэр and вице-мэр have replaced old words. A Soviet has turned into администрация. (Главы администраций имеют своих пресс-секретарей, которые выступают на пресс-конференциях, рассылают пресс-релизы, организуют брифинги и эксклюзивные интервью своих шефов).
Such words as бартер, брокер, ваучер, дилер, дистрибьютор, маркетинг, инвестиция, фьючерсные кредиты show the changes in the life of our economy.
New sports such as виндсерфинг, армрестлинг, фристайл, скейтборд, кикбоксинг, фитнес have appeared as a new part of our life.
The computer has come into our society, and it has brought a lot of new terms: компьютер, дисплей, файл, интерфейс, принтер, сканер, ноутбук, браузер, сайт and others.
Many new loan-words have appeared also in less specialized spheres. For example, презентация, номинация, спонсор, видео, шоу, триллер, хит, ди-джей and others are widely used in Russian.
Some English words replace Russian words because it seems to their users that English equivalents sound better – for them they are more attractive, smarter and fashionable than Russian words (эксклюзивный – исключительный, топ-модель – лучшая модель, прайс-лист – прейскурант, имидж – образ).
So we can come to a conclusion that if a notion is connected with the most important spheres of human’s life, then the word indicating this notion naturally becomes widely used. Слайд 7
As far as it concerns German Слайд 8
English loan-words are also on the first place according to surveys undertaken in Germany in 2001. But it should be mentioned that the reaction of the society to the appearance of the loan-words is negative as a rule. It can be seen from some comments (See the slide 8)
English loan-words in German are mainly used in Слайд 9
- Computer vocabulary: Scanner, Internet, surfen, Online, Provider, browse, e-mail
- Commercials: «The united colours of Benetton» (торговая марка), «No Drinks. No Drugs. No Problems» (дорожные плакаты);
- Young people’s speech: cool, in, out, ok, hi, news.
In German English loan-words can be united into some groups: Слайд 10
1) loan-words having replaced true German words: kind (ребенок) – baby, kinder (дети) – kids, tool (здорово) – cool, Fahrkarte (билет) – ticket, einfach (просто) – easy;
2 ) hybrid forms, that is combinations of English words and phrases with German or other foreign words: Bahn Card (ж/д билет), Einkafscenter (торговый центр), Reiseshop (туристический магазин);
3) the new words, created on the basis of the English language material, but not existing in English, or they have the German meaning: Dress-Man (модельер), Handy (мобильный телефон, от англ. hand). (See Slide 10)
And what about the Korean language? Slide 11-12
English becomes popular in Korea in the 50-s of the past century. It was the result of the USA presence in the country.
We can’t say that English loan-words in the Korean language fully copy the original. The matter is that there are some sounds that do not exist in the language. For example, [f], [v], both [th], the initial[l]. The sound [f] is regularly pronounced by the Korean as [пх].So, the word coffee turns into [кхопхи].
In many cases the English loan-words are used in a different meaning. For instance, the English word “handle” in the Korean language means “helm”; 'mission oil' in reality is 'transmission oil'. These loan-words are known as pseudo-English loan-words - 'KONGLISH', or 'KOREANIZED ENGLISH'.
'KONGLISH' is spoken by the educated young people in cities who wish to import and adopt the American mass/pop culture. In their slang 'KONGLISH' is used to describe non-traditional cultural phenomena where the Korean vocabulary can do nothing, is helpless. For example, the word meeting in 'KONGLISH' means a blind date with a dinner, sometimes with candles. 'Villa' (Latin) is a department cottage in a rich district. 'Netizens' is an abbreviation from 'net citizens' – those who mainly use the Internet.
Conclusion Слайд 13
Exploring the theme we have found out:
The process of borrowing words by one language from another is nothing special. All the languages influence each other. There are no languages that do not borrow words from other ones.
The popularity of English loan-words in the world’s languages is mainly connected with the technical progress, computer technologies, and the process of globalization in Mass Media, especially the Internet.
The main user of the English loan-words is the youth. It easily masters new technologies and is much more influenced by the fashion.
Слайд 14 – Thank you for your attention.