Практические задания по дисциплине АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК (общеобразовательный цикл, 1 курс)


Филиал Областного государственного бюджетного образовательного учреждение среднего профессионального образования
Рязанский педагогический колледж в г.КасимовеПрактические задания по дисциплине
АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК (общеобразовательный цикл, 1 курс)
для специальностей:
072501 Дизайн
050141 Физическая культура
050144 Дошкольное образование


2013 г.
Прошкина И.А.. Практические задания по дисциплине Английский язык ( общеобразовательный цикл, 1 курс) : методическое пособие для студентов педагогических колледжей. – г. Касимов ОГБОУ СПО РПК, филиал в г. Касимове, 2013. – 44с.
Сборник содержит практические задания по английскому языку для студентов отделения 072501 Дизайн, 050141 Физическая культура, 050144 Дошкольное образование.
Практические задания по дисциплине Английский язык (общеобразовательный цикл, 1 курс) составлен на основе рабочей программы учебной дисциплины Английский язык.
Компьютерная вёрстка: И.А. Прошкина
Содержание
Пояснительная записка …………………………………………………4
Тема 1.Описание людей.………………………………………………....5
Тема 2. Межличностные отношения…………………………………….8
Тема 3. Человек, здоровье, спорт………………………………………..16
Тема 4. Город, деревня, инфраструктура……………………………….21
Тема 5. Природа и человек………………………………………………26
Лексико-грамматический комментарий………………………………..30
Критерии оценок…………………………………………………………42
Список литературы………………………………………………………………………44
Пояснительная записка
Данный сборник составлен на основе рабочей программы учебной дисциплины Английский язык (общеобразовательный цикл, 1 курс) и содержит практические задания по английскому языку для студентов следующих специальностей 072501 Дизайн, 050141 Физическая культура, 050144 Дошкольное образование. В процессе самостоятельной работы студент выступает как активная творческая личность, готовая к будущей профессиональной деятельности. Практическая работа проводится с целью:
систематизации и закрепления полученных теоретических знаний и практических умений;
углубления и расширения теоретических знаний;
формирования умения использовать справочную и специальную литературу;
развитие познавательных способностей и активности студентов: творческой инициативы, самостоятельности мышления, способностей к
саморазвитию, самосовершенствованию и самореализации;
развитию исследовательских умений;
формирования обще профессиональной компетенции: умение эффективно общаться с коллегами, руководством, потребителями.
Критериями практической самостоятельной работы являются:
уровень усвоения студентом учебного материала,
умение использовать теоретические знания при выполнении практических задач,
сформированность общенаучных умений,
обоснованность и четкость изложения ответа,
оформление материала в соответствии с требованиями.
Большинство практических работ выполняются индивидуально, возможность выполнения работы группой отражена в заданиях.
Контроль результатов на учебных занятиях может проходить в устной, письменной или смешанной форме с предоставлением продукта творческой деятельности студента.
Тема 1: Описание людей.
Практическая работа №1
Тема: Описание людей
Цель: ознакомление с новыми словами, первичное закрепление лексики
Время выполнения: 15 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практические задания по дисциплине Английский язык»
Задание: выпишите слова в словарь
Активный словарь: tall – высокий; short – маленького роста; stout – приземистый, коренастый; fat – толстый; plumpy – полный; fair hair – светлые волосы; brunette – брюнет(ка); gray hair – седые волосы; bold headed – лысый; short sighted – близорукий; smart, clever, bright – умный(ая); stupid – тупой, глупый; boring – скучный(ая); quiet – спокойный; impulsive – порывистый, импульсивный; aggressive – агрессивный; rude – невежливый, грубый; shy – застенчивый; active – активный; talkative – разговорчивый.

Практическая работа №2
Тема: Описание людей
Цель: развитие навыков монологического высказывания по теме Описание людей
Время выполнения: 30 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практические задания по дисциплине Английский язык»
Задание: составьте короткий рассказ о внешности и характере какого-нибудь человека (вашего друга, соседа по парте, студента из вашей группы).

Практическая работа №3
Тема: Описание людей.
Цель: развитие навыков чтения и перевода
Время выполнения: 45 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практические задания по дисциплине Английский язык»
Задание: прочитайте и переведите текст.

MY FRIEND
I have many friends. Most of them are my former classmates but my best friend is Peter. He is fifteen. Now he is a student of a college. He is a good student because he studies hard and is very diligent. He wants to become a good specialist and he is especially interested in computers. He often helps me with my English lessons and I'm grateful to him for that. Now I want to tell you about his appearance. He is rather tall and strong. He has an oval face, straight nose, dark-brown hair, blue eyes and a nice smile. People find him good-looking. Peter goes in for sports. He plays football and basketball well. His basketball team is very popular at the college. We made friends with Peter when he and his family moved to our house. We have very much in common: we like the same music, we both like reading. In general my friend is a very interesting person: he is intelligent and well-read. But the most important thing is that Peter is honest and kind. I can fully rely on him and trust everything to him. Peter has a great sense of humor and I like to spend my free time with him. I have another friend. Her name is Natasha. She is a schoolgirl and she lives next door. I like her very much. She is a blonde with blue eyes, she is slim and pretty. Her hair is long and she has a nice complexion. I like all my friends very much. I think they are all my faithful friends.
Words: former – бывший; strong – сильный; classmates – одноклассники; dark-brown – темно-коричневый; to study hard – усердно учиться; diligent – прилежный; especially – особенно; grateful – благодарный; appearance – внешний вид; rather – довольно; tall – высокий; straight – прямой; team – команда; to move – зд. переехать; in common – общего; same – тот же; both – оба; intelligent – умный; well-read – начитанный; honest – честный; kind – добрый; fully – полностью; to rely – полагаться; to trust – доверять; sense – чувство; blonde – блондин(ка); faithful – верный; slim – стройный; pretty – красивая; hair – волосы; complexion – цвет лица.
Вопросы для самоконтроля:
Questions: 1. Who is your best friend? 2. Where does your friend study? 3. How does your friend look like? 4. What kind of sport does your friend like? 5. How did you make friends? 6. What do you have much in common? 7. Do you like to spend your free time with your friends? 8. Can you call all your friends faithful? 9. Is the sense of humor important in friendship? 10. What are the hobbies of your friends?
.
Практическая работа №4
Тема: Описание людей
Цель: закрепление умений образовывать предложения, обращая внимание на порядок слов в английском предложении
Время выполнения: 15 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практические задания по дисциплине Английский язык»
Задание: составьте и напишите предложения, обращая внимание на порядок слов.
1. Is, best, she, friend, my. 2. Learn, different, students, our, subjects. 3. The, is, Russia, in, country, the, largest, world. 4. In, the, we, city, live, a, flat, in, of, center, the. 5. Reading, is, my, of, best, son's, fond, friend.Практическая работа №5
Тема: Описание людей
Цель: закрепление употребления множественного числа существительных
Время выполнения: 45 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практические задания по дисциплине Английский язык»
Задания:

1. Перепишите исчисляемые и неисчисляемые существительные в 2 столбика и переведите их. Time, water, machine, music, snow, word, coffee, money, idea, family, knowledge, sea, hour, tree, silver, meat, happiness, information, speed, book, news, house, milk, student, pen, paper, clothes, picture, air.
2. Напишите следующие существительные во множественном числе. Box; sheep, place, library, photo, mouse, lady, glasses, bush, dress, country, bus, party, wife, day, knife, knowledge, month, pen, hero, goose, company, life, deer, tomato, city, man, play, news, child, fruit, shelf, leaf, foot, woman, money, information.
3. Поставьте следующие существительные во множественное число (обратите внимание на артикль неопределенный артикль во множественном числе опускается, определенный артикль – сохраняется). The star, a mountain, a tree, a waiter, the queen, a man, the woman, an eye, a shelf, a box, the city, the boy, a goose, a watch, a mouse, a dress, a toy, a sheep, a tooth, a child, an ox, a deer, the life, a tomato.
4. Поставьте следующие словосочетания во множественное число (обратите внимание на изменения в указательных местоимениях). This man, that match, this tea-cup, this egg, that wall, that picture, this foot, that mountain, this lady, that window, this knife
5. Поставьте существительные в следующих предложениях во множественное число. 1. A new house is in our street. 2. This story is very interesting. 3. A woman, a man, a boy and a girl are the room. 4. In the farm-yard we see an ox, a sheep, a cow and a goose. 5. Put this knife on that table. 6. Is this worker an Englishman or a German? – He is a Frenchman. 7. What is your name? 8. He keeps his toy in a box. 9. This man works at our office.
6. Поставьте следующие предложения во множественное число, произведя нужные изменения. 1. This is my stocking. 2. He has a new suit. 3. The plate was on the table. 4. This town is very large. 5. Is that girl your sister? 6. I will give you my book. 7. This story is good. 8. Is this a good match? 9. The boy put his book on the desk. 10. That house is new. 11. The pupil put his book into the bag. 12. Is this a good student?

Тема 2: Межличностные отношения.
Практическая работа №1
Тема: Межличностные отношения
Цель: развитие навыков чтения и перевода
Время выполнения: 30 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практические задания по дисциплине Английский язык»
Задание: прочитайте и переведите текст
Проблемы молодежи
Nowadays we are often told that young generation is absolutely impolite and disorganized. As for me, I partially agree with this opinion as there are various facts that support it. To begin with, teenagers are reluctant to listen to their parents` advices because teens are absolutely convinced that they are always right and consequently do not need any help. They feel like looking independent and confident but, of course, in fact they can neither live on their own nor manage with all difficulties themselves. Moreover, teenagers are often very selfish and self-absorbed. They think, they are much better than other people. They do not understand that the way you treat people - you will be treated by them. In addition, I strongly believe that teenagers` behavior is influenced by mass media. Today most of young people have TV-sets as well as computers with permanent Internet connection in their bedrooms. Therefore, despite the fact that a lot of TV programmes are inappropriate for teens they watch them because few parents actually check up what their children watch. So, programmes containing offensive language, scenes of violence and loud screeches influence teens badly. It is really difficult for children to determine the difference between the reality and the fantasy. Hence, they start imitating the violent behaviour they see in their favourite programmes. However, there are people who oppose this view. They suppose that teens seem to be rude and selfish due to their age. Their character is changing, they are growing up and have to take responsibilities and responsibility for their actions. It is very difficult for them to cope with these problems, that is why they become aggressive. In conclusion, I firmly believe that a lot depends on parents and the way a child is bringing up. If a teenager has the common sense, then he or she will be able to solve any problem and improve his or her behavior.
Вопросы для самоконтроля:
1. What can you say about nowadays teens?
2. Is it really difficult for children to determine the difference between the reality and the fantasy?
3. Why do the teens become aggressive?
Практическая работа №2
Тема: Межличностные отношения
Цель: развитие навыков чтения и перевода
Время выполнения: 45 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практические задания по дисциплине Английский язык»
Задание: прочитайте и переведите текст

Животрепещущая проблема нашего времени
The problem of juvenile crime is one of the burning problems of our time. A lot of explanations of juvenile crime can be found. All the reasons are related to each other. One can highlight features of a teenager`s personality, his addictions, his relationships with family members, friends. It should be noted that the environment influences the teenagers too. All offenders are generally characterized by a certain set of anti-social attitudes, skills, habits and aspirations. Many offenders have such features as absence of aims in life, irascibility, lack of self control, touchiness, a negative attitude to law. Very often, these characteristic features unite them into groups, set specific connections and relationships among offenders. Psychologists, sociologists can infinitely list the causes of juvenile crime, but while thinking about this problem ,I was able to pick out some of the most explicit reasons ,which in my opinion influence directly the growth of juvenile crime. For example, one of the mainreasons is the influence of the family. The family is a social institution. It is here that socially significant qualities of a personality are formed. After reading various works of researchers, I came to the conclusion that most juvenile offenders were brought up in the families where quarrels, scandals, mutual insults, drunkenness were constantly going on. A lot depends on the relationships with parents. Certainly, they influence the teenagers. Parents are people who contribute to the development of the child`s personality and besides they must remain the closest friends for their children. Parents should know how to communicate with teenagers so that their children could be frank with them. Love and understanding must reign in the family. A special problem is the problem of leisure. Juvenile offenders have much more free time than law-abiding teenagers but unfortunately they can`t make proper use of it. It is common knowledge that educational level affects the offender`s personality. As a rule the level of education of juvenile offenders is lower than that of law-abiding teenagers. Among offenders we can frequently see dropouts in schools, pupils studying in corrective schools. Here also belong defects in legal consciousness among juveniles who commit crimes. All this is expressed in a negative attitude to law unwillingness to follow certain rules. Hence significant gaps in legal knowledge lead teens to the thought of "unfairness" of laws. The place wherethey live also affects teenagers. In large towns social control over teenagers is weak, so they spend their time on addictions, for example, drug addiction or alcohol addiction. Another global cause of crime is social inequality and stratification of the society. This objective process results in negative consequences, such as social conflicts, protests, which take the form of deviant behavior and crime. Especially, I would like to point out the problem of information environment. If we analyze TV or radio programs, we can clearly see lack of spirituality in them. Computer games with familiar violence, destruction, phone games, cartoons , movies that break down the teens` nervous system and where there are fights, murders, and blood play a great role nowadays. Mass media practically promote an immoral lifestyle. They constantly advertise alcoholic drinks, tobacco products and so on. Consequently, every day teenagers watch this kind of advertising and theynaturally want to try these products. Besides nationalism is also one of the most significant factors. You can often see how school children insult their classmates of other nationalities. Sometimes, as they become older abuse can be transformed into physical attracts and aggression. It should be noted that insulted children also fall into the group of potential criminals, because they start looking for ways to assert themselves and to take their place in this society. In order to take measures for eliminating juvenile crime, it is absolutely necessary to study the environment in which the tendency to commit crimes appears. From my point of view the most suitable measures to eliminate juvenile crime are the following. Teenagers do not know what to do in their free time, hence they spend it out of doors in the company of similar teenagers. In fact, these companies do not represent a special danger for the society, but if there appears leader with obvious criminal tendencies, such a group begins to acquire negative features. So parents have to know exactly where, with whom and how the children spend their free time and if they notice the negative influence of the society, they should try to find out the reason for it and take measures. And therefore, warm relationships between parents and their children are necessary. So sometimes it is necessary to use the help of a psychologist , for example special courses for parents will inform them about the features of a certain age group. Teenagers from problem families such as those with many children, one parent and poor families have a tendency to crime. So, teachers should pay special attention to children from such families.Problems at work, tensе relationships with collegues, stressful situations - all these factors affect the climate in the family. After a difficult work day many parents require some relaxation and are simply incapable to go deep into the problems of their children. They can`t devote sufficient time to them. I consider that to avoid this problem, some changes have to be made at their workplace ,for example, working schedules should be reviewed, relaxation rooms should be opened and so forth. In most cases, information environment influences the behavior of teenagers. Mass media deliberately bring up the tendency to crimes in children. It would be a good idea to create a youth channel on TV, which would reflect the most important aspects of teenagers` life. As for TV it would be useful to remove "all those ads" and to show programms, which will promote a healthy lifestyle ...Вопросы для самоконтроля:
What is one of the burning problems of our time?
What features do many offenders have?
3. What is another global cause of crime?
Практическая работа №3
Тема: Межличностные отношения
Цель: развитие навыков чтения и перевода
Время выполнения: 45 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практические задания по дисциплине Английский язык»
Задание: прочитайте и переведите текст

Взаимоотношения родителей и детей
Everyone says that youth is probably the best time of our life - that being young means love, friendship and romance, new discoveries and so on. But it is also the most difficult time for making some very important decisions which will have influence on all our life. Our time is not the easiest even for adults, but for teenagers who are to find own place in the society, is very difficult, that`s why parents must help their children solve youth problems and children should be a good and positive example for them showing how it is important to treat other people with respect. I think that all these can really help construct good relationship between parents and children. But in our modern life there is often a lack of communication between parents and their children. Lack of the love and attention to children can make them unhappy. One can simply open the daily newspaper to find teenagers committing suicide or various crimes due to stress derived from family issues. These incidents reveal the importance of parents` communication with their children. Love for their children is within every parent, which is frequently revealed through the concern they show. But superfluous control can not in the best way influence on child. Often children at school or in the street begin mock at this child. Call him nondependent. In result of this pressure child lose his temper and starts be rude, closed. I think parents should not all the time control their children. Sometimes they have to allow freedom. As for me, I get on very well with my parents. Whenever I have problems with my friends or with or with my schoolwork, I know they are always there to listen and give advice. They have taught me a lot. They have got a lot of experience and they have always happy to share their knowledge with me. But sometimes my Mum and Dad seem to think I`m still a kid. When I go out with friends, I always have to be back home by ten o`clock and they call me on my mobile to check where I am. I have to ask permission for almost everything I do. It doesn`t seem fair sometimes but I anyway love my parents very much and I think they are the kindest in the whole world. In conclusion, the ability to solve or avoid family problems depends on children and parents. If the relationship between parents and children is based on love, mutual respect, and kindness, the family will be happy.
Вопросы для самоконтроля:
1. What is the best time of the life?
2. What are the relationships between the children and their parents?
3. Do you have any problems with your own parents?
Практическая работа №4
Тема: Межличностные отношения
Цель: развитие навыков чтения и перевода
Время выполнения: 45 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практические задания по дисциплине Английский язык»
Задание: прочитайте и переведите текст


Отцы и дети
 If you feel an unbearable torment after a row and something seems to be bursting in you, you will understand me undoubtedly. I want to tell you about a problem of generations, about adults and teenagers, because this problem is on the horns of dilemma nowadays. Every person, who came across a modern full-fledged family, knows that parents and children want from each other completely different things. As far as I am concerned a huge amount of children want to be understood, adults, however, maintain, that their children have become worse in a blink of an eye. There is a number of the most actual problems in contemporary families. The first problem is incomprehension. Some adults absolutely can`t find common language with their children. They have forgotten, that they are in the same boat, so they should not blame the youth, be nervous or demand from their children something, they don`t want to do. Other parents, who are more successful in their efforts, advise to use different games and compromise. In my view family is a team of players and they enjoy this game. Also, you can swap for one day, it can be effective. I can advise you to follow the principle: "Do it and I will give you what you want". But you should remember that you can make children do something, but you can`t make them like it, so aggressive behavior can`t be avoided at once. The second problem is communication. It may seem strange, but a lot of children say, that their parents don`t want to communicate with them. For instance, my friend, Mary, noticed, that her mother doesn`t want to maintain a conversation with her, she resents and it generates a new row. A lot of psychologists tell us that parents are subconsciously afraid of talk with their own children. Why? It depends. To my mind, parents don`t want to reply, because they understand, that their child is neither a child, but nor an adult yet. Sometimes they take a conversation with a grain of salt. In order to avoid silence, you should talk and listen to each other more. Discuss everything, don`t be silent. Don`t become strangers, all family members are the best interlocutors. Remember it if you don`t want to eat a humble pie! The third problem is the age of storm-and-stress. To be more precise, problem is in parents, who constantly refer to it. I believe that it`s wrong. Parents show their children, that they`re small and silly, it`s really irritating. My classmate, Julia, told me, that her parents don`t want to understand her; she said that they are on different wavelength. They hide behind this phrase and take a backseat, where they see nothing. I strongly believe that it`s scary, because parents could skip a moment, when a child becomes an adult. To sum it up, all these problems are actual and important. I know it from my own experience. Children and parents should find common language, because family is the most valuable treasure you have. You shouldn`t do something under pressure. Sooner or later parents and children will find common language - it is invariably before the end of time.
Вопросы для самоконтроля:
What is the first problem between the parents and their children?
What is the second problem between the parents and their children?
What is the third problem between the parents and their children?
Практическая работа №5
Тема: Межличностные отношения
Цель: развитие навыков чтения и перевода
Время выполнения: 45 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практические задания по дисциплине Английский язык»
Задание: прочитайте и переведите текст

Дружба - радость жизни
What is friendship? Some people will say that it is a feeling of mutual liking between two or more people, other will add that it is a state when one person understands and supports the other one.
To my mind friendship can be compared to a tree. Its seed should find good soil and under good conditions it will grow into a tree. As the years go by the tree stands firmer and firmer on the ground. And if it is strong enough, it will survive all the storms and winds. But to help it, we should take care of it and love it.
The most important feeling that exists between friends is trust. It newer appears by itself, it's the result of a long friendship and this feeling is very valuable. Respect and tolerance are also very important; it means that you don't criticize your friend's way of living, but try to understand him, discuss problems with him and explain to him what you think is good and what is bad. A friend is a person who can help you in time, lend you any sum of money for a long period of time without any percent, whom you can wake up in the middle of the night just to say you feel worried or who is eager to do everything for you waiting nothing in return, who supports you in all your beginnings and who will never betray you.
Lucky are those people who have friends. I'm happy to have lots of friends, too. Some of them are very close, some are less. But all of them make my life interesting and enjoyable.
I appreciate friendship. It makes happiness grow brighter and grief less painful, because we have friends to share it with. When we doubt our ability to fulfill our aspiration or to reach our secret goal it is our best friend who gives us a spark of assurance. And we trust our friends and we are grateful to them. Friendship is a bridge between loneliness and fellowship, frustration and confidence, despair and hope, setbacks and success. That's why a true friend is a priceless gift. They are rich who have true friends, says a proverb and I agree.
Вопросы для самоконтроля:
1. What is a friendship?
2. Do you have a friend?
3. What do you appreciate in your friend?
Практическая работа №6
Тема: Межличностные отношения
Цель: развитие навыков чтения и перевода
Время выполнения: 45 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практические задания по дисциплине Английский язык»
Задание: прочитайте и переведите текст, составьте рассказ о своем друге

Я ценю нашу дружбу
When we speak about somebody’s character, we can characterize a person as polite, friendly, good-natured, kindhearted, generous, thoughtful or, on the contrary, hard-hearted, ill-natured, rude, greedy, uncommunicative.Now I’d like to describe my close friend. Her name is Kate. She is a beautiful girl of 16. Kate is not very tall. She is always very elegant, she wears the clothes of latest fashion. Kate has fair curly hair and dark blue eyes. Her eyelashes are very long and thick. Kate’s face is oval and she has a turned-up nose.She is a well-bred, merry and kind person. She is very tactful and shy. Kate is a pleasant person to deal with, she never loses her temper. She also has a kind heart and a strong will. She is always ready to help her friends. Kate always manages to be amusing and cheerful. She is an easy-going girl. I am very happy to have such a friend.
Вопросы для самоконтроля:
Questions:
1. Who is your best friend? 2. Where does your friend study? 3. How does your friend look like? 4. What kind of sport does your friend like? 5. How did you make friends? 6. What do you have much in common? 7. Do you like to spend your free time with your friends? 8. Can you call all your friends faithful? 9. Is the sense of humor important in friendship? 10. What are the hobbies of your friends?
Тема 3: Человек, здоровье, спорт.
Практическая работа №1
Тема: Человек, здоровье, спорт
Цель: развитие навыков чтения и перевода
Время выполнения: 45 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практические задания по дисциплине Английский язык»
Задание: прочитайте и переведите текст
SPORTS
Sport is very popular among people in all the countries of the world. Sport makes people healthy, keeps them fit, more organized and better disciplined. It unites people of different classes and nationalities. Many people do sports on their personal initiative. They go in for skiing, skating, table tennis, swimming, volleyball, football, basketball, body-building etc. All necessary facilities are provided for them: stadiums, sport swimming-pools, skating-rinks, football fields. But, of course, one have to pay for these services. Sport is paid much attention to in our schools and colleges. Physical training is a compulsory subject. Different sports and games are popular with my classmates. All my friends go in for different kinds of sport, such as water sports (that is swimming, sailing, rowing), gymnastics, horse-racing, wrestling, fencing, weightlifting, boxing, football, basketball, volleyball, etc. Physical training lessons at our college are held out of-doors in summer. When it is cold outside the lessons are held indoors in our college gymnasium. Professional sport is also paid much attention to in our country. In the city where I live, there are different sport societies, clubs and sport schools. Practically all kinds of sports are popular in our country, but gymnastics and tennis enjoy the greatest popularity. The most popular kinds of sports in the United States are baseball, basketball and American football. In England popular kinds of sports are golf and rugby. Englishmen like football too. It is their national kind of sports.
Words: all over the world – во всем мире; to be fond of – зд. любить; healthy – здоровый; to be fit – быть в форме; personal initiative – личная инициатива; skiing – лыжный спорт; skating – коньки; body-building – культуризм; facilities – помещения, оборудование; swimming-pool – плавательный бассейн; skating-rink – каток; attention – внимание; compulsory – обязательный; sailing – парусный спорт; rowing – гребля; wrestling – борьба; fencing – фехтование; weightlifting – штанга; out-of-doors – на воздухе; indoors – в помещении; sport societies – спортивные общества. Вопросы для самоконтроля:

Questions: 1. Why do people all over the world are fond of sports and games? 2. What are summer sports and what are winter sports? 3. What kind of sports are popular with your friends? 4. Do you have to pay for sports facilities, such as stadiums, swimming pools and tennis courts? 5. What can you say about physical training lessons at your college? 6. What kinds of sport are most popular in our country? 7. What are the sports organizations in our country? 8. What are the most popular kinds of sport in America and England? 9. What other American or English kinds sports do you know? 10. Are American football and baseball popular in Russia? Why and why not?
Практическая работа №2
Тема: Человек, здоровье, спорт
Цель: вторичное закрепление лексики
Время выполнения: 15 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практические задания по дисциплине Английский язык»
Задание: расположите слова в две колонки

Put the word-combinations into the columns:
We must We must not
Be healthy; smoke; wash hands; clean the house; eat too much; drink the alcohol; eat the snow; breathe in fresh air; go in for sport; eat fruit and vegetables; do morning exercises; eat too many sweets; go to bed late; keep our body clean; be sleepy; sleep eight hours; visit the doctor regularly; clean the teeth; feel fine; feel sick; have headache; have a bad cold; drink very cold water.
Практическая работа №3
Тема: Человек, здоровье, спорт
Цель: закрепление употребления количественных местоимений
Время выполнения: 45 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практические задания по дисциплине Английский язык»
Задания:

1. Вставьте much, many, little, few, a little, a few. 1. Have you got ... time before the lesson? 2. She gave him ... water to wash his hands and face. 3. He had ... English books at home, so he went to the library. 4. After the lesson everybody felt ... tired. 5. I like it here. Let's stay here ... longer. 6. There were ... new words in the text and Peter spent ... time learning them. 7. There was ... sugar in the bowl and we put ... sugar there. 8. I know French ... and I can help you with the translation of this text. 10. When we walked ... farther down the road we met another group of pupils. 11. I want to say ... words about my travelling.
2. Переведите на английский язык следующие пары слов. Много тетрадей, много молока, много воды, много дней, много газет, много мела, много снега, много лет, много картин, много музыки, много сахара, много чая, много лимонов, много мяса, много комнат, много учителей, много работы, много воздуха, много птиц, много машин.3.Вставьте much или many. 1. Please don't ask me ... questions. 2. How ... money have you got? 3. I never eat ... bread with soup. 4. Why did you eat so ... ice-cream? 5. She wrote us ... letters from the country. 6. ... of these students don't like to look up words in the dictionary. 7. ... in this work was too difficult for me. 8. He spent ... time writing his composition in Literature. 9. There were ... plates on the table. 10. Thank you very ...! 11. ... of my friends are preparing for their examinations now. 12. I don't like ... sugar in my tea.
Практическая работа №4
Тема: Человек, здоровье, спорт
Цель: развитие навыков чтения и перевода
Время выполнения: 45 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практические задания по дисциплине Английский язык»
Задание: прочитайте и переведите текст
Вредные привычки
The health of a person is the main value in the life. It cannot be bought with any money! There is no price for it. Being the sick person, you cannot realize all your dreams and be successful in the modern world. But how to be healthy, when there are a lot of fatal temptations around us? Don`t begin! Don`t make the first cigar inhalation, the first sip of alcohol!
Everything begins so simply, but comes to the end with a trouble. It was said so much about the harm of smoking. For a long time it has been proved, that smoking is not only reflected on the budget of a family, pollutes air, but also ruins our health. But, in spite of all that the number of smoking people is not diminished. And what is more grievous, not only the teens but also the junior schoolboys begin to smoke. I think those, who don`t do his (her) best in study or school life, as a rule begin to smoke at the school age. It was proved, that there is no such organ which would not suffer from smoking. Smoking is not a harmless pastime which can be given up without efforts. It is necessary to have the will - power to stop smoking. In addition to smoking, we can name the other fatal habit: the drinking of alcohol. Unfortunately, very often they combine with each other. Alcohol is a poison! Having penetrated into an organism, it has destroyed the brain of the person for some months. A great man said that drinking alcohol is a voluntary mad, and I think he was right. Under the influence of alcohol the person can make absolutely rash actions. The matter is that alcoholis the drug, and drugs influence on the brains of the person. Especially alcohol is very dangerous for the young because their organism is exposed to the influence of harmful substances more easily. Even a single sip of alcohol causes a poisoning which can lead to death. And the usage of drugs … They ruin all human organs, so the drug addicts die young. Few of them live longer than several years after they have started taking drugs. So, I consider that there is no place to these habits in our life. To my mind, only healthy people should live on our planet and then our Earth will be brighter and more beautiful, because only the healthy person will provide its further development and prosperity.
Вопросы для самоконтроля:
What is the main value in the life?
What bad habits do you know?
3.What should you do to be healthy?

Практическая работа №5
Тема: Человек, здоровье, спорт
Цель: развитие навыков чтения и перевода
Время выполнения: 45 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практические задания по дисциплине Английский язык»
Задание: прочитайте и переведите текст

Здоровый образ жизни - мой выбор
It is a pleasure to look at a strong, athletic man and slim beautiful lady.It is known that healthy people live longer and their career is more successful. To look well you must follow some simple rules: don’t smoke and take drugs, don’t drink alcohol, don’t eat too much chips and sweets, eat more vegetables and fruits, sleep well, do exercises. We have two lessons of physical training once a week. We do exercises, run, jump, play basketball and pioneer ball, ski in winter. I think that we must have more lessons of physical training than we have now. For example American pupils have their PT lessons every day. I like to play tennis, to ride a bicycle and to swim. But most of all I like roller-skating. I could hardly wait when snow melted, I put on roller-skates and went outdoors. I spent one or two hours every day skating with my friends and we’ve got a lot of fun! I don’t smoke (nobody smokes in our family). I know that this very bad habit may cause serious problems in your health. I do my morning exercises, try to eat “healthy” food and think that this is really a good way to live.
Вопросы для самоконтроля:
What is the main value in the life?
What bad habits do you know?
3. What should you do to be healthy?

Тема 4: Город, деревня, инфраструктура.
Практическая работа №1
Тема: Город
Цель: Развитие навыков диалогической речи
Время выполнения: 15 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практические задания по дисциплине Английский язык»
Задание: прочитайте и переведите диалоги

2. Dialogues: «How can I get to…?»Practice reading the dialogues, translate them into Russian.
1
– Shall I accompany you?
– No, thank you. I know the way Besides, St. Paul’s Cathedral is quite near, isn’t it?
– Yes.
2
– Excuse me. Could you tell me the way to Whitehall?
– I’m afraid not. Ask the policeman over there.
3
– Is it far to the Tower?
– Oh, yes. It’s very far. You’d better take a bus.
4
– Excuse me. How can I get to Downing Street?
– Go down this street, pass the traffic lights, then take the first turning on the right.
5
– Which is the shortest way to Piccadilly Circus?
– Go up the street, turn to the left, then go straight ahead.
6
– Am I right for the National Gallery?
– No, It’s in the opposite direction.
7
– Does this bus go to Trafalgar Square?
– No, take the tube. I think it’s the best way.
8
– Excuse me. Where is the nearest bus stop?
– Turn round the corner and there it is, at Victoria Station.
Практическая работа №2
Тема: Город
Цель: Развитие навыков диалогической речи
Время выполнения: 30 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практические задания по дисциплине Английский язык»
Задание: выучите следующие разговорные реплики, прочитайте и переведите диалог
Conversational formulas
Dialogue: «We are in London»
Remember the set expressions.
That’s why I’d like to make a trip. – вот почему я хотел бы путешествовать.The air is full of spring smells. – воздух полон весенних запахов.In the roadway there is a constant stream of cars, taxis, buses. – на дороге постоянный поток машин, такси, автобусов.We have left-hand traffic. – у нас левостороннее движение.Look right! – смотри прямо!
Here it is, on the left. – он здесь, налево.Practice reading the dialogue, translate it into Russian. Learn the dialogue by heart.
– Here we are in England. I’m glad the trip is over.
– How long are you planning to stay in London?
– Only three days. That’s why I’d like to make a trip through the streets of London right now to get a gene impression of the city.
– Let me accompany you. I know the city well. And weather is so fine.
– Oh, that’s the first surprise of mine. We used to think that there are fogs or rains in London nearly every day of year. But the weather is very good today. A slight wind blowing and the air is full of spring smells.
– We’ll see more of the city if we take a bus and begin the West End.
– Now we are moving along Oxford Street. You can see numerous shops, banks, restaurants on both sides of the street, The pavements are crowded with people. In the roadway there is a constant stream of cars, taxis, buses. It's dangerous to cross the road until the traffic is stopped.
– An unusual thing is that your drivers keep to the left.
– Oh, yes. It’s very important. We have left-hand traffic here. Remember this while crossing the street.
– And your buses differ greatly from our buses. They are all red and double-decked. Are there also trolleybuses and trams in London?
– Yes, in some parts of the city.
– Don’t you find it's too noisy in the street?
– Oh, yes. The noise lasts till midnight. But people get used to it very soon.
– Look right! Isn’t it the building of the Houses of parliament? I recognize it from the pictures.
– You are quite right. It is the Houses of Parliament, the place where the Government has its seat. And can you recognize Westminster Abbey?
– Unfortunately not.
– Here it is, on the left. I recommend you to come here tomorrow and to see the Poets’ Corner.
– Sure I will. I’d like to visit the British Museum, the National Gallery and Buckingham Palace to watch the ceremony of the changing of the guard.
– But there’s bus stop just over there. We’ll ask the conductor to put us down at Trafalgar Square and we'll see the National Gallery.
– OK. And then we'll spend the rest of the day in some of the parks nearby.
– We are in Hyde Park, aren’t we?
– Yes, it’s the famous Hyde Park.
– It's splendid here! There are a lot of old trees, green lawns and a few ponds. The ducks are swimming in the pools. People in light spring clothes are walking around. To my surprise they are walking not only along the paths but also across the grass.
– Oh, people are allowed to do everything here. You can sing, or dance, or cry, or preach and nobody will make you a remark.
– I’ve heard a lot about the Speaker’s Corner.
– It’s a big open place where a man can stand on a chair, or on a platform, or on the ground and speak everything he likes. You can listen to him, ask questions or you may pass him by without any reaction.
– By the way, are there any other parks in London?
– Quite a lot. Except Hyde Park there is Queen Park, Kensington Gardens, St. James Park and others. People call them «lungs of London».
– Really, it’s a wonderful place to spend time in
Практическая работа №3
Тема: Город
Цель: развитие навыков чтения и перевода
Время выполнения: 45 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практические задания по дисциплине Английский язык»
Задание: прочитайте и переведите текст

LONDON
London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic and commercial centre. It is one of the largest cities in the world and the largest city in Europe. Its population is about 8 million. London is situated on the river Thames. The city is very old. It has more than 20 centuries old history. Traditionally it is divided into several parts, the City, Westminster, the West End and the East. End. They are very different from each other. The City is the oldest part of London, its financial and business centre. Numerous banks, offices and firms are concentrated here. Few people live in the City but over a million come to work here. There are two places of interest in the City: St. Paul's Cathedral and the Tower of London. St. Paul's Cathedral was built in the 17th century by the architect Christopher Wren. The Tower of London was built in the 15th century. It was used as a fortress, a palace and a prison. Now it's a museum. Westminster is the aristocratic official part of Lon don. There are Buckingham Palace where the Queen lives and the Houses of Parliament along the north bank of the Thames. The clock tower of the Houses of Parliament is famous for its big hour bell known as «Big Ben». Westminster Abbey is the place where the coronation of nearly all kings and queens has taken place. Many of them are buried hereas well as some other famous people of the country. The West End is the richest and most beautiful part of London. The best hotels, restaurants, shops, clubs, parks and houses are situated there. There are many tourists there from different countries of the world. Trafalgar Square is the geographical centre of London, it was named in the memory of Admiral Nelson's victory in the battle of Trafalgar in 1805. The tall Nelson's Column stands in the middle of the square. The East End is an industrial district of London. There are many factories there. The region is densely populated by working class families.
Words: capital – столица; centre – центр; numerous – мн огочисленный; palace – дворец; fortress – крепость; cathedral – собор; hotel – гостиница; prison – тюрьма; clock tower – колокольня; monument – памятник; memory – память; museum – музей; residence – резиденция; official – официальный; densely – плотно; populated – населено.
Вопросы для самоконтроля:
Questions: 1. What is the capital of Great Britain? 2. Is London a big city? 3. What is London's population? 4. On what river does London stand? 5. Into what parts is London divided? 6. Why is the City called the business centre of London? 7. What places of interest does Westminster include? 8. Who was buried in Westminster Abbey? 9. What is the West End famous for? 10. Why is the central square in London named Trafalgar Square? 11. Who lives in the East End?
Практическая работа №4
Тема: Город, деревня, инфраструктура
Цель: закрепление употребления местоимений
Время выполнения: 15 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практические задания по дисциплине Английский язык»
Задания:
1. Напишите по-английски. Моя книга, её ручка, наша комната, его собака, ваш портфель, их комната, твоя машина.
2. Переведите на английский язык: 1.Ta книга – не моя. 2. Эта книга – моя. 3. Это – моя книга, а то – его. 4. Это ее карандаши, а те – мои. 5. Возьми те карандаши. 6. Я люблю такие ручки, они хорошие. 7. Ваша ручка плохая, возьмите мою.
3. Замените выделенные слова личными местоимениями. 1. Peter helped the pupils to translate the text. 2. Mother asked Mary to wash the plates. 3. My friend writes a letter to his sister. 4. Jane took 3 books from the library (there). 5. His cousins live in Moscow. 6. Our grandfather and grandmother will come tomorrow. 7. Mary works in a shop.
4. Переведите на русский язык. This is a pen and that is a pencil. These are tables and those are chairs. This is a plate and that is a lamp. This is a bed and that is a sofa. This is a cap and that is a hat. This is my book an hat is your copybook. This is my house and that is yours. That house is mine!

Практическая работа №5
Тема: Город
Цель: развитие навыков чтения и перевода
Время выполнения: 45 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практические задания по дисциплине Английский язык»
Задание: прочитайте и переведите текст

 My Native Town
Among other biggest cities of the world my native town is very small and it is rather difficult to find it on the map, but it has a great meaning for me because it is the place where I was born, where I’ve got my first impressions of life, its beauties and sorrows.
I was born in a small provincial town in the heart of Russia. It has a long and great history for as it often happens small towns always get the strongest blows during the wars. Some centuries ago the town was ruined and most of its inhabitants were killed, but it later it was reconstructed and started a new life.
In spite of all the misfortunes several very old houses in its centre and a beautiful ancient wooden church have been kept. It was rather difficult, because many churches were destroyed during the past 20th century. Nowadays the town is constantly growing. The streets has become wider, many modern beautiful buildings have appeared. In the centre there are some new offices of big Russian and foreign firms, the Administration Building, the cinema, the theatre, two restaurants and some small cafes. The streets in small towns and villages are usually rather narrow and not very long. In summer they are green, fresh and shadowy. In winter they are white with snow. But in every season and in every weather they are quiet and almost empty.
Вопросы для самоконтроля:
1.Where do you live?
2. Is you town big or small?
3. What places of interest are there in your town?
Тема 5: Природа и человек.
Практическая работа №1
Тема: Природа и человек
Цель: развитие навыков чтения и перевода
Время выполнения: 45 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практические задания по дисциплине Английский язык»
Задание: прочитайте и переведите текст
Как спасти окружающую среду
I think that Russia is one of the dirtiest countries in the world. In Russia almost every family has a car. And fumes of cars are very dangerous. Our factories, cars, trains and planes make the air dirty, so the atmosphere is polluted.
I believe that one day somebody will invent energy that hasn’t fumes. Or people will use renewable energy, for example solar energy, wind energy or hydro-electric dams. I know that these energies aren’t so powerful, but we can use it sometimes, for example for cookers.
I think that right now we need new energy, because oil and coal are disappearing. All countries will be in the economiccrisis, if we don’t find new energy!
I know that the world is getting hotter because of us! When the sun shines, everything gets hot and the dirt stops the hot air from going up to the sky. Because the hot air has nowhere to go, everything gets hotter.
Our world is warmer than it was one hundred years ago. Hot countries may become drier and the people who live there won’t be able to grow enough food. Ice in cold areas is changing to water because of higher temperatures. When this happens, the sea levels become bigger. Some towns near the sea may have a problem soon.
We can help if we stop making the air dirty but we must do something fast!
In addition, not many people understand that they are polluting environment. They are dropping litter on the streets. In my opinion drop litter or rubbish in the dustbin isn’t hard it’s easy.
I think that there must be group of people who will follow the people who drop litter in the streets. Finally there must be more bins in the streets. And, of course, don’t cut down trees!!! Grow trees, they clean the air!
I’m sure all is in hands of people. I call up: Protect environment, save nature!
I always drop litter in bins and call up my friends to do the same. Maybe when I grow up somebody will have already invented clean and powerful energy.
SAVE NATURE AND ENVIROMENT!!!
Вопросы для самоконтроля:
How can we stop to destroy the nature?
2. Why should we have new energy?
3. Why should we protect the environment?
Практическая работа №2
Тема: Природа и человек
Цель: развитие навыков чтения и перевода
Время выполнения: 45 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практические задания по дисциплине Английский язык»
Задание: прочитайте и переведите текст

SEASONS AND WEATHER
There are four seasons in a year: winter, spring, summer and autumn. Each of them lasts three months. Summer is my favourite season. June, July and August are summer months. When summer comes, the weather gets warmer and sometimes it can be very hot. In summer people spend much time in the open. They find time to go to the forest or to swim in the river. Schoolchildren like their summer holidays. Autumn comes in September with the beginning of the school year. It is the time when fruit and vegetables become ripe. It is a very beautiful time of the year when the weather is still warm and the leaves change their color from green to yellow and red. But then it gets colder. The leaves fall from the trees and cover the ground. Birds fly away to warm countries. Then winter comes. Winter is usually a cold season. It often snows, rivers and lakes are frozen. The sun sets early and rises late especially in December and January. The days are short, the sky is often grey. Every New Year begins in winter on the first of January. It's a holiday and people decorate their flats with New Year trees. Spring begins in March. The weather gets better and the sun shines more brightly. The days become longer. The birds return from the South and make their nests. It sometimes rains but the sky is usually bright-blue and it is warm.
Words: season – время года; each – каждый; to last – длиться; in the open – на воздухе; fruit – фрукты; vegetables – овощи; ripe – спелый; still – все еще; warm – теплый; cold – холодный; to fall – падать; to cover – покрывать; to set – садиться; to rise – вставать; to decorate – украшать; New Year tree – ёлка; frozen – замёрзший; to return – возвращаться; nest – гнездо.
Вопросы для самоконтроля:
Ответьте на вопросы: 1. How many seasons are there in a year? 2. Do people try to spend more time in the open air in summer? 3. Why do we like spring so much? 4. Is summer the best season for tourism? 5. Where did you go last summer? 6. What is the weather like in winter? 7. Do you like winter? Why? 8. Do you go in for skating or skiing in winter? 9. What do you usually do when the weather is bad in autumn and winter? 10. What is good and what is bad in each season? 11. Why do most people prefer summer to any other season of the year? 12. What is your favourite season? 13. What are the hottest and the coldest seasons in our country?

Практическая работа №3
Тема: Природа и человек
Цель: развитие навыков чтения и перевода
Время выполнения: 45 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практические задания по дисциплине Английский язык»
Задание: прочитайте и переведите текст

ENGLISH WEATHER
The weather in England is very changeable. A fine morning can change into a wet afternoon and evening. And a nasty morning can change to a fine afternoon. That is why it is natural for the English to use the comparison «as changeable as the weather» of a person who often changes his mood or opinion about something. «Other countries have a climate, in England we have weather». This statement is often made by the English to describe meteorological conditions of their country. The English also say that they have three variants of weather: when it rains in the morning, when it rains in the afternoon or when it rains all day long. The weather is the favourite conversational topic in England. When two Englishmen meet, their first words will be «How do you do?» or «How are you?». And after the reply «Very well, thank you; how are you?» the next remark is almost certain to be about the weather. When they go abroad the English often surprise people of other nationalities by this tendency to talk about the weather, a topic of conversation that other people do not find so interesting. The best time of the year in England is spring (of course, it rains in spring, too). The two worst months in Britain are January and February. They are cold, damp and unpleasant. The best place in the world then is at home by the big fire in the fireplace. Summer months are rather cold and there can be a lot of rainy days. So most people who look forward to summer holidays, plan to go abroad in summer to France or somewhere on the Continent. The most unpleasant aspect of English weather is fog and smog. This is extremely bad in big cities and especially in London. The fog spreads everywhere, it is in the streets and it creeps into the houses. Cars move along slowly, but still street accidents are frequent in the fog. People cannot see each other. They creep along the houses touching- them with their hands not to lose their way or not to be run over by a car.
Words: changeable – изменчивый, неустойчивый; wet – сырой, мокрый; nasty – мерзкий, противный; comparison – сравнение; mood – настроение; opinion – мнение; statement – утверждение; meteorological – метеорологический; remark – замечание; to go abroad – поехать за границу; damp – сырой, мокрый; nationality – национальность; fireplace – камин; to look forward to – с нетерпением ждать; the Continent – континент; aspect – аспект, сторона; fog – туман; smog (smoke + fog) – смог; extremely – чрезвычайно; to spread (spread, spread) – расстилать(ся); to creep (crept, crept) – ползти, красться; accident – несчастный случай; frequent – частый; to lose way – заблудиться; to be run over by a car – попасть под машину.
Вопросы для самоконтроля:
Questions: 1. Is the weather in England very changeable? 2. How often does it rain in England? 3. What do Englishmen often say to describe the weather of their country? 4. Englishmen often talk about weather. Do you find this topic of conversation interesting? 5. What is the worst time of the year in England? 6. When do Englishmen prefer to stay at home by the big fire? 7. How do the English spend their short English summer? 8. What is London smog? 9. What kind of weather do you like best of all? 10. Which do you like better: when it's cold or hot? 11. What is the weather like today? 12. What is the weather forecast for tomorrow? 13. What is the weather like in your town in winter (summer, autumn, spring)?

ЛЕКСИКО-ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЙ КОММЕНТАРИЙ
Глагол to be означает «быть», «являться», «находиться». Он употребляется в предложениях, сообщающих о:
профессииI am a teacher. – Я преподаватель.
национальностиI am an English. – Я англичанин.
самочувствииI am well. – Я здоров.
возрастеI am 18. – Мне 18 лет.
гражданскомShe is married. – Она замужем.
состоянии
классификацииIt is an umbrella. – Это зонтик.
свойствеThe weather is fine. –Погода хорошая.
месте нахожденияThey are in London. – Они в Лондоне.
лица или предмета
To be – единственный английский глагол, который изменяется не только по временам, но и лицам и числам.
Глагол «to be» в Indefinite Tenses
Present Indefinite Past Indefinite Future Indefinite
Утвердительная форма
I am glad
She
He is glad
It
We
You are glad
They I
She was glad
He
It
We
You were glad
They I shall be glad
She
He will be glad
It
We shall be glad
You will be glad
They
Вопросительная форма
Am I glad?
she
Is he glad?
it
we
Are you glad?
they I
Was she glad?
he
it
we
Were you glad?
they Shall I be glad?
she
Will he be glad?
it
Shall we be glad?
you
Will they be glad?
Present Indefinite Past Indefinite Future Indefinite
отрицательная форма
I am not glad
She
He is not glad
It
We
You are not glad
They I was not glad
She
He were not glad
It
We were not glad
You
They were not glad I shall not be glad
She
He will not be glad
It
We shall not be glad
You
They will not be glad
Глагол to have означает «иметь». Он употребляется в предложениях, сообщающих о принадлежности:
I have many friends.У меня много друзей.
John has a nice English camera.У Джона есть хороший
английский фотоаппарат.
(Он имеет …)
Глагол to have изменяется по лицам и числам только в настоящем неопределенном времени.
Present Indefinite Past Indefinite Future Indefinite
I have a friend
She
He has a friend
It
We
You have a friend
They I
She
He had a friend
It
We
You had a friend
They I shall have a friend
She
He will have a friend
It
We shall have a friend
You will have a friend
They
вопросительная форма
Have I a friend?
she
Has he a friend?
it
we
Have you a friend?
they I
she
Had he a friend?
it
we
Had you a friend?
they Shall I have a friend
she
Will he have a friend
it
Shall we have a friend
Will you have a
they friend
отрицательная форма
I have not a friend
She
He has not a friend
It
We
You have not a friend
They I
She had not a friend
He
It
We
You had not a friend
They I shall not have a friend
She
He will not have
It a friend
We shall not have a friend
You will not have
They a friend
Часто, особенно в разговорной речи, глагол «to have» заменяется формой – «to have got». Have you got an extra pen? – У Вас есть лишняя ручка? She hasn’t got any money. – У нее нет денег.
Повелительное наклонение
(The Imperative Mood)
Употребляется для выражения приказания и просьбы, побуждения к действию или запрета.
Лицо Единственное число Множественное число
1-е Let me read!
Давайте я прочитаю!
Let me not read!
Разрешите мне не читать! Let us read!
Давайте прочитаем!
Don’t let us read!
Давайте не будем читать!
2-е Read!
Читайте (же)!
Don’t read!
Не читайте (же)! Read!
Читайте!
Don’t read!
Не читайте!
3-е Let him read!
Пусть он читает!
Don’t let her read!
Не разрешайте ей читать! Let them read!
Пусть они читают!
Don’t let them read!
Не разрешайте же им
читать!
Let the dog run!
Пусть собака побегает.
Let it run! – Пусть она бегает!
Don’t let it run!
Пусть она не бегает! Множественное число существительных
(The Plural of Nouns)
Исчисляемые существительные образуют форму множественного числа с помощью окончания «s», которое произносится как [z] – после гласных и звонких согласных: shoes, hands; [s] – после глухих согласных: students; [iz] – после шипящих и свистящих: classes, houses.
Запомните исключения:
Единственное число Множественное число
man
woman
gentleman
child men
women
gentlemen
children
Существительные в единственном числе на –f во множественном числе меняют «f» на «v» и добавляют окончание «es»:
wife – wives, knife – knives.
В составных существительных, которые пишутся раздельно, форму множественного числа обычно принимает основное по смыслу слово:
mother-in-law – mothers-in-law.
Составные существительные, которые пишутся слитно, образуют множественное число по этому правилу, которому подчиняется второе слово:
schoolboy – schoolboys,
housewife – housewives,
postman – postmen.
Притяжательный падеж существительных
(The Possessive case)
Существительные в английском языке имеют два падежа: общий падеж (The Common Case) и притяжательный падеж (The Possessive Case).
Притяжательный падеж выражает принадлежность и соответствует в русском языке родительному падежу, отвечает на вопрос «чей»:
My brother’s name is Sam. – Моего брата зовут Сэм.Mary’s hobby is travelling. – Любимое занятие Мэри – путешествие.
Притяжательный падеж существительных в единственном числе образуется прибавлением апострофа и буквы «s» к форме существительного в общем падеже.
My aunt’s house. – Дом моей тети.
К существительным во множественном числе в притяжательном падеже добавляется только апостроф:
My friends’ house. – Дом моих друзей.Местоимения
(Pronouns)
Личные местоимения (Personal Pronouns):
Общий падеж Объектный падежI – я
he – онshe – онаit – оно (он, она)
we – мыyou – выthey – ониme – мне, меня, мной
him – его, емуher – ее, ейit – его, ему, ей, ееus – нас, нам, намиyou – вас, вам, вамиthem – их, им, имиПритяжательные местоимения (Possessive Pronouns):
Присоединительная форма Абсолютная форма
my – мой, моя, мое, мои
her – ееhis - его
its – его, ееour – наш, наша, наши, наше
your – ваш, ваша, ваши, ваше
their – ихmine – мой, моя, мое, мои
his – его
its – его, ее
hers – её
ours – наш
yours – вашtheirs – ихУказательные местоимения (Demonstrative Pronouns):
единственное число множественное числоthis – этот
that – тотthese – эти
those – теthe same – тот же самый
such – такой
Вопросительные местоимения (Interrogative Pronouns)
who – кто,
whose – чей,
whom – кого, кому,
what – что,
which – какой, который.
Числительные(Numerals)
В английском языке, как и в русском языке, различаются количественные (Сardinal Numerals) и порядковые числительные (Ordinal Numerals)
Количественные числительные обозначают число предметов и отвечают на вопрос: How many? – Сколько?
Порядковые числительные обозначают порядок при счете и отвечают на вопрос: Which? – Который по порядку? Кроме первых трех (first, second, third) образуются прибавлением –th или –eth к количественным числительным. Они всегда употребляются с определенным артиклем.
Her birthday is on the first of April? – Ее день рождения 1 апреля?
1900 – nineteen hundred.1905 – nineteen five.
1941 – nineteen forty-one.
12 апреля 1961 – The twelfth of April nineteen sixty one.April 12, 1961 – April the twelfth, nineteen sixty one.Прилагательные. Степени сравнения прилагательных
(Adjectives. Degrees of comparison)
Прилагательными называют слова, обозначающие свойства или качество предметов, например: large – большой, blue – голубой, simple – простой. В предложении они обычно выполняют функцию определения к существительному или именной части составного сказуемого, например: It was early spring. Была ранняя весна. The weather is cold. Погода холодная.
Прилагательные в английском языке не изменяются ни по родам, ни по падежам, ни по числам. Сравните: a long street – длинная улица, a long table – длинный стол, long tables – длинные столы.
Как и в русском языке, в английском языке различают три степени сравнения прилагательных: положительную, сравнительную и превосходную. Положительная указывает на качество предмета и соответствует словарной форме, т.е. прилагательные в положительной степени не имеют никаких окончаний: difficult – трудный, green – зеленый. Часто, когда говорят о равной степени качества разных предметов, употребляют союз «as ... as – такой же..., как» или его отрицательный вариант «not so ... as – не такой ..., как». The line AB is as long as the line CD. Линия АВ такая же длинная, как и линия CD.
Если нужно указать, что один предмет обладает более выраженным признаком по сравнению с другим предметом, то употребляют прилагательное в сравнительной степени, которое образуется путем прибавления суффикса «-er» к основе прилагательного, состоящего из одного или двух слогов, например:
short – shorter короткий – короче;
dark – darker темный – темнее;
clever – cleverer умный – умнее.
Обратите внимание, что на письме конечный согласный удваивается, чтобы сохранить закрытый слог:
hot – hotter горячий – горячее;
big – bigger большой – больше.
если основа прилагательного оканчивается на букву «-y» с предшествующим согласным, то при прибавлении суффикса «-er» буква «-y» переходит в «-i»:
dry – drier сухой – более сухой;
easy – easier легкий – более легкий.
При сравнении разной степени качества употребляется союз «than» – чем.
The line AB is longer than the line CD.
Линия АВ длиннее, чем линия CD.
Cравнительная степень прилагательных, состоящих из более чем двух слогов, образуется при помощи слова «more – более»:
useful – more useful полезный – более полезный;
interesting – more interesting интересный – более интересный.
The Russian language is more difficult than the English one.
Русский язык сложнее английского.
Превосходная степень указывает на высшую степень качества предмета и образуется при помощи суффикса «-est», от односложных и двусложных прилагательных или слова «most – самый» от некоторый двусложных и более длинных прилагательных. Причём при прибавлении суффикса «-est» сохраняются те же правила, что и для суффикса «-er». Поскольку данный предмет выделяется из всех прочих подобных ему предметов по своему качеству, то перед прилагательными в превосходной степени обычно употребляют определённый артикль «the»:
large – the largest большой – самый большой;
hot – the hottest горячий – самый горячий;
dry – the driest сухой – самый сухой;
useful – the most useful полезный – самый полезный.
It’s the most difficult rule of all.
Это самое трудное правило из всех.
В английском языке существует ряд прилагательных, которые образуют степени сравнения не по общим правилам. Некоторые из них приводятся ниже в таблице.
Имя
прилагательное Положительная степень Сравнительная
степень Превосходная степень
односложные strong
сильный stronger
сильнее the strongest
самый сильный
многосложные difficult
трудный more difficult
более трудный the most difficult
самый трудный
исключения good
хороший
bad
плохой
many/much
много
little
маленький better
лучше
worse
хуже
more
больше
less
меньше the best
самый лучший
the worst
самый плохой
the most
самый большой
the least
самый маленький
To be going to do something
(означает «собираться, намереваться что-либо сделать»)
I am going to become a teacher. – Я собираюсь стать учителем.
He is going to write a letter to his parents. – Он собирается написать письмо родителям.
What are you going to do on Sunday? – Что ты собираешься делать в воскресенье?
I would like(означает «мне бы хотелось»)
I would like to visit the Tate Gallery. – Мне бы хотелось посетить галлерею Тэйт.
Where would you like to travel to in summer? – Где бы ты хотела путешествовать летом?
Герундий
(The Gerund)
В предложениях – I hate being late
I am found of reading
She is good at painting
употребляется нeличная форма глагола, оканчивающаяся на «ing»: being, reading, painting, которой нет в русском языке. Эта форма глагола называется герундием (The Gerund). Герундий обладает свойствами глагола и существительного. На русский язык переводится отглагольным существительным, инфинитивом, придаточным предложением.
I like singing. – Я люблю петь (Я люблю пение).
I don’t like his way of doing it. – Мне не нравится, как он это делает.
Таблица образования основных времен
Время Simple (Indefinite)
Утвердительные Вопросы Отрицания
PresentV1 dodoesV1 dodoesnotV1
PastV2 diddidFuturewillV1 willwillКлючевые слова: Present Simpleusually, always, often, every day, never
Past Simplelast week, yesterday, last month, days ago, the other day, long time ago
Future Simplesoon, tomorrow, next Monday, in the future
Время Simple (Indefinite)
Утвердительные Вопросы / Отрицания
Примеры: Present SimpleEvery day I go to school.
He always goes there as he works as a teacher.
Where do you usually go on hollidays?
Past SimpleYesterday we went to the cinema.
When I was young I usually lived in France.
What time did he get up this morning?
Future SimpleI’ll visit my aunt tomorrow.
Will you read this book?
He won’t do this as he is too lazy
Время ContinuousУтвердительные Вопросы / Отрицания
PresentamIsareV-ingPastwaswereFuturewillbeКлючевые слова Present Continuousstill, at the moment, at present, this minute
Past Continuousat six o’clock yesterday, when my father came, while
Future Continuouswhen she arrives, at 7 next Monday
Примеры Present ContinuousWe are sitting at the moment.
What are you doing under the table?
She isn’t working at the moment
Past ContinuousWe were playing tennis when the rain started.
He was doing test while I was reading a book.
Ske wasn’t sleaping when
Future ContinuousWill you be playing tennis when I come?
Tomorrow at six I’ll be writing letters
Время PerfectУтвердительные Вопросы / Отрицания
PresenthavehasV3
PasthadFuturewillhaveКлючевые слова Present Perfectsince, for, ever, never, just, already
Past Perfectwhen we arrived, yesterday at four, before
Future Perfectby the time, tomorrow at eight
Примеры Present PerfectI have never seen her before.
We’ve just had lunchPast PerfectI didn’t know who she was. I’d never seen her before.
Had he already gone when you arrived?
Future PerfectThe film will already have started by the time we get to the cinema.
Next year they will have been married for 25 years
Irregular verbs№ V1 V2 V3 Значение
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17 arise
be
bear
become
begin
bend
bind
bite
bleed
blow
break
breed
bring
build
burn
buy
cast arose
was, were
bore
became
began
bent
bound
bit
bled
blew
broke
broke
brought
built
burnt
bought
cast arisen
been
born
become
begun
bent
bound
bit
bled
blown
broken
bred
brought
built
burnt
bought
cast подниматься
быть, являться
родить
сделаться, стать
начинать(ся)
гнуть
связывать
кусать(ся)
истекать кровью
дуть
ломать(ся)
воспитывать
приносить
строить
гореть, жечь
покупать
кидать
№ V1 V2 V3 Значение
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60 catch
choose
come
cost
cut
dig
do
draw
dream
drink
drive
eat
fall
feed
feel
fight
find
flee
fly
forget
get
give
go
grow
hang
have
hear
hide
hold
keep
know
lead
learn
leave
lend
let
light
lose
make
mean
meet
put
read caught
chose
came
cost
cut
dug
did
drew
dreamt
drank
drove
ate
fell
fed
felt
fought
found
fled
flew
forgot
got
gave
went
grew
hung
had
heard
hid
held
kept
knew
led
learnt
left
lent
let
lit
lost
made
meant
met
put
read caught
chosen
come
cost
cut
dug
done
drawn
dreamt
drunk
driven
eaten
fallen
fed
felt
fought
found
fled
flown
forgotten
got
given
gone
grown
hung
had
heard
hidden
held
kept
known
led
learnt
left
lent
let
lit
lost
made
meant
met
put
read ловить, схватывать
выбирать
приходить
стоить
резать
рыть, копать
делать
тащить; рисовать
мечтать; видеть во сне
пить
вести, гнать
есть, кушать
падать
кормить
чувствовать
бороться, сражаться
находить
бежать; спасаться
летать
забывать
получать; становиться
давать
идти, ходить
расти, становиться
вешать, висеть
иметь
слышать
прятать
держать
держать, хранить
знать
вести
учить(ся)
оставлять, покидать
давать взаймы
позволять
зажигать
терять, проигрывать
делать
значить
встречать
класть
читать

Критерии оценки устных развернутых ответов
Оценки Коммуникативное взаимодействие Произношение Лексико-грамматическая правильность речи
«5» Адекватная естественная реакция на реплики собеседника. Проявляется речевая инициатива для решения поставленных коммуникативных задач Речь звучит в естественном темпе, студент не делает грубых фонетических ошибок Лексика адекватна ситуации, редкие
грамматические ошибки не мешают коммуникации
«4» Коммуникация затруднена, речь студента неоправданно паузированаВ отдельных словах допускаются фонетические ошибки (например замена, английских фонем сходными русскими).
Общая интонация вбольшой степени обусловлена влиянием родного языка Грамматические и/или
лексические ошибки заметно влияют на восприятие речи студента
«3» Коммуникация существенно затруднена, студент не проявляет речевой инициативы Речь воспринимается с трудом из-за большого количества
фонетических ошибок .Интонация обусловлена влиянием родного языка Студент делает большое количество грубых грамматических
и/или лексических
ошибок
Критерии оценки
Критерии оценки письменных развернутых ответов
Баллы Критерии оценки
«5» Коммуникативная задача решена полностью, применение лексики адекватно коммуникативной задаче, грамматические ошибки либо отсутствуют, либо не препятствуют решению коммуникативной задачи
«4» Коммуникативная задача решена полностью, но понимание текста незначительно затруднено наличием грамматических и/или лексических ошибок
«3» Коммуникативная задача решена, но понимание текста затруднено наличием грубых грамматических ошибок или неадекватным употреблением лексики
«2» Коммуникативная задача не решена ввиду большого количества лексико-грамматических ошибок или недостаточного объема текста

Список литературы
Основные источники:
Агабекян И. П. Английский язык (Среднее профессиональноеобразование). Ростов н./Д. 2012.
Аракин В.Д. Практический курс английского языка. 1 курс. – М.: Владос, 2002
Дудкина Г.А., Павлова М.В. Английский язык для делового общения: в 2 т. – М.: - Филоматис, 2008
Жданова И.Ф., Кудрявцева О.Е. Английский язык для делового общения. Новый курс: в 2 т. – М.: - Филоматис, 2008
Ионина А.А., Саакян А.С. Английская грамматика: Теория и практика. – М.: Айрис-пресс, 2004.
Мюллер В.К. Англо-русский и русско-английский. – М.: Эксмо, 2008.
Сербиновская А.М. Английский язык для турбизнеса и сервиса. – М.: Дашков и К, 2006.
Дополнительные источники:
Murphy. English Grammar in Use Elementary. Cambridge 2010
Soars J. Headway Elementary. Student's book/Workbook. Cassettes. 0xford.2009
Soars J. Headway Pre-Intermediate. Student's book/Workbook. Cassettes. Oxford. 2009.
Цветкова И.К. English Grammar practice with answers. Уч. пособие - M.: Иностранный язык. 2010;
Дроздова Т.Ю. English Grammar: учебное пособие - Спб.: Антология, 2010;
Сивергина О.В. Времена английского глагола: учебное пособие - М.: Высшая школа, 2008;
Словари английского языка и другие ресурсы для изучающих английский язык;
Электронные ресурсы:
http://www.studv.ru Портал для изучающих английский язык;
http://www.lanR.ru English Online = ресурсы для изучения английского языка;
http://www.englishonline.co.uk - ресурсы для изучения английского языка;
http://www.eslcafe.com - портал для студентов и преподавателей: грамматика, тесты, идиомы, сленг;
https://my.1september.ru/ - личные кабинеты наиболее активных педагогов на сайте "1 сентября"



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