Практические задания по дисциплине АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК (общий гуманитарный и социально-экономический цикл, ОГСЭ.03)


Филиал Областного государственного бюджетного образовательного учреждение среднего профессионального образования
Рязанский педагогический колледж в г.КасимовеПрактические задания по дисциплине АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК (общий гуманитарный и социально-экономический цикл, ОГСЭ.03)

для специальностей:
100401 Туризм
072501 Дизайн
050141 Физическая культура
050144 Дошкольное образование

2013 г.
Прошкина И.А.. Практические задания по дисциплине Английский язык ( общий гуманитарный и социально-экономический цикл, ОГСЭ. 03) : методическое пособие для студентов педагогических колледжей. – г. Касимов ОГБОУ СПО РПК, филиал в г. Касимове, 2013. – 61с.
Сборник содержит лексико-грамматические упражнения по английскому языку для студентов педагогических колледжей. Практические задания по дисциплине Английский язык ( общий гуманитарный и социально-экономический цикл, ОГСЭ. 03) составлен на основе рабочей программы учебной дисциплины Английский язык
Компьютерная вёрстка: И.А. Прошкина Содержание
Введение ……………………………………………………………………………….. 4
Unit 1. ABOUT MYSELF …………………………………....................................... 5
Unit 2. GREAT BRITAIN ……………………………………………………………. 21
Unit3.LONDON…………………………………………………………………………… 30
Unit 4. SCIENTIFIC PROGRESS ……………………………………………………. 39
Unit 5. SHOPPING ……………………………………………………………………… 44
ЛЕКСИКО-ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЙ КОММЕНТАРИЙ …………………………….
КРИТЕРИИ ОЦЕНОК………………………..…………………………………………..
СПИСОК ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ………………………………………………………………. 4961
63
Language is not to be taught.
Language is to be learnt
Пояснительная записка
Основными целями обучения студентов английскому языку в неязыковом среднеспециальном учебном заведении являются формирование умения самостоятельно читать литературу по специальности с целью извлечения информации из иноязычных источников, развитие навыков устной речи (говорение и аудирование) в рамках тематики, определенной учебной программой. Перевод используется для контроля понимания прочитанного, в качестве способа передачи полученной при чтении информации, а также как средство обучения.
Практические задания включают в себя заучивание лексических единиц, усвоение правил словообразования и грамматики, чтение текстов вслух в соответствии с правилами чтения, построение вопросов и ответов к текстам, перевод на русский язык (устный и письменный).
Работая над учебным материалом, подлежащим обязательному изучению в течение семестра, студент должен вести словарь, выписывая слова с транскрипцией и в словарной форме. Словарь и тетрадь с выполненными упражнениями представляются преподавателю. Форма контроля по данным темам – устный зачет, для которого необходимо выполнить практические задания.
Пособие состоит из пяти разделов, в которых представлены тексты для чтения, задания и лексико-грамматический комментарий. Тексты подобраны из оригинальных источников и периодической печати. Задания направлены на расширение запаса активной лексики по теме, развития навыков диалогической и монологической речи, а также на развитие умений поиска информации, анализа и обсуждения, высказывания своей точки зрения, группового общения.
Данное пособие может быть использовано студентами с различным уровнем подготовки.
Разговорный практикум
1. Изучение активного вокабуляра.
2. Развитие навыка диалогической или монологической речи на основе образца. Первичное закрепление лексики. Диалог или текст.
3. Закрепление навыка диалогической или монологической речи на основе образца. Диалог или текст.
4. Вопросы для самоконтроля.
5.Вторичное закрепление лексики посредством серии лексико-грамматических упражнений. Развитие навыка диалогической или монологической речи в отрыве от образца.
6. практические задания по разговорному практикуму.
Грамматический практикум
1. Образование и употребление грамматических единиц.
2. Текст. Содержание текста предлагает одну из возможных тем для поддержания приятной (светской) беседы. Закрепление навыка чтения и перевода текста со словарем.
3. практические задания по грамматическому практикуму. Исследование форм на основе текста.

Unit 1
ABOUT MYSELFConversational task
Практическая работа №1
Тема: Разрешите представиться
Цель: Ознакомление с новыми словами, первичное закрепление лексики
Время выполнения: 15 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практикум по английскому языку »
Задание: выпишите слова в словарь
1. WordcheckMake sure that you know the meaning of the following words and word combinations:
1) international words:
nationality (n) university (n) faculty (n) comfortable (a) telephone (n) doctor (n) hospital (n) economist (n) history (n) interest (n) secretary (n) examination (n);
2) active vocabulary:
be born (v)
as for me
job (n)
handsome (a)
as a rule
to tell the truth
be short of
introduce
to be keen on something
subject (n)
move to (v)
housewife (n)
be as busy as a bee
be interested in
block of flats
private house
modern conveniences
central heating
electricity (n)
gas (n)
running water
rubbish chute (n)
working day
week-days (n)
get up (v)
do morning exercises
make one’s bed
clean one’s teeth
wash (oneself ) (v)
take a shower
have a bath
dress (oneself ) (v)
brush one’s hair
have breakfast (dinner, supper)
be late for work/classes
It takes me ... to get to ...
leave the house
get (go) by bus/tram, trolley-bus
go on foot
be over
correspondence department
attend lectures (classes)
term (n)
take examination (credit tests)
pass exams
a.m. – лат. Ante meridiem
p.m. – лат. Post meridiem родиться
что касается меня
работа
симпатичный, красивый
как правило
говоря по правде
не хватать
представлять
увлекаться чем-либо
предмет (учебный)
переезжать
домохозяйка
быть занятым как пчелка
интересоваться
многоквартирный дом
частный дом
современные удобства
отопление
электричество
газ
водопровод
мусоропровод
рабочий день
будние дни
вставать (утром)
делать утреннюю зарядку
убирать постель
чистить зубы
умываться
принимать душ
принимать ванную
одеваться
причесываться
завтракать (обедать, ужинать)
опаздывать на работу/занятия
Мне требуется (необходимо) … чтобы добраться до …
уходить из дома
добираться/ехать автобусом, трамваем, троллейбусом
идти пешком
заканчиваться/быть оконченным
заочное отделение
посещать лекции (занятия)
семестр
сдавать экзамены (зачеты)
сдать экзамен
до полудня
пополудни
Практическая работа №2
Тема: Разрешите представиться
Цель: Развитие навыков диалогической речи
Время выполнения: 15 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практикум по английскому языку »
Задание: прочитайте и переведите диалоги
2. Dialogue: «Let’s get acquainted»
Practice reading the dialogues, translate them into Russian.


1
– What’s your name?
– My name is Janet Blake. And what’s your name?
– It’s Pat Wilson.
– I’m pleased to meet you.
– Nice to see you too. Where were you born?
– I was born in England. And you?– As for me, I’m from Russia.
2
– What are you?
– I’m a teacher. What’s your job?
– I’m an engineer.
– What is your brother’s job?
– He’s a driver.
– Is your son a student?
– Yes, he is.
3
– Where are you from?
– I’m from Spain.
– What nationality are you?
– I’m Spanish.
– Where is your wife from?
– She’s from England. She’s English.
4
– How old are you?
– I am 19 (years old). How old is your brother?
– He’s about 28.
– What is he like?
– He’s tall and handsome.
5
– How many brothers do you have?
– I have two brothers. The elder one is twenty. He studies at the college, he is a first-year student of the correspondence department. The younger one is seventeen. He’s in his last year of high school.
– How many sisters do you have?
– I have one sister. She’s nine. She goes to grammar school.
6
– What time do you get up as a rule?
– Generally about half- past seven.
– Why so early?
– Because I am short of time. And besides, I live far from my office.
– When do you get to the office?
– About nine o’clock.
– What do you usually do in the evenings?
– We generally stay at home. Once or twice a week we go to a theatre or to the pictures.
Практическая работа №3
Тема: Разрешите представиться
Цель: Развитие навыков диалогической речи
Время выполнения: 15 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практикум по английскому языку »
Задание: выучите следующие разговорные реплики
3. Conversational formulas
3.1. Open dialogue: «Talk to Ann»
Remember the set conversational formulas.
Я хочу с Вами (тобой) познакомиться.
Hello, my name is Jane (John, Mr. Morgan)
Давайте познакомимся!
Let’s get acquainted!
Очень приятно с вами познакомиться.
Pleased to meet you.
Разрешите представиться.
Let me introduce myself.
Пожалуйста.
Do, please.
Представьтесь, пожалуйста.
Will you introduce yourself?
С удовольствием, меня зовут…
With pleasure, I am…
Очень рад.
Glad to meet you.
Я рад с Вами познакомиться.
Nice to meet you.Я счастлив с Вами познакомиться.
Pleased to meet you.
Я счастлив, что познакомился с Вами.
Delighted to meet you.Познакомьтесь с моим другом (матерью, учителем).
Meet my friend (mother, teacher).
Compose the dialogues, practice reading the dialogues, and translate them into Russian. Learn the dialogues by heart.
Контрольное задание: докончите диалоги,используя одну из новых реплик и переведите их на русский язык.
1
A. Hi! Let me introduce myself. My name is Ann. What’s yours?
B. …
You are Russian, aren’t you?

Where do you come from?

Where do you study by the way?

Do you enjoy studying there?

Where do you live?

Do you work? Where do you work?

It was nice meeting you. Good bye!
2
You: …
Ann: Hello! How do you do?You: … … …
Ann: To tell the truth, I am busy now.
You: …
Ann: You see, I am not so keen on going to the cinema. And besides, I am short of time.
You: … …
Ann: After breakfast I leave my house and go to my office.
You: … …
Ann: My working day lasts seven hours.
You: … …
Ann: In the evening we watch TV or listen to music. We usually go to bed at 11 o’clock.
You: …
Ann: See you soon. Good-bye.
3
A. As for me, I study at Rostov State University. And you?B. …
What department do you study at?

What subjects do you study at your faculty?

What is your field of science?

Do you like studying here?

What are your favourite subjects?

Практическая работа №4
Тема: Разрешите представиться
Цель: Развитие навыков чтения и перевода
Время выполнения: 30 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практикум по английскому языку »
Задание: прочитайте и переведите текст
3.2. Letter to the club «Friendship»
Practice reading the letter that has been sent to the club «Friendship», translate it into Russian.
January 15, 2004.
Voronezh.
Dear friends,
Let me introduce myself. My name is Sveta Ivanova. I am 18 years old. I was born in Volgograd. Two years ago our family moved to Voronezh where I live now with my parents. My family is not very large. We are only four: my mother, my father, my younger sister and me. My mother is a housewife. She has much work to do about the house. She is as busy as a bee. As for father, he’s a journalist. He’s fond of his profession. He’s not a sit-by-the-fire, and he is often away from home. We always enjoy his company, as we like to listen to his interesting stories about his trips.
My younger sister is a pupil of the ninth form. Her name is Alla. She does well at school and gets only good and excellent marks. She is interested in economics. Alla wants to become an economist. We are a friendly family.
Our family live in a new nine-storeyed block of flats in Pushkin Street. Our flat is on the second floor. It is very comfortable and has all modern conveniences: central heating, electricity, gas, running water, rubbish chute and telephone.
I studied at school in Volgograd. Last year I finished school number fifty. We studied many different subjects at school. My favourite subject was History. I always did well at school and learned with great interest. I also attended sport sections and subject circles. I had many friends there.
Now I am a first-year student of the correspondence department. I study at the Economics Department of Voronezh of State industrial humanitarian college and work at a plant as a secretary. I attend lectures and practical classes. At the end of each term we take examinations and credit tests. So I must work hard to pass exams successfully.
My working day begins early in the morning. On week-days I usually get up at 7 o’clock. I make my bed and do my morning exercises. Then I go to the bathroom where I clean my teeth and wash myself. If I have enough time I take a cold and hot shower. After having a bath I go back to my room where I dress myself and brush my hair. In ten minutes I am ready for breakfast. It may be a cup of tea or coffee and a sandwich.
After breakfast I go to work. I don’t want to be late, that’s why I leave the house at 7.30. As I live not very far from the plant it takes me half an hour to get there. I usually get there by bus or tram. At noon I have a break and go to the plant canteen to have dinner. My work is over at 5 p.m.
In the evening I do my homework. Sometimes I go to the library to get ready for my practical classes or to write a report. As a rule I have no free time on my week-days. At about eleven at night I go to bed.
That’s about all I can write about myself. I’ll wait for your answer.
Yours, truly.Sveta Ivanova
Вопросы для самоконтроля
4. Self-control questions
What conversational formulas of politeness in the dialogues and in the text are used to express?
1. Greetings
2. Saying good-buy
3. Responding to the greetings
4. Introduction.
5.Transtrate each point with examples from the dialogues.
Практическая работа №5
Тема: Разрешите представиться
Цель: Вторичное закрепление лексики посредством лексико-грамматических упражнений
Время выполнения: 2 часа
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практикум по английскому языку »
Задание: вставьте правильно необходимые пропущенные слова
5. Vocabulary drill
5.1. Choose the words from the box to complete the gaps:
correspondence, interested, a light supper, over the radio, day off, large, cooking, keen, doctor, leaving, friendly, as busy as a bee, on coming home, by bus, reading , lasts, to have a good time, morning exercises.
1. My family is not …
2. I study at the … department of the University.
3. He is … in geography.
4. My sister is … on swimming.
5. After … school I began to work at the plant.
6. My mother works at a clinic as a …
7. My parents are …
8. My grandmother likes …
9. Our family is very …
10. I make my bed and do my …
11. During breakfast I listen to the news …
12. As my office is far from my house, I go there …
13. My working day… for seven hours.
14. … I usually have a dinner, do some housework and relax.
15. At 7 o’clock p.m. we have …
16. In the evening I like to do a little …
17. Sunday is my …
18. We often meet our friends at the week-ends and … together.
5.2. Ask questions:
1. My mother likes cooking. (What…?)
2. I work at a hospital. (Where…?)3. I study at Biology faculty. (What faculty…?)
4. I am fond of chess. (What…?)
5. I am married and have two children. (How many…?)
6. My grandparents have a small garden with some fruit-trees. (What kind of…?)
7. Every morning I get up at about 7 o’clock. (When…?)8. I leave my house and go to the office where I work. (Where…?)9. My office is far from my house. (Is…?)
10. It takes me 15 minutes to reach the office. (How long…?)
11. At 7 o’clock we have a light supper. (At what time…?)
12. In the evening I like to do a little reading or gardening. (What…?)
13. We usually go to bed at about 11 o’clock. (When…?)14. I study at the Correspondence Department. (What Department…?)
15. I enter the University in 2004. (When…?)16. I am a second-year student. (What year student…?)
17. There are 13 faculties at the University. (How many…?)
18. I study at the correspondence department. (What department…?)
19. I shall study 4 years at the correspondence department. (How long…?)
20. During examination sessions we attend lectures, seminars and practices. (What…?)
5.3. Find out the English equivalents of the following words:
первокурсник
делать домашнее задание
ходить в библиотеку
ложиться спать
иметь перерыв много работать; работа по дому
учиться, изучать
любимый предмет
успешно
получать хорошие отметки
5.4. Give Russian equivalents of the following expressions:
be married
be single
private house
come back from work free time
consist of
canteen
5.5. Translate the words in the brackets:
1) He (родился) in 1975.
2) He (живет) in Bataisk.
3) She (окончила школу) number five.
4) She (работает) at a bank.
5) My family (состоит из ) four persons.
6) My father (работает инженером).
7) I live in (пятиэтажном доме) in Suvorov Street.
8) My flat is (на третьем этаже).
9) I usually (встаю) at 7 o’clock.
10) I have a cheese sandwich with tea (на завтрак).
11) (Мне необходимо/требуется) forty minutes to get to my work.
12) I (ложусь спать) at midnight.
5.6. Make up the sentences:
1) Name, is, friend’s, Nick, my.
2) Bank, she, at, a, works.
3) Family, and, mother, my, consists, me, of, our.
4) House, in, family, a, his, lives, private.
5) Finished, 1995, I, in, school.
6) College, the, studies, at, now, Helen.
5.7. Translate the texts into Russian.
1. Меня зовут Михаил. Мне почти 20 лет. Я студент первого курса Ростовского университета. Я хочу стать юристом. Я родился в Краснодаре в семье врача. Мой отец – детский врач, а мать – медсестра. Я окончил школу № 7 в Краснодаре. Летом я обычно езжу к родителям. Я не женат пока, но собираюсь жениться через год. У меня есть девушка. Она тоже студентка университета.
2. У моего брата большая семья. Он живет вместе с тестем и тещей. Кроме того, у него трое детей. Его жена Ирина не работает. Она домохозяйка. Ее родители – пенсионеры. Им обоим по 75 лет. Старший сын брата – школьник. Он ученик второго класса. Две младшие дочери – близнецы. Им по 5 лет. Они ходят в детский сад. Я люблю проводить свое свободное время с ними, потому что они очень забавные.
3. 1) Мой рабочий день начинается в девять часов и длится 7 часов.
2) Он встал, умылся, оделся, позавтракал, вышел из дому и быстро пошел на остановку.
3) Чтобы не опоздать на работу, мы вышли из дому на 15 минут раньше обычного.
4) В будние дни у них практически нет свободного времени.
5) Кроме работы в учреждении, ей приходится делать всю работу по дому.
6) Тебе понадобится полчаса, чтобы добраться домой на трамвае. Это долго. Бери такси.
5.8. Ask your friend:
– живет ли он в многоквартирном или частном доме;
– где находится его дом;
– как можно добраться до его дома;
– какая у него квартира;
– на каком она этаже;
– есть ли у него телефон;
– когда он встает, завтракает, уходит из дому;
– возвращается с работы, идет спать;
– где он завтракает, обедает;
– что он делает утром, днем, вечером.
5.9. Answer the questions:
1) What is your name?
2) Where and when were you born?
3) How old are you?
4) Are you married?
5) Do you live together with your parents?
6) What are your parents?
7) Where do you live?
8) What school did you finish?
9) What are you going to be?
10) Do you work?
11) When does your working day begin?
12) What do you do when you get up?
13) What time do you leave for work?
14) How much time does it take you to get there?
15) What do you usually do in the evenings?
Практическая работа №6
Тема: Разрешите представиться
Цель: закрепление навыков диалогической речи
Время выполнения: 30 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практикум по английскому языку »
Задание:закончите диалог, используя изученные реплики разговорной речи
6. Practice
6.1. Compose the dialogue.
Think of the topic of a small talk (your country/town; family; your study; your work; your free time; sport, the weather...)
Take into consideration phrases given below:
– Tell me a little about yourself.
– I don’t know where to begin. What do you want to know?
– ...
6.2. Fill in the form:
First name
Surname
Date of birth
Place of birth
Nationality
Occupation
Address
Telephone number Mike
Brown
15.03.70
London
English
manager
25, Regent St., London, U.K.
071-839
6.3. Write the letter to the club «Friendship».
Практическая работа №7
Тема: Разрешите представиться
Цель: развитие навыков чтения и перевода текста.
Время выполнения: 20 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практикум по английскому языку »
Задание: прочитайте текст и ответьте на вопросы

6.4. Read the text and discuss the questions:
British FamiliesBritish families are usually quite small. An average family consists of a mother, a father and two or three children. No one is really sure how it is possible to have four children. It is quite rare in Britain for grandparents, aunts and uncles to share the house with the family. However, families often share the house with dogs, cats, goldfish and even rabbits which they keep, not to eat, but as pets.
1) Are families in Britain the same as in our country?
2) What similarities and differences do you notice from the passage?
6.5. Develop the situation from one of the given topics or make up a short dialogue:
1. Let’s get acquainted!
2. You have received the letter from England.
3. Introduction your classmates, friends…
Практическая работа №8
Тема: Разрешите представиться
Цель: образование и употребление грамматических единиц
Время выполнения: 15 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практикум по английскому языку »
Задание: повторите образование The Present Simple Tense, The Past Simple Tense, The Future Simple Tense (in an affirmative, negative and interrogative sentence)
Grammar task
1.Revision.
Revise the formation of The Present Simple Tense, The Past Simple Tense, The Future Simple Tense (in an affirmative, negative and interrogative sentence), verbs to be, to have, pronouns, the plural of nouns.
Практическая работа №9
Тема: Разрешите представиться
Цель: развитие навыков чтения и перевода текста, закрепление грамматических форм простого прошедшего времени
Время выполнения: 20 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практикум по английскому языку »
Задание: прочитайте текст, выпишите глаголы в простом прошедшем времени и ответьте на вопросы
2. Read the texts; translate them in written form, paying attention to the verbs in the past simple tense forms.
A. How english names began
Most names of people in the English-speaking world had the beginning long ago in the British Isles.
About a thousand years ago there were very few people living in the British Isles. Towns and villages were tiny. And in the country-side the small number of people lived very far apart.
Because there were so few people, almost everyone had only one name. A name such as John, David or Mary was all that was needed. As time went on some way had to be discovered to distinguish one John by name from another. The answer was eventually found by adding a family name to the already existing first names.
When John’s son was made into one word “Johnson”, it was used as a family name. There are many examples of “son’ names, such as Davidson, Wilson, Peterson, Dickson, Williamson.
The Scottish «Mac» also meant «the son of» hence Macadam, «Son of Adam». The same can be said about the Irish «0» – O’Neil meant «the son of Neil»
After the Norman Conquest it became common in England to use, the Norman way of showing who a person’s father was: they added «fitz» to make Fitzwilliam, Fitzpatric and so on.
B. Family names from occupations
Later still it became common to call a person according to his work. Many family names first began when people were described as John the Smith, John the Farmer, John the Miller, John the Baker or more simply John Baker; Fisher; Singer, are all occupational names. Some other names of this kind are Barber, Cook, Thatcher and so on.
C. Family names from places
One way to distinguish between one person and another was to say where they lived. In this way places also became family names.
For example, John lived near the water, he was called «John at water» or simply «John Atwater». Another John who perhaps lived by the brook could be described as «John Brook», and John Fields was not the same John as the one who lived by the bridge. Other names of this kind are Hill, Rivers, Waters and so on.
In many towns and villages in Britain today you can see how many of English family names began. Even the word «Town» is a well-known family name, as well as «Hampton», which means «village».
D. Family names from nicknames
Yet another way to distinguish between one «John» and another was to give them descriptive nicknames. Nicknames are very personal. They describe physical or other characteristics and served in the past to distinguish one man; and then his family from another.
«Strong», «Short» and «Long» are only a few of the many names which came from nicknames.
Грамматические упражнения для самоконтроля
3. Exercises
3.1. Present in written form and learn by heart the four forms of the following verbs. Make sure that you know their meaning.
Be, become, begin, come, go, have, make, mean, say, speak, travel, tell, find, show, take, understand, wake, meet.
3.2. Give examples from the text of the verbs in The Past Simple Tense Form.
For example:
had – the past simple of «have».
3.3. Find in the text the English for:
Англо-говорящий, в стороне (отдельно), такие как, открыть (обнаружить), различать, называть, соответственно, мост, другой путь, прозвище.3.4. Fill in the blanks with «to be»:
I … from London.
These … my students.
She … like a walking dictionary.
It … a very noble profession.
I … fond of singing.
They … great friends.
She … a shy fish.
Lily … full of joy and energy.
3.5. Fill in the blanks with «to have»:
I … many questions to ask you.
She … an excellent taste in everything.
I … neither sisters nor brothers.
She … not a large family.
I … many relatives.
He … many friends in the United State.
You … an English dictionary.
3.6. Use the pronouns instead of the nouns.
Irene Green reads much.
Her brother is interested in sciences.
Julia Johnson is going to be a journalist.
Julia and Laura can talk well about everything.
My friend likes sport very much.
Betty is good at painting.
Sheila Shelton does not talk much.
3.7. Use the singular of the nouns.
These are my fellow-students.
Both his sisters are doctors.
My group-mates are happy to be students.
His favourite writers are R.Kipling and E.Hemingway.
The children have a lot of books.
My friends have a rich private collection of paintings.
Those women have much work to do about the house. They have their hands full the whole day.

Unit 2
GREAT BRITAINConversational task
Практическая работа №1
Тема: Великобритания
Цель: Ознакомление с новыми словами, первичное закрепление лексики
Время выполнения: 15 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практикум по английскому языку »
Задание: выпишите слова в словарь
1. WordcheckMake sure that you know the meaning of the following words and word combinations:
1) international words:
chemicals (n) climate (n) electronics (n) export (n),(v) exporter(n) industry(n) intellectual (a) machinery (n) monarchy (n) navigation (n) occupy (v) parliament (n) population (n) produce (v) producer (n) territory (n) textile (n)
2) active vocabulary:
aircraft (n)
chamber (n)
develop (v)
equipment (n)
elect (v)
ensure (v)
island (n)
plain (n)
ruling (a)
shipbuilding
surface (n)
urban (n)
vast (a)
vary (v) самолет(ы), авиация
палата
развивать(ся)
оборудование
избирать голосование
обеспечивать,гарантироватьостров
равнина
правящий
судостроение
поверхность
городской
огромный, обширный
отличаться
3) geographical terms.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland – Соединенное Королевство Великобритании и Северной Ирландии
England
Scotland
Wales
The British Isles
The Atlantic Ocean
London
The English Channel Англия
Шотландия
Уэльс
Британские острова
Атлантический океан
Лондон
Ла-Манш
Практическая работа №2
Тема: Великобритания
Цель: Развитие навыков чтения и перевода
Время выполнения: 30 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практикум по английскому языку »
Задание: прочитайте и переведите текст

2. Text: «Great Britain»
Practice reading the text, translate it into Russian.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is situated on the British Isles. It consists of four parts: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. England, Wales and Scotland occupy the territory of Great Britain. Northern Ireland is situated in the northern part of Ireland.
The territory of the United Kingdom is about 244,000 square kilometres. The population is over 56 million. About 80% of the population is urban. The capital of the country is London.
The surface of Great Britain varies greatly. The northern and western part of the country is mountainous and is called the Highlands. All the rest (south, east and centre) is a vast plain which is called the Lowlands. The mountains are not very high. The rivers are not long. The most important of them are the Severn and the Thames. There are many beautiful lakes in the mountainous parts of the country.
The mountains, the Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters of the Gulf Stream influence the climate of Great Britain. It is mild the whole year round. The winds blowing from the Atlantic are warm and wet. They bring plenty of rain to the island. It ensures a long growing season and is suitable for agriculture.
Great Britain is a highly developed industrial country. It is known as one of the world’s largest producers and exporters of iron and steel products, machinery and electronics, chemicals and textile, aircraft and navigation equipment. One of the chief industries of the country is shipbuilding.
Great Britain is a country with old cultural traditions and customs. The most famous educational centres are Oxford and Cambridge Universities. They are considered to be the intellectual centres of Europe. There are 47 Universities in Great Britain.
The United Kingdom is a monarchy and the Queen is the head of the state. But in practice it is ruled by the elected government with a Prime Minister at the head. The British Parliament consists of two chambers: the House of Lords and the House of Commons.
The House of Commons is the major element in the British Parliament. It consists of 635 members elected by popular vote. The election is held every five years. There are three main political parties in Great Britain: the Labour party, the Conservative party and the Liberal party. The Labour party is the ruling party nowadays.
3. Dialogue: «The scenery of Great Britain»
Practice reading the dialogue, and translate it into Russian. Learn the dialogue by heart.
Teacher: I’ve told you that the scenery of Great Britain is very diverse. You can find the fine combinations of low- and highlands, plains and mountains. And what are the highest regions in the country?
Student 1: The highest regions are in Scotland and in the North Wales. The highest peak in Scotland is Ben Nevis, 1343 m. In Wales the highest peak is Snowdon. There is also the Pennine chain in North England with some wild mountains for climbing. Here is Lake District which consists of 16 lakes or «lochs» as they call them. The largest lake is Windermere and the deepest one – Westwater.
Teacher: That’s right. Lakes and rivers are roads of water which are not less important as railways or roads. And now who’d like to speak about English rivers?
Student 2: There are many rivers in Great Britain, but the greatest rivers are the Thames flowing to the East, the Severn to the West and the Trent to the North. The longest river is the Severn – about 200 miles. The busiest river is the Thames. It is also the most beautiful river. The Trent is the fastest.
Teacher: And who can tell me about the most beautiful lowlands in Britain?
Student 3: I think the South English plain is very attractive It is not only beautiful but the richest, the most fertile and that’s why the most populated in the country.
Вопросы для самоконтроля
4. Self-control questions
4.1. Answer the questions:
1) What parts does the United Kingdom consist of?
2) What is the territory and the population of Great Britain?
3) What is the surface of the country?
4) Why is the climate of the British Isles milder than that of the Continent?
5) What does the British industry produce?
6) Are there any big educational establishments in Great Britain?
7) Is the Queen’s power limited by Parliament?
8) How many chambers does the British Parliament consist of? What are they?
9) What are the main political parties of Great Britain?
10) Who is the Prime Minister of Great Britain now?
11) Which political party does it belong to?
4.2. Agree or disagree with these statements.
1) The English Channel separates England from France.
2) Great Britain is an agricultural country.
3) The climate of the North Caucasus is much milder than that of Great Britain.
4) The highest body of state power in the United Kingdom is the Congress which consists of the Senate and the House of Representatives.
5) Very few people are employed in agriculture.
6) Many people believe that half Britain is always on strike, and the other half wears a suit, a bowler hat and carries an umbrella. Yes, indeed ...
That’s (quite) right.
I (quite) agree with it (here).
Sure.
O.K.
I’m afraid I don’t agree with it.
It can’t be true.
I’m of a different opinion.
I object (to it).
I doubt in.
Nothing of the kind.
Практическая работа №3
Тема: Великобритания
Цель: Вторичное закрепление лексики посредством лексико-грамматических упражнений
Время выполнения: 2 часа
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практикум по английскому языку »
Задание: перевести слова с русского на английский и с английского на русский, выбрать верный эквивалент
5. Vocabulary drill
5.1. Find out the English equivalents of the following words:
круглый год, вся остальная часть, основные отросли промышленности, глава государства, практически, главный элемент, каждые пять лет, оказывать влияние.
5.2. Give Russian equivalents of the following:
expressions greatly, plenty of rain, highly developed industrial country, at the head, main political parties, suitable for agriculture, a long growing season, by popular vote.
5.3. Choose the correct word in the brackets:
1) The northern part of the country is (mountains/mountainous).
2) The (elected/election) is held every five years.
3) Great Britain is a country with old traditions and (customers/customs).
4) One of the chief (industrial/industries) is shipbuilding.
5) There are three main political (parts/parties) in Great Britain.
6) Wet winds from the Atlantic (bring/blow) plenty of rain.
7) The warm waters of the Gulf Stream (ensure/influence) the climate of Great Britain.
8) The Northern and Western part of the country is called the (Lowlands/Highlands).
9) There are (47/20) Universities in Great Britain.
10) The (Liberal/Conservative/Labour) party is the ruling party nowadays.
5.4. Finish the sentences:
1) The United Kingdom consists of ... .
2) The British Parliament consists of ... .
3) There are the following political parties in Great Britain ... .
4) The United Kingdom is situated on ... .
5) The Queen’s rights are limited by ... .
6) The territory of Great Britain is ... .
7) The population is ... .
5.5. Make up the sentences:
1) and, Atlantic, are, Ocean, the, Isles, the, British, by, washed, North, the, Sea.
2) the, France, continent, on, country, the, on, borders.
3) 244,000, of, the, occupies, about, square, territory, it, kilometres.
4) Parliament, the, in, Queen, to, the, belongs, the, country, and, power, the.
5.6. Translate the sentences into Russian:
1) Британские острова расположены на континентальном шельфе (shelf).
2) Англия – конституционная монархия.
3) Великобритания имеет высокоразвитую промышленность.
4) Сегодня Великобритания – крупный производитель железа, стали, электронного и машинного оборудования, текстиля.
5) В Шотландии много красивых озер. Туристы со всего мира приезжают в эту страну круглый год.
6) На климат Великобритании оказывают большое влияние ветры, дующие с Атлантического океана.
Практическая работа №4
Тема: Великобритания
Цель: закрепление навыков диалогической речи
Время выполнения: 30 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практикум по английскому языку »
Задание:закончите диалог, используя изученные реплики разговорной речи
6. Practice
6.1. Compose the dialogue «What do you know about the U.K.?». Ask your friend:
знает ли он официальное название Великобритании; что он думает об уровне жизни англичан; может ли он рассказать о политическом устройстве Великобритании; интересуется ли культурой и традициями Англии.
Take into consideration phrases given below:
Can you tell me about ... ?
Do you know ... ?
Are you interested in ... ?
What’s your opinion of ... ?
The answers begin with: I think that ..., My opinion is that ..., Yes, certainly (of course), I’m afraid not, I’m afraid I don’t know.
6.2. Find out all geographical terms of the text at the map and write them down 1) with the article 2) without the article.
1) The United Kingdom2) Great Britain
6.3. Sum up the text.
Grammar task
Практическая работа №5
Тема: Великобритания
Цель: образование и употребление грамматических единиц
Время выполнения: 30 минут
Обору дование: методическое пособие «Практикум по английскому языку »
Задание: повторите образование The Present Continuous Tense, The Past Continuous Tense, The Future Continuous Tense (in an affirmative, negative and interrogative sentence), numerals, degrees of adjective, 4 types of the questions.
1. Revision
Revise the formation of The Present Continuous Tense, The Past Continuous Tense, The Future Continuous Tense (in an affirmative, negative and interrogative sentence), numerals, degrees of adjective, 4 types of the questions.
Практическая работа №6
Тема: Великобритания
Цель: развитие навыков чтения и перевода текста, закрепление грамматических форм продолженных времен
Время выполнения: 20 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практикум по английскому языку »
Задание: прочитайте текст, выпишите глаголы в продолженных временах
2. Read the text; translate it in written form, paying attention to the predicates in the present continuous tense forms.
MORE ABOUT THE ENGLISH
Like any other country Britain has its manners and customs as well as reputation...
The English people often say something about the weather when they begin a conversation with strangers.
In fact, people talk about the weather more in Britain than in most parts of the world.
For one thing, the weather in Britain changes very quickly. One day may be fine and the next day may be wet. When you go to bed the stars may be shining brightly and when you wake up it may be raining heavily. You can never be sure what the weather is going to be like. The English often say «Other countries have a climate, in England we have weather».
For another thing, the weather is a safe topic for conversation. When two Englishmen meet, if they can’t think of anything else to talk about or if they don’t know each other well enough to discuss personal matters, they talk about the weather.
If it’s nice and warm and the sun is shining brightly, a person usually says, «It’s a lovely morning, isn’t it?» or «Isn’t it hot today?», and the answer is «Yes, what wonderful weather we are having». After a night of heavy snowfall and hard frost he may say: «A cold morning isn’t it?», and the answer is «Yes, we are having a very cold winter».
Or perhaps the day is dull; it is raining a little, the sky is grey and cloudy, and everyone is wearing a raincoat or carrying an umbrella. As it gets darker a thick fog covers London. Cars and buses put on their lights and move slowly along the wet, slippery roads. As one friend meets another the usual remark is, «Isn’t the weather awful!»As the weather changes so often, it is of course quite important. It plays a big part in the lives of the British people. Every daily newspaper publishes a weather forecast. Both the radio and the television broadcast news about the weather several times each day.
Word Combinations
for one thing – с одной стороны;
for another thing – с другой стороны;
put on (out) the lights – зажигать (тушить) свет;
play a big (small, important etc) part in smth – играть большую (малую, важную и т.п.) роль в чем-либо;
weather forecast – прогноз погоды.
Лексико-грамматические упражнения для самоконтроля
Время выполнения: 45 минут
3. Exercises
3.1. Present in written form and learn by heart the four forms of the following verbs. Make sure that you know their meaning.
say, speak, travel, tell, find, show, take, understand, shine, wake, meet, think, wear, carry, put, play, broadcast.
3.2. Give examples from the text of the predicates (глаголы – сказуемые) in the Present Continuous Tense Form, 1,2,3 p/s and 1,2,3 p/p.
For example: the sun is shining brightly – the 3 person, singular etc.
3.3. Find in the text the English for:
завязать разговор с незнакомым человеком; быстро меняться; ложиться спать; светить ярко; безопасная тема для разговора; обсуждать личные дела; великолепное утро; прекрасная погода; сильный снегопад; сильный мороз; холодная зима; мрачный день; серое, затянутое тучами небо; идти под зонтиком; густой туман; зажечь фары; медленно продвигаться; мокрая, скользкая дорога; ужасная погода; играть большую роль в чьей-либо жизни; ежедневная газета; публиковать прогноз погоды.
3.4. Make up 10–15 questions to the text, using 4 types.
3.5. Find out the adjectives in the text; put them in comparative and superlative degree. Present in written form and make sure that you know their meaning.
3.6. Complete the questions and answers. Render the dialogue into Russian.
ON WEATHER– What is the weather like in England?
– ........changes in our country more often than in other countries, that's why we say: «Other countries have .............................................»
– Look! The sky is covered with heavy dark ...............and it’s going to.................
– It may, but you can never be sure of it.
– .........it often rain in............?
– .............is a rainy month. You are quite right, it is .............. already. The people in the street are opening ................. and the pavements are wet with water. But I don’t think it will last ........................– Do Englishmen always .................. raincoats and .................. umbrellas in autumn?
– As a rule they do.
– And what do they ........... in winter?
– Wintercoats.
– I see that ............. is a safe ............... for conversation.
– It is. We never get tired of it.
– What do you say to start a conversation?
– ......................................................................
Unit 3
LONDON
Conversation task
Практическая работа №1
Тема: Лондон
Цель: Ознакомление с новыми словами, первичное закрепление лексики
Время выполнения: 15 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практикум по английскому языку »
Задание: выпишите слова в словарь

1. WordcheckMake sure that you know the meaning of the following words and word combinations:
1) international words:
centre (n) region (n) hotel (n) statue (n) monument (n) memory (n) museum (n) residence (n) resident (n) official (a) gallery (n) art (n) collection (n);
2) active vocabulary:
capital (n)
district (n)
palace (n)
royal (a)
fortress
cathedral
hereditary
masterpiece
various
wealth
the Bank of England
the Stock Exchange
the Old Bailyстолица
район
дворец
королевский
крепость
собор
потомственный
шедевр
различные
богатство
Английский Банк
Лондонская фондовая биржа
Центральный уголовный суд, находящийся в Олд-Бейли
3) geographical and historical terms:
Europe
Westminster
Westminster Abbey
the Thames
Buckingham Palace
Trafalgar Square Европа
английский парламент
Вестминстерское аббатство
Темза
Букингемский Дворец
Трафальгарская площадь
Практическая работа №2
Тема: Лондон
Цель: Развитие навыков диалогической речи
Время выполнения: 15 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практикум по английскому языку »
Задание: прочитайте и переведите диалоги

2. Dialogues: «How can I get to…?»Practice reading the dialogues, translate them into Russian.
1
– Shall I accompany you?
– No, thank you. I know the way Besides, St. Paul’s Cathedral is quite near, isn’t it?
– Yes.
2
– Excuse me. Could you tell me the way to Whitehall?
– I’m afraid not. Ask the policeman over there.
3
– Is it far to the Tower?
– Oh, yes. It’s very far. You’d better take a bus.
4
– Excuse me. How can I get to Downing Street?
– Go down this street, pass the traffic lights, then take the first turning on the right.
5
– Which is the shortest way to Piccadilly Circus?
– Go up the street, turn to the left, then go straight ahead.
6
– Am I right for the National Gallery?
– No, It’s in the opposite direction.
7
– Does this bus go to Trafalgar Square?
– No, take the tube. I think it’s the best way.
8
– Excuse me. Where is the nearest bus stop?
– Turn round the corner and there it is, at Victoria Station.
Практическая работа №3
Тема: Лондон
Цель: Развитие навыков диалогической речи
Время выполнения: 30 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практикум по английскому языку »
Задание: выучите следующие разговорные реплики, прочитайте и переведите диалог
3. Conversational formulas
3.1. Dialogue: «We are in London»
Remember the set expressions.
That’s why I’d like to make a trip. – вот почему я хотел бы путешествовать.The air is full of spring smells. – воздух полон весенних запахов.In the roadway there is a constant stream of cars, taxis, buses. – на дороге постоянный поток машин, такси, автобусов.We have left-hand traffic. – у нас левостороннее движение.
Look right! – смотри прямо!
Here it is, on the left. – он здесь, налево.Practice reading the dialogue, translate it into Russian. Learn the dialogue by heart.
– Here we are in England. I’m glad the trip is over.
– How long are you planning to stay in London?
– Only three days. That’s why I’d like to make a trip through the streets of London right now to get a gene impression of the city.
– Let me accompany you. I know the city well. And weather is so fine.
– Oh, that’s the first surprise of mine. We used to think that there are fogs or rains in London nearly every day of year. But the weather is very good today. A slight wind blowing and the air is full of spring smells.
– We’ll see more of the city if we take a bus and begin the West End.
– Now we are moving along Oxford Street. You can see numerous shops, banks, restaurants on both sides of the street, The pavements are crowded with people. In the roadway there is a constant stream of cars, taxis, buses. It's dangerous to cross the road until the traffic is stopped.
– An unusual thing is that your drivers keep to the left.
– Oh, yes. It’s very important. We have left-hand traffic here. Remember this while crossing the street.
– And your buses differ greatly from our buses. They are all red and double-decked. Are there also trolleybuses and trams in London?
– Yes, in some parts of the city.
– Don’t you find it's too noisy in the street?
– Oh, yes. The noise lasts till midnight. But people get used to it very soon.
– Look right! Isn’t it the building of the Houses of parliament? I recognize it from the pictures.
– You are quite right. It is the Houses of Parliament, the place where the Government has its seat. And can you recognize Westminster Abbey?
– Unfortunately not.
– Here it is, on the left. I recommend you to come here tomorrow and to see the Poets’ Corner.
– Sure I will. I’d like to visit the British Museum, the National Gallery and Buckingham Palace to watch the ceremony of the changing of the guard.
– But there’s bus stop just over there. We’ll ask the conductor to put us down at Trafalgar Square and we'll see the National Gallery.
– OK. And then we'll spend the rest of the day in some of the parks nearby.
– We are in Hyde Park, aren’t we?
– Yes, it’s the famous Hyde Park.
– It's splendid here! There are a lot of old trees, green lawns and a few ponds. The ducks are swimming in the pools. People in light spring clothes are walking around. To my surprise they are walking not only along the paths but also across the grass.
– Oh, people are allowed to do everything here. You can sing, or dance, or cry, or preach and nobody will make you a remark.
– I’ve heard a lot about the Speaker’s Corner.
– It’s a big open place where a man can stand on a chair, or on a platform, or on the ground and speak everything he likes. You can listen to him, ask questions or you may pass him by without any reaction.
– By the way, are there any other parks in London?
– Quite a lot. Except Hyde Park there is Queen Park, Kensington Gardens, St. James Park and others. People call them «lungs of London».
– Really, it’s a wonderful place to spend time in.
Практическая работа №4
Тема: Лондон
Цель: Развитие навыков чтения и перевода
Время выполнения: 30 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практикум по английскому языку »
Задание: прочитайте и переведите текст

3.2. Text: «London»
Practice reading the text, translate it into Russian.
London is the capital of Great Britain, its political, economic and commercial centre. It is one of the largest cities in the world (together with Tokyo and New York) and the largest city in Europe. Its population is about 8 million.
London is situated on the river Thames. The city is very old. It has more than 20 centuries old history. Traditionally, it is divided into several parts: the City, Westminster, the West End and the East End. They are very different from each other.
The City is the oldest part of London, its financial and business centre. Numerous banks, offices and firms are concentrated here, including the Bank of England, the Stock Exchange and the Old Bailey. Few people live in the City but over a million come to work here. Two masterpieces are situated within the City: St. Paul’s Cathedral and the Tower of London. St. Paul’s Cathedral was built in the 17th century by Christopher Wren. The Tower of London was built in the 11th century. It was used as a fortress, a palace and a prison. Now it’s a museum.
Westminster is the aristocratic official part of London. It includes Buckingham Palace where the Queen lives and the Houses of Parliament stretching for nearly 1000 feet along the north bank of the Thames.
The Clock Tower of the Houses of Parliament is famous for its big hour bell, known as «Big Ben». Westminster Abbey is the place where coronation of nearly all kings and queens has taken place. Many of them are buried here as well as some other famous people of the country (G. Chaucer, Tennyson, Newton, Ch. Dickens, T. Hardy, R. Kipling, etc.).
The West End is the richest and most beautiful part of London. It is a symbol of wealth and luxury. The best hotels, restaurants, shops, clubs, parks and houses are situated there. English aristocracy lives in this region. One of the busiest streets in the West End is Oxford Street. There are many various shops in it which attract customers from different countries of the world.
Trafalgar Square is the geographical centre of London. It was named in the memory of Admiral Nelson’s victory at the battle of Trafalgar in 1805. The tall Nelson Column stands in the middle of the square.
Opposite the Nelson Monument is the National Gallery and the National Portrait Gallery. They contain the finest art collections in the world. Not far from the National Gallery is the British Museum famous for its rich library (about 7,000.000 books).
The East End is an industrial district of London. There are many factories and the Port of London there. It is very important to the country’s commerce. The region is densely populated by working class families. Old residents of the East End are proud to be called cockneys which means true Londoners, hereditary inhabitants of the area.
Вопросы для самоконтроля
4. Self-control questions
What conversational formulas of politeness in the dialogues and in the text are used to express:
1. Willingness.
2. Gratitude.
3. Invitation.
4. Agreement.
5. Disagreement.
6. Advice.
Illustrate each point with examples from the dialogues.
Лексико-грамматические упражнения для самоконтроля
Время выполнения: 45 минут
5. Vocabulary drill
5.1. Find out the English equivalents of the following words:
традиционно, многочисленный, вдоль северного берега реки Темзы, почти, одна из самых оживленных улиц, покупатели, напротив, потомственные обитатели, старые жители.5.2. Give Russian equivalents of the following expressions:
few people, to include, as well as, symbol of wealth and luxury, the finest art collection, densely, populated, true Londoners, to take place, at the battle of.
5.3. Find the synonyms in the text of the following expressions:
to be located, to vary, to be constructed, to be well-known, different, in honour of, to house, to be called, trade, territory, quite near, almost.
5.4. Choose the correct word in the brackets:
1) London is the (large/largest/larger) city in Europe.
2) The City is a market for (good/goods) of almost (all/every) kind from (all/every) parts of the world.
3) Not (most/more) than five thousand people live in the City.
4)You will find here great industrial areas than depend (from/upon/of) shipping.
5) (It’s/its) population is about 6 (million/millions).
6) Two masterpieces (are situated/are concentrated) within the City: St. Paul’s Cathedral and the Tower of London.
7) The Tower of London (was built/was buried) in the 11th century.
8) The tall Nelson’s Column stands (in the middle of/not far from) the Trafalgar Square.
9) Old residents of the East End are hereditary (aristocracy/cockneys).
10) Numerous banks and firms are concentrated in the City (containing/including) the Bank of England and the Stock Exchange.
5.5. Finish the sentences:
1) The oldest part of London is ... .
2) The well-known people of England are buried in ... .
3) The place where Monarch lives is called ... .
4) The largest park in London is ... .
5) The Tower of London was used as ... .
6) St. Paul’s Cathedral was built in ... by ... .
7) The population of London is ... .
5.6. Make up the sentences:
1) 20, more, is, London, old, than, centuries.
2) N 10, Prime Minister, of, official, the, is, residence, the, Street, Downing.
3) the, with, associated, high, «West End», name, of, goods, riches, and, quality, is.
5.7. Translate the sentences into Russian.
1) Лондон – самый большой город в Европе. Он простирается почти на 30 миль.
2) Трафальгарская площадь – это то место, где традиционно проводятся различные демонстрации.
3) Картинные галереи Лондона – богатейшие в мире.
4) В Британском музее содержится большое количество древних рукописей, монет, скульптур.
5) Напротив здания Парламента находится Вестминстерское аббатство.
6) В Вестминстерском аббатстве похоронены многие знаменитые люди Англии, среди них – государственные деятели, музыканты и писатели.
Практическая работа №5
Тема: Лондон
Цель: закрепление навыков диалогической речи
Время выполнения: 30 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практикум по английскому языку »
Задание:закончите диалог, используя изученные реплики разговорной речи
6. Practice
6.1. Compose the dialogue «What do you know about London?». Ask your friend:
Знает ли он какие-нибудь достопримечательности Лондона; интересуется ли он церквами и соборами; что он думает о музеях Лондона; в какой части Лондона он хотел бы жить.
Take into consideration phrases given below: What do you think of ...?, Do you happen to know ...?, Are you keen on ...?, I wonder ... .
The answers begin with: Well, I think ... , Well, no, not really ... , Well, yes and no. On the one hand ... On the other hand ... , To tell the truth ... .
6.2. Agree or disagree with these statements.
1) They have left-hand traffic in London.
2) It is not important to be polite in Britain.
3) Westminster is the financial and business centre of London.
4) The London Underground is called the «tube».
5) The buses in London are all red and double - decked.
6) People are not allowed to cross the grass in Hyde Park. I (don’t) think that’s right.
I’m afraid I can’t agree here.
On the contrary, ...
There’s no doubt about it.
I doubt in.
Quite so.
All right
6.3. Develop the situation from one of the given sentences or make up a short dialogue:
1. You are in London at first time.
2. You tell about your native town to your English friend.
Grammar task
Практическая работа №6
Тема: Лондон
Цель: образование и употребление грамматических единиц
Время выполнения: 30 минут
Обору дование: методическое пособие «Практикум по английскому языку »
Задание: повторите образование The Present Perfect Tense, The Past Perfect Tense, The Future Perfect Tense (in an affirmative, negative and interrogative sentence), the numerals, the gerund.

1. Revision
Revise the formation of The Present Perfect Tense, The Past Perfect Tense, The Future Perfect Tense (in an affirmative, negative and interrogative sentence), the numerals, the gerund.
Практическая работа №7
Тема: Великобритания
Цель: развитие навыков чтения и перевода текста, закрепление грамматических форм продолженных времен
Время выполнения: 20 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практикум по английскому языку »
Задание: прочитайте текст, выпишите глаголы в перфектном времени

2. Read the text; translate it in written form, paying attention to the verbs in the Perfect tense forms.
FROM THE HISTORY OF LONDON
In the year 55 before our era a Roman legion headed by Julius Cesar crossed the English Channel that divides the British Isles from the continent of Europe. Having landed in Britain the Romans founded a military station on the northern bank of the river Thames. Being skilled in the art of building they started fortifying their settlements with thick massive walls and laying roads across the country leading to the sea coast. After staying in Britain for two centuries the Romans returned to the continent having left behind excellent roads and strong fortifications. One of Roman settlements was called Londinium Augusta. Four centuries later, according to some historians, the capital of Britain was founded in its locality, part of the Roman wall still lying deep under the ground beneath modern London.
No other ancient monuments of Roman times have remained in the city. The earliest historical monument of English architecture is the so called Tower of London which has retained its name up to the present day. Being erected on the ruins of a Roman fortress, it consists of parts belonging to different periods of English history, its central and most ancient part being the huge square tower four storeys high. It was called the White Tower, deriving its name from the white stone it was built of. The White Tower was surrounded with a double row of walls with smaller towers forming the inner and outer court with the scaffold in the back of it.
Лексико-грамматические упражнения для самоконтроля
Время выполнения: 45 минут
3. Exercises
3.1. Present in written form and learn by heart the four forms of the following verbs. Make sure that you know their meaning.
leave; remain; retain; build; lie; lay; lead.
3.2. Give examples from the text of the verbs in the Perfect tense forms and the gerunds.
3.3. Find in the text the English for:
до нашей эры, будучи опытными, укрепление, согласно, так называемый, до сегодняшнего дня, состоять из, быть окруженным чем-либо.
3.4. Write the cardinal and ordinal numerals into English:
55; 4; 17; 23; 82; 100; 2005; 1981; 798.
Unit 4
SCIENTIFIC PROGRESS
Практическая работа №1
Тема: Научно-технический прогресс
Цель: Развитие навыков чтения и перевода
Время выполнения: 30 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практикум по английскому языку »
Задание: прочитайте и переведите текст

HISTORY OF COMPUTERS
When you read the following text, you will probably meet words and expressions that are new to you. First try to understand their meaning from the context – read the same passage a few times. When you have read the whole text, check new words in a dictionary.
Let us take a look at the history of the computers that we know today. The very first calculating device used was the ten fingers of a man’s hands. This, in fact, is why today we still count in tens and multiples of tens then the abacus was invented, a bead frame in which the beads are moved from left to right. People went on using some forms of abacus well into the 16th century, and it is still being used in some parts of the world because it can be understood without knowing how to read.
During the 17th and 18th centuries many people tried to find easy ways of calculating. J. Napier, a Scotsman, devised a mechanical way of multiplying and dividing, which is how the modern slide rule works. Henry Briggs used Napier's ideas to produce logarithm tables which all mathematicians use today. Calculus, another branch of mathematics, was independently invented by both Sir Isaac Newton, an Englishman, and Leibniz, a German mathematician.
The first real calculating machine appeared in 1820 as the result of several people's experiments. This type of machine, which saves a great deal of time and reduces the possibility of making mistakes, depends on a series of ten-toothed gear wheels. In 1830 Charles Babbage, an Englishman, designed a machine that was called 'The Analytical Engine. This machine, which Babbage showed at the Paris Exhibition 20 in 1855, was an attempt to cut out the human being altogether, expect for providing the machine with the necessary facts about the problem to be solved. He never finished this work, but many of his ideas were the basis for building today’s computers.
In 1930, the first analog computer was built by an American named Vannevar Bush. This device was used in Word War II to help aim guns. Mark I, the name given to the first digital computer, was completed in 1944. The men responsible for this invention were Professor Howard Aiken and some people from IBM. This was the first machine that could figure out long lists of mathematical problems, all at 30 a very fast rate. In 1946 two engineers at the University of Pennsylvania, J. Eckert and J. Mauchly, built the first digital computer using parts called vacuum tubes. they named their new invention ENIAC. Another important advancement in computers came in 1947, when John von Newmann developed the idea of keeping instructions for 35 the computer inside the computer's memory.
The first generation of computers, which used vacuum tubes came out 1n 1950. Univac I is an example of these computers which could perform thousands of calculations per second. In 1960, the second generation of computers was developed and these could perform work 40 ten times faster than their predecessors. The reason for this extra speed was the use of transistors instead of vacuum tubes. Second –generation computers were smaller, faster and more dependable than first-generation computers. The third-generation computers appeared on the market in 1965. These computers could do a million calculations 45 a second, which 1000 times as many as first-generation computers. Unlike second-generation computers, these are controlled by tiny integrated circuits and are consequently smaller and more dependable. Forth-generation computers have now arrived, and the integrated circuits that are being developed have been greatly reduced in size. This 50 is due to microminiaturization, which means that the circuits are much smaller than before; as many as 1000 tiny circuits now fit onto a single сhip. A chip as a square or rectangular piece of silicon, usually from 1/10 to 1/4 inch, upon which several layers of an integrated circuit are etched or imprinted, after which the circuit is encapsulated in plastic, ceramic 55 or metal. Fourth-generation computers are 50 times faster than third generation computers and can complete approximately 1,000,000 instructions per second.
At the rate computer technology is growing, today's computers might be obsolete by 1988 and most certainly by 1990. It has been said that if 60 transport technology had developed as rapidly as computer technology, a trip across the Atlantic Ocean today would take a few seconds.
Exercises
Вопросы для самоконтроля

1. Main idea
Which statement best expresses the main idea of the text? Why did you eliminate the other choices?
1) Computers, as we know them today, have gone through many changes.
2) Today’s computer probably won't be around for long.
3) Computers have had a very short history.
2. Understanding the passage
Decide whether the following statements are true or false (T/F) by referring to the information in text. Then make the necessary changes so that the false statements become true.
1) The abacus and the fingers are two calculating devices still in today.
2) The slide rule was invented hundreds of years ago.
3) During the early 1880s, many people worked on inventing a mechanical calculating machine
4) Charles Babbage, an Englishman, could well be called the father of computers.
5) The first computer was invented and built in the USA.
6) Instructions used by computers have always been kept inside the computer's memory.
7) Using transistors instead of vacuum tubes did nothing to increase the speed at which calculations were done.
8) As computers evolved, their size decreased and their dependability increased.
9) Today’s computers have more circuits than previous computers.
10) Computer technology has developed to a point from which new developments in the field will take a long time to come.
3. Develop the main ideas of the text. Start with:
– I’d like to add that…
– I’d like to make a comment on…
– I’d like to draw your attention to the fact…
4. Make a contribution to the text.
– I’d like to add in connection with
– I’d like to make a comment on…
5. Understanding words
Refer back to the text and find synonyms (i.e. words with a similar meaning) for the following words.
1. machine________
2. designed________
3. a lot of________
4. errors________
5. solve________
Now refer back to the text and find antonyms (i. e. words with an opposite meaning) for the following words.
6. old________
7. a few________
8. to include________
9. contemporaries________
10. still in use________
6. Content review
Match the following words in column A with the statements in column B. The first one is done for you.
AB
 1. Abacusa. instrument used for doing multiplication
and division
 2. calculusb. used in the first digital computers
 3. analog computerc. an instrument used for counting
 4. digital computerd. used in mathematics
 5. vacuum tubese. circuitry of forth-generation computers
 6. transistorsf. invented by Americans in 1944
 7 . Chipg. made computers smaller and faster
 8. Microminiaturizationh. used to help aim guns
 9. slide rulei. the reduction of circuitry onto chip
 10. logarithm tablesj. a branch of mathematics
7. Content review
Use the information in the text on «History of computers» to complete the following table.
time event
Primitive times Abacus invented
17-th and 18-th centuries Henry Briggs produced logarithm tables
Charles Babbage designed
1930 First use of
1947 Second generation computers using
Now Future 8. Retell the text
Unit 5
SHOPPING
Практическая работа №1
Тема: Покупки
Цель: Ознакомление с новыми словами, первичное закрепление лексики
Время выполнения: 15 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практикум по английскому языку »
Задание: выпишите слова в словарь

1. Practise the pronunciation of the following words. Translate them into Russian.
Tangibles (n); Intangibles (n); Evaluate (v); Advertising (n); Guarantee (n); Dimension (n); Perceive (v); Perception (n); Enhance (v); Predisposition (n); Diversify (v); Saturate (v).
Тема: Покупки
Цель: Развитие навыков чтения и перевода
Время выполнения: 30 минут
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практикум по английскому языку »
Задание: прочитайте и переведите текст

Developing a Total Product Offer
From a marketing management viewpoint, a product offer is more than just the physical good or service. A product offer consists of all the tangibles and intangibles that consumers evaluate when deciding whether or not to buy something. Thus, a product offer may be a washing machine, car, or bottle of beer, but the product offer also consists of the:
Price.Package.Store surroundings.Image created by advertising.
Guarantee.
Reputation of the producer.Brand name.Service.Buyers’ past experience.When people buy a product, they evaluate all these things and compare product offers on all these dimensions. Therefore, a successful marketer must begin to think like a consumer and evaluate the product offer as a total collection of impressions created by all the factors listed.
Let’s look at our highly nutritious, high-fiber, low-sugar breakfast cereal, Fiberrific, for example. The product offer as perceived by the consumer is much more than the cereal itself. Anything that affects consumer perceptions about the benefits and value of the cereal may determine whether or nor the cereal is purchased. The price certainly is an important part of the perception of product value. Often a high price indicates high quality. The store surroundings also are important. If the cereal is being sold in an exclusive health food store, it takes on many of the characteristics of the store (e.g., healthy and upscale). A guarantee of satisfaction can increase the product's value in the mind of consumers, as can a well-known brand name. Advertising can create an attractive image, and word of mouth can enhance the reputation. If a buyer has tried the product before, he or she has certain predispositions to buy or not. Thus, Fiberrific is more than a cereal as a product offer; it is a whole bundle of impressions in the minds of consumers.
The Product Mix
Companies usually do not have just one product that they sell. Rather, they sell several different, but complementary products. A product line is a group of products that are physically similar or are intended for a similar market. The product lines for Procter & Gamble include bar soaps, detergents, and dishwashing detergents. In one product line, there may be several competing brands. Thus, Procter & Gamble has many brands of detergent in its product line, including Bold, Cheer, Tide, and Ivory Snow. All of P&G’s product lines make up its product mix.
MicroMagic has introduced a product line of microwavable snack foods that is capturing the market. It has 80 percent of the frozen microwavable milkshake market and 45 percent of the frozen microwavable french fry market. The company hopes to add to its product line – microwavable snack foods – in coming years.
Product mix is the term used to describe the combination of product lines offered by a manufacturer. P&G’s product mix consists of product lines of soaps, detergents, toothpastes, shampoos, and so on.
In the case of automobile manufacturers, the product mix consists of everything from passenger cars to small trucks, large tractor trailers, and tanks. One auto manufacturer's product line for passenger cars may include large luxury cars, midsize cars, compact cars, minivans, and station wagons.
Manufacturers must decide what product mix is best. The mix may include both goods and services to spread the risk among several industries. Companies must be careful not to diversify so widely that they lose their focus and their competitive advantage. Coca-Cola, for example, produces five of the top-selling soft drinks. When it diversified into wine companies, a movie studio, pasta manufacturing, and television shows, the results were disappointing. When it bought Columbia Pictures, it increased production from 12 movies a year to 18. This was an attempt to saturate the market with various products to get increased market share, as they did with Coca-Cola. Well, the strategy simply does not work in movies as it does in soft drinks.
Вопросы для самоконтроля
2. Аnswer the questions:
1) What do people evaluate when they buy a product?
2) How does the price affect consumer perception of product value?
3) What can increase the product’s value in the minds of consumers?
4) In what connection are such companies as Proctor & Gamble and MicroMagic mentioned?
5) What is the difference between a product line and a product mix?
6) What is the difference between a product and a product offer?
7) Why must companies be careful not to diversify widely?
3. According to the text are the following statements true or false?
1) Price is the most important part of the perception of product value.
2) Word of mouth can create an attractive image of a product.
3) Product lines usually include physically different products.
4) Brands of products in one product line are competing.
5) A product mix consists of several product lines.
6) Companies usually diversify their product mix to get increased market share.
Практическая работа №2
Тема: Покупки
Цель: Вторичное закрепление лексики посредством лексико-грамматических упражнений
Время выполнения: 2 часа
Оборудование: методическое пособие «Практикум по английскому языку »
Задание: переведите слова с русского на английский, с английского на русский, вставьте правильно необходимые пропущенные слова
4. Find in the text the English equivalents of the following words and phrases:
С точки зрения, торговая марка, оценивать предложение товара, влиять на восприятие потребителя, указывать на высокое качество, магазин здоровой пищи, приобретает многие характеристики магазина, повысить ценность продукта, создать привлекательный образ, молва, ассортимент изделий, предназначены для подобного рынка, несколько конкурирующих сортов, номенклатура продукции, распределить риск между несколькими отраслями промышленности, потерять конкурентное превосходство, насыщать рынок.5. Give definitions and Russian equivalents to the following terms:
Product.Product offer.Brand.Brand name.Product line.Product mix.6. Match the words from the text with their corresponding definitions.
1. Evaluate smth that helps to be successful
2. Dimension (s) advantage, profit
3. Perceive to try to win smth in competition with someone else
4. Benefit measurement; size
5. Exclusive to make different or various in form or quality
6. Enhance to increase
7. Similar on sale only in the stated shop
8. Compete to calculate the value
9. Diversify to have knowledge of smth through one’s senses or through the mind
10. Advantage any of the equal parts into which smth may be divided
11. Share partly or almost the same
7. revise the words.
a) Look at the following words from the text and complete the table.
Verb Noun Adjective
evaluate ? ?
? ? exclusive
? perception? similar
Verb Noun Adjective
compete ? ?
diversify ? ?
b) Use the words from the table to complete the following sentences.
1) For a person deciding whether or not to buy a product _____ of a number of dimensions is very important.
2) A consumer often ______ a product as part of the store surroundings.
3) A well-known name can make a product _____ though it is physically _____ to other products.
4) Perdue chickens can be distinguished from _____ chickens because they are fed secret ingredients that make them yellow.
5) Most producers find it difficult _____ their product mix.
8. Translate the sentences into English.
1) Много факторов влияют на восприятие покупателем ценности товара и выгоды от его покупки.
2) С точки зрения покупателя, чем выше цена, тем выше качество товара.
3) Если покупатель попробовал продукт и был удовлетворен, то у него будет предрасположенность купить этот продукт снова.
4) Реклама может улучшить репутацию товара и повысить ценность продукта в глазах покупателей.
5) Ассортимент изделий компании Проктер и Гэмбл включает много известных сортов мыла, стиральных порошков и моющих средств.
6) Компания Кока-Кола попыталась насытить рынок разнообразными продуктами, вложив свой капитал в несколько отраслей промышленности.
9. Working in groups do the following tasks. Report to the class.
1) Study the following table and describe the structure of product mix of Procter & Gamble.
product lines brands
PRODUCT MIX Bar soap Camay, Coast, Ivory, Kirk’s, Lava, Monchel, Safeguard, Zest
Detergents Bold, Cheer, Dash, Dreft, Era, Gain, Ivory Snow, Liquid Bold-3, Liquid Cheer,
Liquid Tide, Oxidol, Solo, Tide
Dishwashing detergents Cascade, Dawn, Ivory Liquid, Joy,
Liquid Cascade
Cleaners and cleaners Comet, Comet Liquid, Mr. Clean, Spic & Span, Spic & Span Pine Liquid, Top Job
Shampoos Head & Shoulders, Ivory, Lilt, Pert Plus, PrellToothpastes Crest, Denquel, GleemPaper tissue products Banner, Charmin, Puffs, White Cloud
Disposable diapers Luvs, Pampers
Shortening and cooking oils Crisco, Crisco Oil, Crisco Corn Oil,
Puritan
2) Comment on the following statement:
«The marketing view demands the active recognition of a new kind of competition. This is not competition between what companies produce in their factories, but between what they add to their factory output in the form of packaging, services, advertising, customer advice, financing, delivery arrangements, warehousing, and other things people value».
Theodore Levitt
3) Read about the services offered by some of the libraries and colleges in the USA.
One branch of the Chicago Public Library lends expensive power tools and such accessories as fiberglass extension ladders. At the Carnegie library, in Pittsburgh, volunteer psychologists go to the library, listen to people's troubles, and refer them to appropriate help. The Broome High School Media Center in Spartanburg, South Carolina, lends prom, wedding, and mother-of-the-bride dresses donated by members of the community.
Answer the questions:
What is the product of a library?
What prompted libraries to be so creative in their product offers?
Is this a good example to find a need and fill it?
What is the product of a college or university?
How did American colleges manage to diversify their product offer?
4) Think of some well-known companies and make tables of their product offers.
10. Sum up the contents of the text, using the following phrases:
I believe (that) …
I’m (not) sure/certain (that) …
As far as I know …
I think (that) …
I quite agree (with) …
Actually/as a matter of fact …
ЛЕКСИКО-ГРАММАТИЧЕСКИЙ КОММЕНТАРИЙ
Глагол to be означает «быть», «являться», «находиться». Он употребляется в предложениях, сообщающих о:
профессииI am a teacher. – Я преподаватель.
национальностиI am an English. – Я англичанин.
самочувствииI am well. – Я здоров.
возрастеI am 18. – Мне 18 лет.
гражданскомShe is married. – Она замужем.
состоянии
классификацииIt is an umbrella. – Это зонтик.
свойствеThe weather is fine. –Погода хорошая.
месте нахожденияThey are in London. – Они в Лондоне.
лица или предмета
To be – единственный английский глагол, который изменяется не только по временам, но и лицам и числам.
Глагол «to be» в Indefinite Tenses
Present Indefinite Past Indefinite Future Indefinite
Утвердительная форма
I am glad
She
He is glad
It
We
You are glad
They I
She was glad
He
It
We
You were glad
They I shall be glad
She
He will be glad
It
We shall be glad
You will be glad
They
Вопросительная форма
Am I glad?
she
Is he glad?
it
we
Are you glad?
they I
Was she glad?
he
it
we
Were you glad?
they Shall I be glad?
she
Will he be glad?
it
Shall we be glad?
you
Will they be glad?
Present Indefinite Past Indefinite Future Indefinite
отрицательная форма
I am not glad
She
He is not glad
It
We
You are not glad
They I was not glad
She
He were not glad
It
We were not glad
You
They were not glad I shall not be glad
She
He will not be glad
It
We shall not be glad
You
They will not be glad
Глагол to have означает «иметь». Он употребляется в предложениях, сообщающих о принадлежности:
I have many friends.У меня много друзей.
John has a nice English camera.У Джона есть хороший
английский фотоаппарат.
(Он имеет …)
Глагол to have изменяется по лицам и числам только в настоящем неопределенном времени.
Present Indefinite Past Indefinite Future Indefinite
I have a friend
She
He has a friend
It
We
You have a friend
They I
She
He had a friend
It
We
You had a friend
They I shall have a friend
She
He will have a friend
It
We shall have a friend
You will have a friend
They
вопросительная форма
Have I a friend?
she
Has he a friend?
it
we
Have you a friend?
they I
she
Had he a friend?
it
we
Had you a friend?
they Shall I have a friend
she
Will he have a friend
it
Shall we have a friend
Will you have a
they friend
отрицательная форма
I have not a friend
She
He has not a friend
It
We
You have not a friend
They I
She had not a friend
He
It
We
You had not a friend
They I shall not have a friend
She
He will not have
It a friend
We shall not have a friend
You will not have
They a friend
Часто, особенно в разговорной речи, глагол «to have» заменяется формой – «to have got». Have you got an extra pen? – У Вас есть лишняя ручка? She hasn’t got any money. – У нее нет денег.
Повелительное наклонение
(The Imperative Mood)
Употребляется для выражения приказания и просьбы, побуждения к действию или запрета.
Лицо Единственное число Множественное число
1-е Let me read!
Давайте я прочитаю!
Let me not read!
Разрешите мне не читать! Let us read!
Давайте прочитаем!
Don’t let us read!
Давайте не будем читать!
2-е Read!
Читайте (же)!
Don’t read!
Не читайте (же)! Read!
Читайте!
Don’t read!
Не читайте!
3-е Let him read!
Пусть он читает!
Don’t let her read!
Не разрешайте ей читать! Let them read!
Пусть они читают!
Don’t let them read!
Не разрешайте же им
читать!
Let the dog run!
Пусть собака побегает.
Let it run! – Пусть она бегает!
Don’t let it run!
Пусть она не бегает! Множественное число существительных
(The Plural of Nouns)
Исчисляемые существительные образуют форму множественного числа с помощью окончания «s», которое произносится как [z] – после гласных и звонких согласных: shoes, hands; [s] – после глухих согласных: students; [iz] – после шипящих и свистящих: classes, houses.
Запомните исключения:
Единственное число Множественное число
man
woman
gentleman
child men
women
gentlemen
children
Существительные в единственном числе на –f во множественном числе меняют «f» на «v» и добавляют окончание «es»:
wife – wives, knife – knives.
В составных существительных, которые пишутся раздельно, форму множественного числа обычно принимает основное по смыслу слово:
mother-in-law – mothers-in-law.
Составные существительные, которые пишутся слитно, образуют множественное число по этому правилу, которому подчиняется второе слово:
schoolboy – schoolboys,
housewife – housewives,
postman – postmen.
Притяжательный падеж существительных
(The Possessive case)
Существительные в английском языке имеют два падежа: общий падеж (The Common Case) и притяжательный падеж (The Possessive Case).
Притяжательный падеж выражает принадлежность и соответствует в русском языке родительному падежу, отвечает на вопрос «чей»:
My brother’s name is Sam. – Моего брата зовут Сэм.Mary’s hobby is travelling. – Любимое занятие Мэри – путешествие.
Притяжательный падеж существительных в единственном числе образуется прибавлением апострофа и буквы «s» к форме существительного в общем падеже.
My aunt’s house. – Дом моей тети.
К существительным во множественном числе в притяжательном падеже добавляется только апостроф:
My friends’ house. – Дом моих друзей.Местоимения
(Pronouns)
Личные местоимения (Personal Pronouns):
Общий падеж Объектный падежI – я
he – онshe – онаit – оно (он, она)
we – мыyou – выthey – ониme – мне, меня, мной
him – его, емуher – ее, ейit – его, ему, ей, ееus – нас, нам, намиyou – вас, вам, вамиthem – их, им, имиПритяжательные местоимения (Possessive Pronouns):
Присоединительная форма Абсолютная форма
my – мой, моя, мое, мои
her – ееhis - его
its – его, ееour – наш, наша, наши, наше
your – ваш, ваша, ваши, ваше
their – ихmine – мой, моя, мое, мои
his – его
its – его, ее
hers – её
ours – наш
yours – вашtheirs – ихУказательные местоимения (Demonstrative Pronouns):
единственное число множественное числоthis – этот
that – тотthese – эти
those – теthe same – тот же самый
such – такой
Вопросительные местоимения (Interrogative Pronouns)
who – кто,
whose – чей,
whom – кого, кому,
what – что,
which – какой, который.
Числительные(Numerals)
В английском языке, как и в русском языке, различаются количественные (Сardinal Numerals) и порядковые числительные (Ordinal Numerals)
Количественные числительные обозначают число предметов и отвечают на вопрос: How many? – Сколько?
Порядковые числительные обозначают порядок при счете и отвечают на вопрос: Which? – Который по порядку? Кроме первых трех (first, second, third) образуются прибавлением –th или –eth к количественным числительным. Они всегда употребляются с определенным артиклем.
Her birthday is on the first of April? – Ее день рождения 1 апреля?
1900 – nineteen hundred.1905 – nineteen five.
1941 – nineteen forty-one.
12 апреля 1961 – The twelfth of April nineteen sixty one.April 12, 1961 – April the twelfth, nineteen sixty one.Прилагательные. Степени сравнения прилагательных
(Adjectives. Degrees of comparison)
Прилагательными называют слова, обозначающие свойства или качество предметов, например: large – большой, blue – голубой, simple – простой. В предложении они обычно выполняют функцию определения к существительному или именной части составного сказуемого, например: It was early spring. Была ранняя весна. The weather is cold. Погода холодная.
Прилагательные в английском языке не изменяются ни по родам, ни по падежам, ни по числам. Сравните: a long street – длинная улица, a long table – длинный стол, long tables – длинные столы.
Как и в русском языке, в английском языке различают три степени сравнения прилагательных: положительную, сравнительную и превосходную. Положительная указывает на качество предмета и соответствует словарной форме, т.е. прилагательные в положительной степени не имеют никаких окончаний: difficult – трудный, green – зеленый. Часто, когда говорят о равной степени качества разных предметов, употребляют союз «as ... as – такой же..., как» или его отрицательный вариант «not so ... as – не такой ..., как». The line AB is as long as the line CD. Линия АВ такая же длинная, как и линия CD.
Если нужно указать, что один предмет обладает более выраженным признаком по сравнению с другим предметом, то употребляют прилагательное в сравнительной степени, которое образуется путем прибавления суффикса «-er» к основе прилагательного, состоящего из одного или двух слогов, например:
short – shorter короткий – короче;
dark – darker темный – темнее;
clever – cleverer умный – умнее.
Обратите внимание, что на письме конечный согласный удваивается, чтобы сохранить закрытый слог:
hot – hotter горячий – горячее;
big – bigger большой – больше.
если основа прилагательного оканчивается на букву «-y» с предшествующим согласным, то при прибавлении суффикса «-er» буква «-y» переходит в «-i»:
dry – drier сухой – более сухой;
easy – easier легкий – более легкий.
При сравнении разной степени качества употребляется союз «than» – чем.
The line AB is longer than the line CD.
Линия АВ длиннее, чем линия CD.
Cравнительная степень прилагательных, состоящих из более чем двух слогов, образуется при помощи слова «more – более»:
useful – more useful полезный – более полезный;
interesting – more interesting интересный – более интересный.
The Russian language is more difficult than the English one.
Русский язык сложнее английского.
Превосходная степень указывает на высшую степень качества предмета и образуется при помощи суффикса «-est», от односложных и двусложных прилагательных или слова «most – самый» от некоторый двусложных и более длинных прилагательных. Причём при прибавлении суффикса «-est» сохраняются те же правила, что и для суффикса «-er». Поскольку данный предмет выделяется из всех прочих подобных ему предметов по своему качеству, то перед прилагательными в превосходной степени обычно употребляют определённый артикль «the»:
large – the largest большой – самый большой;
hot – the hottest горячий – самый горячий;
dry – the driest сухой – самый сухой;
useful – the most useful полезный – самый полезный.
It’s the most difficult rule of all.
Это самое трудное правило из всех.
В английском языке существует ряд прилагательных, которые образуют степени сравнения не по общим правилам. Некоторые из них приводятся ниже в таблице.
Имя
прилагательное Положительная степень Сравнительная
степень Превосходная степень
односложные strong
сильный stronger
сильнее the strongest
самый сильный
многосложные difficult
трудный more difficult
более трудный the most difficult
самый трудный
исключения good
хороший
bad
плохой
many/much
много
little
маленький better
лучше
worse
хуже
more
больше
less
меньше the best
самый лучший
the worst
самый плохой
the most
самый большой
the least
самый маленький
To be going to do something
(означает «собираться, намереваться что-либо сделать»)
I am going to become a teacher. – Я собираюсь стать учителем.
He is going to write a letter to his parents. – Он собирается написать письмо родителям.
What are you going to do on Sunday? – Что ты собираешься делать в воскресенье?
I would like(означает «мне бы хотелось»)
I would like to visit the Tate Gallery. – Мне бы хотелось посетить галлерею Тэйт.
Where would you like to travel to in summer? – Где бы ты хотела путешествовать летом?
Герундий
(The Gerund)
В предложениях – I hate being late
I am found of reading
She is good at painting
употребляется нeличная форма глагола, оканчивающаяся на «ing»: being, reading, painting, которой нет в русском языке. Эта форма глагола называется герундием (The Gerund). Герундий обладает свойствами глагола и существительного. На русский язык переводится отглагольным существительным, инфинитивом, придаточным предложением.
I like singing. – Я люблю петь (Я люблю пение).
I don’t like his way of doing it. – Мне не нравится, как он это делает.
Таблица образования основных времен
Время Simple (Indefinite)
Утвердительные Вопросы Отрицания
PresentV1 dodoesV1 dodoesnotV1
PastV2 diddidFuturewillV1 willwillКлючевые слова: Present Simpleusually, always, often, every day, never
Past Simplelast week, yesterday, last month, days ago, the other day, long time ago
Future Simplesoon, tomorrow, next Monday, in the future
Время Simple (Indefinite)
Утвердительные Вопросы / Отрицания
Примеры: Present SimpleEvery day I go to school.
He always goes there as he works as a teacher.
Where do you usually go on hollidays?
Past SimpleYesterday we went to the cinema.
When I was young I usually lived in France.
What time did he get up this morning?
Future SimpleI’ll visit my aunt tomorrow.
Will you read this book?
He won’t do this as he is too lazy
Время ContinuousУтвердительные Вопросы / Отрицания
PresentamIsareV-ingPastwaswereFuturewillbeКлючевые слова Present Continuousstill, at the moment, at present, this minute
Past Continuousat six o’clock yesterday, when my father came, while
Future Continuouswhen she arrives, at 7 next Monday
Примеры Present ContinuousWe are sitting at the moment.
What are you doing under the table?
She isn’t working at the moment
Past ContinuousWe were playing tennis when the rain started.
He was doing test while I was reading a book.
Ske wasn’t sleaping when
Future ContinuousWill you be playing tennis when I come?
Tomorrow at six I’ll be writing letters
Время PerfectУтвердительные Вопросы / Отрицания
PresenthavehasV3
PasthadFuturewillhaveКлючевые слова Present Perfectsince, for, ever, never, just, already
Past Perfectwhen we arrived, yesterday at four, before
Future Perfectby the time, tomorrow at eight
Примеры Present PerfectI have never seen her before.
We’ve just had lunchPast PerfectI didn’t know who she was. I’d never seen her before.
Had he already gone when you arrived?
Future PerfectThe film will already have started by the time we get to the cinema.
Next year they will have been married for 25 years
Irregular verbs№ V1 V2 V3 Значение
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17 arise
be
bear
become
begin
bend
bind
bite
bleed
blow
break
breed
bring
build
burn
buy
cast arose
was, were
bore
became
began
bent
bound
bit
bled
blew
broke
broke
brought
built
burnt
bought
cast arisen
been
born
become
begun
bent
bound
bit
bled
blown
broken
bred
brought
built
burnt
bought
cast подниматься
быть, являться
родить
сделаться, стать
начинать(ся)
гнуть
связывать
кусать(ся)
истекать кровью
дуть
ломать(ся)
воспитывать
приносить
строить
гореть, жечь
покупать
кидать
№ V1 V2 V3 Значение
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60 catch
choose
come
cost
cut
dig
do
draw
dream
drink
drive
eat
fall
feed
feel
fight
find
flee
fly
forget
get
give
go
grow
hang
have
hear
hide
hold
keep
know
lead
learn
leave
lend
let
light
lose
make
mean
meet
put
read caught
chose
came
cost
cut
dug
did
drew
dreamt
drank
drove
ate
fell
fed
felt
fought
found
fled
flew
forgot
got
gave
went
grew
hung
had
heard
hid
held
kept
knew
led
learnt
left
lent
let
lit
lost
made
meant
met
put
read caught
chosen
come
cost
cut
dug
done
drawn
dreamt
drunk
driven
eaten
fallen
fed
felt
fought
found
fled
flown
forgotten
got
given
gone
grown
hung
had
heard
hidden
held
kept
known
led
learnt
left
lent
let
lit
lost
made
meant
met
put
read ловить, схватывать
выбирать
приходить
стоить
резать
рыть, копать
делать
тащить; рисовать
мечтать; видеть во сне
пить
вести, гнать
есть, кушать
падать
кормить
чувствовать
бороться, сражаться
находить
бежать; спасаться
летать
забывать
получать; становиться
давать
идти, ходить
расти, становиться
вешать, висеть
иметь
слышать
прятать
держать
держать, хранить
знать
вести
учить(ся)
оставлять, покидать
давать взаймы
позволять
зажигать
терять, проигрывать
делать
значить
встречать
класть
читать

Критерии оценки устных развернутых ответов
Оценки Коммуникативное взаимодействие Произношение Лексико-грамматическая правильность речи
«5» Адекватная естественная реакция на реплики собеседника. Проявляется речевая инициатива для решения поставленных коммуникативных задач Речь звучит в естественном темпе, студент не делает грубых фонетических ошибок Лексика адекватна ситуации, редкие
грамматические ошибки не мешают коммуникации
«4» Коммуникация затруднена, речь студента неоправданно паузированаВ отдельных словах допускаются фонетические ошибки (например замена, английских фонем сходными русскими).
Общая интонация вбольшой степени обусловлена влиянием родного языка Грамматические и/или
лексические ошибки заметно влияют на восприятие речи студента
«3» Коммуникация существенно затруднена, студент не проявляет речевой инициативы Речь воспринимается с трудом из-за большого количества
фонетических ошибок .Интонация обусловлена влиянием родного языка Студент делает большое количество грубых грамматических
и/или лексических
ошибок
Критерии оценки
Критерии оценки письменных развернутых ответов
Баллы Критерии оценки
«5» Коммуникативная задача решена полностью, применение лексики адекватно коммуникативной задаче, грамматические ошибки либо отсутствуют, либо не препятствуют решению коммуникативной задачи
«4» Коммуникативная задача решена полностью, но понимание текста незначительно затруднено наличием грамматических и/или лексических ошибок
«3» Коммуникативная задача решена, но понимание текста затруднено наличием грубых грамматических ошибок или неадекватным употреблением лексики
«2» Коммуникативная задача не решена ввиду большого количества лексико-грамматических ошибок или недостаточного объема текста

Список литературы
Основные источники:
Агабекян И. П. Английский язык (Среднее профессиональноеобразование). Ростов н./Д. 2012.
Аракин В.Д. Практический курс английского языка. 1 курс. – М.: Владос, 2002
Дудкина Г.А., Павлова М.В. Английский язык для делового общения: в 2 т. – М.: - Филоматис, 2008
Жданова И.Ф., Кудрявцева О.Е. Английский язык для делового общения. Новый курс: в 2 т. – М.: - Филоматис, 2008
Ионина А.А., Саакян А.С. Английская грамматика: Теория и практика. – М.: Айрис-пресс, 2004.
Мюллер В.К. Англо-русский и русско-английский. – М.: Эксмо, 2008.
Сербиновская А.М. Английский язык для турбизнеса и сервиса. – М.: Дашков и К, 2006.
Дополнительные источники:
Murphy. English Grammar in Use Elementary. Cambridge 2010
Soars J. Headway Elementary. Student's book/Workbook. Cassettes. 0xford.2009
Soars J. Headway Pre-Intermediate. Student's book/Workbook. Cassettes. Oxford. 2009.
Цветкова И.К. English Grammar practice with answers. Уч. пособие - M.: Иностранный язык. 2010;
Дроздова Т.Ю. English Grammar: учебное пособие - Спб.: Антология, 2010;
Сивергина О.В. Времена английского глагола: учебное пособие - М.: Высшая школа, 2008;
Словари английского языка и другие ресурсы для изучающих английский язык;
Электронные ресурсы:
http://www.studv.ru Портал для изучающих английский язык;
http://www.lanR.ru English Online = ресурсы для изучения английского языка;
http://www.englishonline.co.uk - ресурсы для изучения английского языка;
http://www.eslcafe.com - портал для студентов и преподавателей: грамматика, тесты, идиомы, сленг;
https://my.1september.ru/ - личные кабинеты наиболее активных педагогов на сайте "1 сентября"

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